OIDA International Journal of Sustainable Development
Open access peer-reviewed journal
Determinant Variable Analysis of Human Development Index in Indonesia
(Case For High And Low Index At Period 2004 – 2013)
Eleonora Sofilda ª, Putri Hermiyanti b, Muhammad Zilal Hamzah c
a Economic Faculty, Trisakti University, Jakarta, Indonesia.
b Magister Economic Program, Trisakti University, Jl. Kyai Tapa No.1 Grogol, West Jakarta, Indonesia.
c Sustainable Development Management Program, Trisakti University and Indonesian Business School
Jl. Raya kebayoran lama No. 46 West Jakarta, Indonesia.
Volume 08, Issue 09, Pg. 11-28, 2015.
Abstract: Compared with countries in the Southeast Asian Region (ASEAN), Indonesia has a Human Development Index (HDI) which is still in medium level. Based on the report of the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP), Indonesia’s HDI ranking in 2013 was ranked 108 out of 187 countries. One factor of low HDI in Indonesia is the imbalance of development that occurs between Western Indonesia and East Indonesia. This is as the result of a centralized government implementation before decentralization in 2001. Some areas in Eastern Indonesia have HDI far below of the average National HDI (Indonesian National score 0.73). Overall, only 17 provinces in Indonesia which has an above-average National HDI and the remaining 16 provinces, below the average of the National HDI and is mostly in Eastern region.
Theoretically, one of the factors driving the increase in HDI is the increase in percapita income. This improvement will increase the purchasing power of people and at the end will improve the quality of education and health. However, high growth sector in the region do not necessarily reflect equitable prosperity for all people of the region. Moreover, the rapid rate of economic growth by itself will not be followed by growth or improving the distribution of profits for the entire population (see: Tadaro, 2011). Actually, increased demand would stimulate investment which in turn will increase revenues and led to a second round of investment, and so on. But it can also happen that the concentration of economic activities is quite high only in certain areas and not in other areas. This will affect income inequality community.
Furthermore, high HDI will improve the quality of the economic development. HDI is a composition index based on three indicators, namely: health, educational attainment, and standard of living. One of several policies is fiscal policy reformation, which starts with the law number 22/1999 on Local Government, which is equipped by the Law No.25/1999 on Financial Balance between Central and Local Government. The both laws are updated with the law number 32/2004 on local government and law number 33/2004 on the financial balance between central and local Governments. A few studies those have been successful in verifying the potential contribution of fiscal decentralization to economic growth. One of the main objectives of fiscal decentralization is equality in the distribution of income. Centralistic system in the past (New Order Regime) made inequality in distribution of income, where West Indonesia region has a high average economic growth and HDI meanwhile East and Middle regions only have average low economic growth and HDI. Based on this, the expected establishment of the fiscal decentralization policy can reduce income inequality, so that people’s welfare can be enjoyed equally by all people of Indonesia. On the other hand, income inequality is also very closely related to population growth that has exponential growth rate. Rapid population growth led to the inability of an area to support a certain amount of human life at a reasonable level. The increasing number of population will not cause an excess of labor. Excess workforce will create unemployment, which certainly will add to the burden of the area.
Based on the above conditions need to improve the role of government through some kind policies to promote human development. The Government should be able to increase the budget allocation for increasing the quality of education, health and standard of living. Therefore, the policy that issued to the public must be a good policy, eliminated poverty through pro-poor or to create jobs through pro job. This study aims to examine Indonesia’s HDI determinant variables. The methodology used in this research is multiple linear regression models with the panel data (33 provinces in period year 2004 to 2013), with the divide into two regions. Results of this research shows that: (i). areas which have HDI below the average national HDI show that the average variable spending per capita, population, unemployment rate, budget allocation for education and health significant effect on the HDI and (ii). areas which have HDI above of the average National HDI show that GDP at constant prices, average spending per capita, the dependency ratio, unemployment rate, and the education budget have a significant effect on the HDI.
Keywords: Human Development Index, GDP at constant prices, the average expenditure per capita, dependency ratio, unemployment rate, budget allocation.
Gender and Sustainable Development in the Devolution of the Philippine Maternal Health System
Karla Camille N. Ruiz
Political Science Department, De La Salle University, Manila, Philippines
Volume 08, Issue 09, Pg. 29-39, 2015.
