Volume 08 Issue 11

OIDA International Journal of Sustainable Development
Open access peer-reviewed journal 

A Tale of Two Worlds: Wealth and Wastage, and Scarcity and Sustainability
Masudur Rahman
Faculty of Social Sciences, University of Nordland, Bodø, Norway.

Volume 08, Issue 11, Pg. 11-25, 2015.

Abstract: Sustainable consumption is assumed to lead to sustainability. The old wisdom that consumers in rich countries tend to consume more and pollute more than the poorer countries is affirmed by the life styles of the consumers in emerging economies. It is also claimed that poor in developing societies put pressure on nature. The context of this paper is neither the rich nor the emerging economies, but the life styles of the urban rich and the livelihood of the rural poor in a poor country, Bangladesh. Combining historical analyses, observations, in-depth interviews and narratives it draws together threads of a number of research works to arrive at a somewhat integrated idea of likelihood of wastage by the urban rich. A preliminary analysis show that the urban culture stimulates competitive consumption and a life style based upon conspicuousness. There the interaction between individuals and their environment, both social and natural, is disrupted. A contrasting picture is the livelihood of the rural poor people who mostly live in harmony and interaction with nature, something that resists technological innovation. However, when needs around they find a solution without disrupting the interacting relationship between man and nature. They adjust to the changed environment and find new ways to survive. 

Keywords: Adaptability, Bangladesh, Consumption, Development, Sustainability

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Performance of The Continuous-Type Rice Hull Carbonizer as Heat Source in Food Product Processing
Jean Katrine L. Boyles a , Ricardo F. Orge b
a Visayas State University, Visca, Baybay City, Leyte, Philippines
b Philippine Rice Research Institute (PhilRice)
Maligaya, Science City of Munoz, Nueva Ecija, Philippines

Volume 08, Issue 11, Pg. 26-35, 2015.

Abstract:  This study evaluated the potential of the PhilRice-developed continuous rice hull (CtRH) carbonizer  as heat source for processing food products so as to provide additional income opportunities.  Specifically, it aimed to (a) determine the actual amount of heat that can be tapped from the operation of the CtRH carbonizer using two fabricated heat recovery attachments (HRAs) and (b) test and evaluate the performance of each of the HRAs, and (c) identify potential food products that can be processed by the carbonizer when equipped with the HRAs.  Boiling test results showed that, while producing biochar at a rate of 9.6 kg/hr, the maximum amount of heat that can be tapped from the CtRH carbonizer is equivalent to 15 kW. On the other hand, results of the oven test showed that the temperature distribution inside the oven compartment is uniform at different tray layers. The highest temperature attained inside the oven chamber was 250 °C.  Thus, the heat generated from the CtRH carbonizer offers a lot of potential benefits for the farmers.  

Keywords: biochar, carbonizer, food processing, heat, rice hull

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Simple Seed Coating Technology for Improved Seedling Establishment in Direct-seeded Rice
Danielle B. Fenangad a , Ricardo F. Orge b
Philippine Rice Research Institute
Maligaya, Science City of Muňoz, Nueva Ecija, Philippines.

Volume 08, Issue 11, Pg. 36-43, 2015.

Abstract:  In the Philippines, direct seeding has evolved as a low-cost manual method of crop establishment.  The traditional manual transplanting demands high labor and often results in delay in planting since labor is already getting scarce in most rice-producing areas of the country. There are, however, some issues associated in direct seeding which need particular attention.  Among other things, directly-sown seeds are vulnerable to bird attacks in the field which normally results to a variable plant stand.  This study attempts to develop a low cost seed coating technology as a way of solving bird infestation and other problems associated with seedling establishment of wet direct seeded rice culture.  Locally available materials like cow and carabao manures, rice bran, carbonized rice husk (powdered and sieved), and vermicast (sieved) were tried and tested for their possible application as coating material.  Using these materials, a simple and machine-free seed coating process was developed which can easily be done at the farmers’ level.  Results of bird feeding tests showed that seeds coated with cow manure (as binder) and rice bran (as outer coating) proved to be the best among all other materials tested.  In all of the trials conducted, 100% of the samples of the uncoated paddy seeds were consumed after 2 days of exposure to birds.  On the other hand, for those coated with cow manure and rice bran, only 20% were consumed even when the exposure was extended up to 10 days. The coated seeds also were able to withstand against crumbling when submerged in water for 24 hours.  Moreover, they could be used for mechanized seeding as the coating could withstand against the crumbling effect of the seeder’s metering mechanism.

Keywords: birds, crop establishment losses, direct seeding, paddy fields, seed coating

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Violence Against Women (VAW) In Azad Jammu & Kashmir (AJK)
Explorations in the Role of Police department
Tahmina Rashid a, Khalid Chauhan b
a International Studies Program , Faculty of Arts & Design, University of Canberra, Canberra, Australia. 
b Postdoctoral Research Fellow, SOAS, University of London, UK. 