Abstract: This paper aims to analyze how the Philippines utilized Inclusive Growth under the Gender and Sustainable Development paradigm in terms of resource allocation for maternal health services in two distinct cities found in two different regions. This was done to create a more or less uniformed comparison of maternal health services in the country. In doing so, the question regarding the country’s stagnant Maternal Mortality Ratio/MMR –the number of women who die due to pregnancy, childbirth and puerperium per 100,000 live births– and Gender and Sustainable Development Role could be explained through a critical review of literature on related topics. The comparison between Makati and Zamboanga city’s data examined difference in funds disbursal in relation to their level of health services and poverty incidence. Makati City’s total appropriation in 2009 was Php9 Billion with a 0.5 MMR and 3.8% poverty incidence while Zamboanga City’s total appropriation was Php2 Billion with a 2.2 MMR and 38.5% poverty incidence. There is an inverse correspondence on funding in relation to MMR and poverty incidence. Therefore, in addressing the stagnant MMR due to inadequate maternal health services resulting from lack of funds, the importance of inclusive growth through proper resource management and allocation for different parts of the country is highlighted. Furthermore, through the Gender and Sustainable Development paradigm, the maternal health issues aim to incorporate financial and social services that could expand opportunities that women could avail of.
Keywords: Devolution, Gender and Sustainable Development, Inclusive Growth, Maternal Health, Maternal Mortality Ratio
Participatory Planning Approach for Sustainability of The Desert Regions
Forest Planting In the North East Of Iran, Sarayan
Department of Geography, Payam-e Noor University, Tehran, I.R of Iran,
Sustainable Development of Geographical Environment Commission of
Shahid Beheshti University, Iran
Volume 08, Issue 09, Pg. 40-42, 2015.
One of the most vulnerable and fragile areas in terms of ecological and socio-economic is desert. The uncontrolled exploitation of natural resources in the desert areas in most of developing countries is caused progress of desert areas and instability of rural settlements and destruction of vegetation. Participatory planning approach is essential to achieve stability in rural areas. Villagers will guarantee in participatory planning in partnership with sustainable use of renewable resources. In this paper, using Haloxylon forest planting method and modeling participatory planning in the Sarayan area is a successful experience of the desert regions sustainability in the East of Iran. This successful experience can be executed in other developing countries with the same ecological and socio-economic situation.
Keywords: participatory planning, desertification, sustainable development, Sarayan, Iran
“Harmonious Man” Hypothesis
A Perspective of Sustainable Development
Wanxian Li a, Mingmei Jia b
a Hebei University of Economics and Business, Shijiazhuang, China.
b Northeastern University, Shenyang, China.
Volume 08, Issue 09, Pg.43-50, 2015.
Abstract: The past human hypotheses characterized as maximization of human interest and efficiency since 20th century, such as Economic Man, Social Man and Self-actualized Man etc, on which management theory was established and greatly enhanced the development of economy as well as science and technology, but at the meantime, broke the harmony of nature that has been up rearing we humans and led ourselves into the dilemma of efficiency and crisis. Based on Chinese traditional culture and the harmony theory of Aristotle and Adam Smith, this paper proposed (1) a four-dimensioned “Harmonious Man” hypothesis that aimed at human sustainable living and development, which actively adjusts the balance between human needs and environmental permission in order to
realize personal harmony, social harmony, cultural harmony and the harmony between man and nature. (2) The Doctrine of the Mean, Balance and Reciprocity as the way of Harmonious Man actualization.
Keywords: Harmonious Man, human hypothesis, sustainable development
Suitability and Prospective of Implementing the ASEAN Single Currency
Kadek Ayu Susiani Dewi ª, Itjang D.Gunawan b , Muhammad Zilal Hamzah c
a Indonesian Business School, Jakarta, Indonesia.
b Accounting Program, Trisakti University, Jl. Kyai Tapa No.1 Grogol, West Jakarta, Indonesia.
c Sustainable Development Management Program, Trisakti University and Indonesian Business School
Jl. Raya kebayoran lama No. 46 West Jakarta, Indonesia
Volume 08, Issue 09, Pg.51-69, 2015.
Abstract: The rapid global development in recent decades in the field of economy, culture, social, information technology, education and free trade area, making cross borders between countries are increasingly blurred and lost (nations borderless). The process of globalization in the economic and trade cause of occurrence of fundamental changes to the map of the world economy, which includes three main dimensions, namely: the ideological dimension (shown by the emergence of capitalism), economics dimensions (shown by the establishment of a free market economy), and technology dimension (see Friedman, 2002). Free market economy already made the realization of the regional or blocks of economic market. The emergence of regional economic integration which is characterized by the formation of specific blocs or economic zone, resulting the need to establish a single currency in these areas, such as EURO currency in European Economic Area. This is aim to create the smoothing of trading process at that area.