Volume 08, Issue 10, Pg.44-56, 2015.

Abstract: This Paper examines the issues around the violence against women in Azad Jammu and Kashmir (AJK) and the role of police to tackle these cases and situations. Violence against Women (VAW) is both a global concern and not merely a local problem, as violence has no geographic and socio-cultural boundaries and cuts across all socio-cultural, ethnic, geographical and class boundaries. Police is mandated to take action against VAW but it too does not take adequate steps. The central concern of this paper is that while, in all the four provinces of Pakistan, violence against women is well researched and documented, relatively little research has been conducted in the context of Azad Jammu Kashmir. 

This research analyzes available literature and statistical data on crimes from AJK Police, making use of some case studies. The research concludes that women are not safe from sexual violence in the privacy of their homes, abductions emerge as the key crime in registered cases as a ploy to intimidate young women from exercising their legal right to marriage or leave homes to avoid a forced marriage. Rape crimes are linked with abductions but also crimes committed by related family members and jilted lovers. The analysis of police response highlights poor prosecution; low conviction rate; high acquittal rates; high compromise rates, and very high rate of cases pending trial in the courts. The paper further analyses the legal frameworks; institutional and societal practices and highlights the reasons for low convictions.

Keywords: Violence against women, police, AJK, laws in Pakistan 

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Production planning optimization using de novo programming at Ceramics company in Indonesia 
Haryadi Sarjono a , Mega Lidya Salim b Adi Teguh Suprapto c 
a, b, c Management, School of Business Management, Bina Nusantara University
Jl. Kebon Jeruk Raya No. 27 Kebon Jeruk, Jakarta Barat 11530, Indonesia

Volume 08, Issue 11, Pg. 57-62, 2015.

Abstract: In entering the era of free trade, manufacturing industries are often faced with complex problems in taking a decision to achieve company goals. One of those goals is to minimize production costs and maximize profits or profits obtained to ensure the survival of the company. PT.KOPIN is established since 1981 in the field of equipment dinnerware made of porcelain, such as plates, bowls, cups, tea pot, and saucer. This study focuses only on the production of plates. Some of the problems that occurred in each producing plates in the company is always a remaining balance of raw materials for the raw materials used are not depleted. This is a waste for the company because it is expected to cause the production planning problem, especially in terms of determining the amount of raw materials needed and how many of each product to be manufactured for the company to make a profit or maximum profit. The purpose of this study was to determine the amount of product to be produced by the plate companies using De Novo Programming so as to obtain the maximum profit. 

Keywords:  De Novo Programming, Product Planning Optimization, Profit. 

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Developing Principles and Criteria of Planning Ecotourism for Sustainable Management of Tourism 
Fereshte Ahmadi a, Omid Khajeh b
a Department of Urban Planning ,Faculty of  Art and Architecture and  Urban planning, 
Najafabad Branch, Islamic Azad University, Najafabad, Isfahan, Iran.
b Isfahan (Khorasgan) Branch, Islamic Azad University, Isfahan, Iran

Volume 08, Issue 11, Pg. 63-72, 2015.

Abstract: In recent years tourism has been extremely important. This issue is seen as a major thrust for the development of industry and economic – social growth. 

Iran is one of the ten countries with historical attractions and one of the five countries with the highest climatic and biological diversity. It has potential in many fields particularly Ecotourism (Nature Tourism) in the world.

Ecotourism is the travel in nature and intended to enjoy that occurs the goals of sustainable development. Ecotourism Study is necessary of the different views: scientific and professional, social – cultural, physical, economic and environmental.

Main aim of this paper is to achieve the appropriate model for ecotourism in natural areas along the sustainable tourism management. In line with is mentioned this objective: initially defined, the history, significance and role tourism and particular ecotourism in world. Then is discussed to identify principles and criteria for sustainable tourism development, ecotourism projects and components forming the terms tourism planning. Finally offered practical suggestions for Management resorts to considering the principles of environmental management along the principles of tourism management. Research  paper method is analytical and based on practical planning process and environmental design. 

Keywords: Ecotourism, Planning, Sustainable Development, Tourism Management.

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The Implementation of Sustainable Business Model among Industries in Cameroon
Oyewole Simon Oginni a, Adewale Daniel Omojowo b
a Pan African University (PAU), Institute of Governance, Humanities and Social Science, Thematic Centre for Governance and Regional Integration, Cameroon.
b Faculty of Economics and Management, Department of Environmental Economics, Rural Development and Agric-Business, University of Yaoundé II, Cameroon

Volume 08, Issue 11, Pg.73-82, 2015.