This research was conducted to observe the feasibility and prospects of implementing the single currency in the ASEAN Region for all ten-member states, by analyzing seven macro economic variables such as: GDP, inflation, government debts, exports, imports, exchange rate differences and government reserves. This research uses a VAR (Vector Auto Regression) model, Williamson Index and Beta Convergence (β-Convergence) and Panel Data Regression and the period data of year 2004 until year 2012.
To complete the research method, statistical description and a series of tests were performed into the macro economic variables that have mentioned previously, start with unit root test (integration, co-integration and engel-granger test) up to classical assumptions test (normality, autocorrelation, multicollinearity and heteroscedasticity test).
The results proved that the VAR model already shown that the independent variables was able to demonstrate the diversity shown by the high value of R-Square, while the Forecasting Error of the Variance Decomposition (FEVD) respectively able to explain the relationship between variables according to macroeconomic theory. Furthermore, Williamson index test described the economic disparity occurred between states member, as well as the Beta Convergent Test able to explain the feasibility of implementing the single currency in the ASEAN region. The Panel Data Regression Test for the seven variables has been tested partially. All variables such as inflation, government debt, exports, imports, exchange rate differences and government reserves, except for GDP had no significant effect at the level of 1%, 5% and 10%, for the establishment of a single currency. However, overall, the dependent variable 98.22% was influenced by all independent variables, which was recognized by Adjusted-R-Square value and the rest were affected by others variables which not included in the study.
Agarwal, et al., (2004), discovered that the possibility of the integration of the ASEAN single currency (ASEAN Dollar) is sufficient if the Government Deficit to GDP is not greater than 3%, the ratio of government debt to GDP should be less than or equal to 60%, exchange rate relatively stable with the normal fluctuations of 15% for two years and have never experienced a devaluation, and the inflation rate does not exceed 1.5% compared to the average inflation of the three best-performing member states. And the vice versa if it does not meet the criterion, the application of the single currency is not feasible.
Keywords: exchange rate, exports, government debt, imports, inflation.
“Not yet Uhuru!”: Media,Freedom of Information Act and the Quest for Sustainable Development in Nigeria
Ayodele Thomas Odunlami
Department of Mass Communication, Faculty of Social and Management Sciences,
Olabisi Onabanjo University, Ago-Iwoye Nigeria.
Volume 08, Issue 09, Pg. 70-78, 2015.
Abstract: The euphoria that characterized the eventual presidential assent given to the Freedom of Information Act in 2011 in Nigeria had barely settled when the mass media, civil society groups, including lawyers and activists started facing impediments in their bid to invoke the law to enable them to have access to vital information on issues of public interest. Prior to this time, expectations were high from stakeholders on the assumed benefits of the FoIA to press freedom and transparent governance. Though not exclusively a mass media law, the FoIA was seen as instrumental to the attainment of sustainable development through an open, free society and democratic ethos. Four years after, how have the mass media fared in the use and applications of the provisions of this vital law? To what extent have the much- touted benefits of the Freedom of Information Act impacted on the investigative journalism skills of practitioners towards realizing the goals of transparency on the one hand and sustainable development on the other for the largest black African nation? These and more were the issues examined in this paper .The methodology was library research and documentary analyses. The paper concludes that mere legislations without the requisite democratic ethos and open attitude to information management by leaders of social and governmental hierarchies might defeat the essence and goals of sustainable development and the cherished values of the Freedom of Information Act in Nigeria.
Keywords : FoIA, Press Freedom, Public Interest, Open – Society, Sustainable Development.
Rule of law and human rights on hold: the emergence of extreme emergencies in modern states
Gerard Emmanuel Kamdem Kamga
Faculty of law department of Jurisprudence University of Pretoria, South Africa
Volume 08, Issue 09, Pg. 79-86, 2015.
Abstract: The purpose of this paper is to discuss new mechanisms of suspension of law and human rights in modern states. Traditionally there are two possible ways of bringing human rights and the rule of law to a standstill: firstly, through the concept of limitations and secondly through that of derogations. Owing to their intrinsic nature that may bring about abuses of all sort including the concentration of powers to the profit of the executive power, the establishment of a totalitarian state such as that of the Nazi Germany under Hitler, the concept of limitations and derogations are currently subject to a strict regulation. With regard to the former not only they have to ‘be determined by law’, but also only those limitations are permitted which are ‘necessary’, or ‘necessary in a democratic society. Talking about the idea of derogations, it is currently argued that ‘in essence derogation clauses express the concept that states of emergency do not create a legal vacuum. The derogation regime aims at striking a balance between the protection of individual human rights and the protection of national needs in times of crisis by placing reasonable limits on emergency powers.” The idea of emergence of extreme emergency in modern states accounts for the situation where human rights and the rule of law can be brought to a standstill without any procedural rule or constraint. The modern emergency has reached its extremity as the state seems to be operating in an environment where citizens are considered first of all as a mere potential threat to the “society’s safety.” Unlikely to the classic emergencies strictly framed by domestic and global legal restrictions, the extreme emergency is entirely driven by the executive power in an environment where nothing prevails except guilt and retribution. It is this extreme emergency, this lack of regulation regarding the actual suspension of law and human rights in modern states that the current paper focuses on.