Abstract: In the recent times, there has been a paradigm shift in the public expectation on what industries should offer to themselves and other community stakeholders. Industries are not only required to act socially responsible but also to act sustainable in order to meet stakeholders’ expectations and promote inclusive growth. The paper examines the implementation of sustainable business model among industries in Cameroon. Our sample consists of 335 industries from the last Censure Survey of Enterprises in Cameroon. The study adopted exploratory and systematic analysis through Adjusted Residual Test and the Phi and Cramer’s V Tests. Our findings reveal that the implementation of sustainable business model is still at basic level in Cameroon. We conclude that a shift to a more sustainable business model is yet to be recognized as a concrete value and competitive advantage among industries in Cameroon. Therefore, industries should implement holistic sustainable business practices rather than being selective. Sustainable business model should be integrated into the development, policy and practice of industries to complement efforts of governments and civil societies on achieving sustainable development.  

Keywords: Brown Growth, CSR matrix, Externalities, Inclusive Growth, Sustainable Practice. 

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IMF Recommended Debt Sustainability Threshold for Nigeria. Is it Growth Augmenting? An Optimization Algorithm Approach  
Obi Callistar Kidochukwu
Department of Economics, Delta State University, Abraka, Delta State, Nigeria. 

Volume 08, Issue 11, Pg. 83-91, 2015.

Abstract: Sustainable debt is the level of debt which allows a debtor country to meet its current and future debt services obligations in full, without recourse to further debt relief or rescheduling, avoiding accumulation of arrears, while allowing an acceptable level of economic growth or without compromising growth. IMF debt sustainability threshold is seen as a measure of a countries solvency, that is, a countries ability to ensure that accumulated debts are serviced without defaulting and if countries are able to sustain their debt servicing overtime Generally, the study examines the country’s borrowing space under the International Monetary Fund (IMF) debt sustainability threshold of 45% for Nigeria and other low-middle income countries. To achieve the stated objectives, two variant of optimization algorithms namely The Gauss, Berndt, Hall, Hall and Hausman, and Marquardt algorithms, respectively were used as estimators. The Gauss, Berndt, Hall, Hall and Hausman commonly referred to as the Gauss-Newton/BHHH is specifically designed for maximum likelihood problems, while Marquardt algorithm modifies the Gauss-Newton algorithm by adding a correction matrix  to the Hessian approximation. Two variant models namely the Least Square (LS) and the Maximum Likelihood-Autoregressive Conditional Hetersocesdasticity (ML-ARCH) were used to cross-match the Generalized Linear Model (GLM) which is the primary model for the study. The data used covers a period of 48 years (1965-2013). It was collected from the online database of the Central Bank of Nigeria (CBN); National Accounts archives of National Bureau of Statistics, and human resources data of Food and Agricultural Organization statistics.  From the findings, the study showed that IMF recommended sustainability threshold is not growth augmenting but will act as a hindrance to economic growth in Nigeria. The debt sustainability threshold of 45% for Nigeria is not growth supportive. Our estimate showed that maintaining such threshold drives output to a negative growth of (-19.5%) and (-27.9%), respectively. In all, the study established that sustainability is definable within the country’s growth objective in contrast with debt sustainability analysis which is traditionally based on solvency. In this contest, the study generated an alternative definition of debt sustainability as that threshold which generates maximum debt-output ratio and ensures a steady state and maximum attainable growth in an economy, that is, threshold that ensures a zero growth deficit. It was recommended that sustainability threshold of debt acquisition should not be defined in a vacuum. It should be sacrosanct with the country’s sustainable economic growth objective. That is debt acquisition that is not only serviceable, but ensures a maximum attainable growth.

Keywords: External Debt Sustainability Threshold, Growth Augmenting, IMF, Nigeria, Optimization Approach.

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Household Endowment and Adolescents’ time Allocation to Chores in Rural Areas of Ogun State, Nigeria
Hosu, YS a, Akinyemi, M b, Enilolobo, OS c, Oni, OA d , Cishe, EN e
a Centre for Rural Development, Walter Sisulu University, Mthatha, South Africa
b Department of Agricultural Economics & Extension, Federal University, 
Dutsinma, Katsina, Nigeria
c Bells University of Technology, Ota, Nigeria
d Agricultural Economics department, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria
e Research, Innovation & Development, Walter Sisulu University, Mthatha, South Africa.

Volume 08, Issue 11, Pg. 92-99, 2015.

Abstracts: This study examines the relationship between household assets and demographics as well as adolescents’ time allocation to school attendance and helping in household chores. We found that overtime, patrimonial society has positively influenced girls in Nigeria by spending more time on school works. The study found that commitment to educational achievement of adolescents is household assets sensitive. The study also revealed that human capital development in Ogun state is improving, most importantly girls’ education but recommend more aggressive  building of schools close to the settlements and encouragement for compulsory early school enrolment because the time allocation to studies becomes lower as the adolescents’ age increases.

Keywords: adolescents, household assets, household chores, rural endowment, time allocation.

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