Keywords: state of emergency; state of exception; terrorism; rule of law; violence
Assessing the Livability of the New and Old Parts of Tehran, Municipality Districts 22 and 10 of Tehran
Department of Social planning, Faculty of social science , Allameh Tabatabai University, Tehran, Iran.
Volume 08, Issue 09, Pg. 87-96, 2015.
Abstract: This study is to investigate the livability of urban region using the defined global and local parameters. Based on theoretical studies and expert reviews, livability indicators have been identified. The selected indicators were subjected to field surveys. For this purpose, we began to collect residents’ opinions and analyzed the results using statistical methods. According to the results, the livability in Tehran 22 is desirable. And only some of the indicators are less favorable, that we can take steps using residents’ opinions and the offered suggestions to improve them in the best form. In general it can be said, District 22 of Tehran requires great effort to become an area for living. Comparing livability indicators in the two Districts 22 and 10 as new and old regions shows that, in factors of access to infrastructure and welfare services, such as public transport services, District 10 as the old region enjoys better situation than District 22. While in factors of environmental quality indicators, the new district enjoys higher level of livability. In factors of social indicators such as the security, both the regions enjoy appropriate livability level.
Keywords: liveability, liveability indicators, District 22, District 10, municipality of Tehran
Thermal Performance Assessment of Existing Buildings: A Case Study From Turkey
Egemen Kaymaz a , Filiz Senkal Sezer b
a,b Department of Architecture, Faculty of Architecture,
Uludag University, Institute of Science and Technology Bursa, Turkey
Volume 08, Issue 09, Pg. 97-112, 2015.
Abstract: This paper focuses on the thermal performance assessment of building envelope systems based on heat loss and heat gain through external walls, skeleton structural frame, wall openings, roof and ground floor using a national energy calculation program. An inspection case of an educational building, the external envelope of which is analyzed in terms of energy efficiency and U-values of components, is presented. Findings of thermal comfort survey which were drawn from the users of studied building are also briefly explained. The study consists of four main parts: i) literature review ii) evaluation of user satisfaction survey, iii) thermal performance assessment of building envelope by an insulation calculator software, and iv) a discussion of a proposed model focusing on a thermally improved external envelope. The findings of this study consist of attempts to develop a more robust external envelope in terms of prevention of thermal bridges, sufficient and proper insulation application, and improved enclosure protection against environmental factors. The calculation results show that it is possible to increase the thermal performance of building’s envelope and reduce high heating energy demand with minor changes to facade design. This improved performance also creates a more comfortable environment for occupants by upgrading the living standards.
Keywords: Computer based evaluation, Energy efficiency, Existing Building, Thermal performance
How the employees’ perceptions of corporate social responsibility make them happier and psychologically stronger
Susana Leal a, Arménio Rego b, Miguel Pina Cunha c
a Instituto Politécnico de Santarém and CIEQV, Complexo Andaluz, Apt. 295, 2001-904 Santarém, Portugal.
b Universidade de Aveiro (GOVCOPP), Campus de Santiago, 3810-193 Aveiro, Portugal and Business Research Unit (UNIDE-ISCTE, IUL), Instituto Universitário de Lisboa, Lisboa, Portugal.
c Nova School of Business and Economics, Universidade Nova de Lisboa, Portugal.
Volume 08, Issue 09, Pg. 113-128, 2015.
Abstract: Corporate social responsibility (CSR) has been studied primarily at the macro level, with few studies taking into account the individual level. Furthermore, there are calls for more investigation on the antecedents of employees’ psychological capital (PsyCap). This study bolsters both areas. The paper shows how the employees’ perceptions of CSR predict their PsyCap both directly and through the mediating roles of positive affect and the sense of meaningful work. Two hundred and seventy-nine employees participate. The study uses structural equation modeling to test the hypothesized model. The findings suggest that both positive affect and the sense of meaningful work partially mediate the relationship between the perceptions of CSR and PsyCap. The study helps to understand the underlying mechanisms linking CSR with outcomes at the individual level. Studying CSR at the individual level is valuable for both academic and practical reasons.
Keywords: perceptions of corporate social responsibility; positive affect; psychological capital; sense of meaningful work.