Volume 08 Issue 12

OIDA International Journal of Sustainable Development
Open access peer-reviewed journal 

Digitalization: A Step towards Sustainable Development
Sumeet Bhutani a, Yashi Paliwal b
a,b Human Resources Department, HCL Technologies, 
Plot No. 1 & 2, Noida Express Highway, Sector 125, Noida, Uttar Pradesh 201301, India. 

Volume 08, Issue 12, Pg. 11-24, 2015.

Abstract: In the era of technical advancement, where everything revolves around the “e” world, digitalization has spread its wings over all the spheres of life. The immense use of digital devices and our growing dependency on them clearly states that digitalization is the need of the hour and has great potential to revolutionize the socio-economic growth parameters thus, forming a symbiotic relationship with all inclusive growth and sustainable development. It has become that important instrument which has simplified the functioning and processes in various areas like administration, regulation, planning and operations of the socio-economic domain by ultimately enriching the quality of life. This very feature of the digital age results in sustainable development as when the societies are digitally empowered, they are more Conscious, Connected, Compliant, Collaborative and Content towards their own growth and in return they work in a tandem as responsible resources for nation’s future prospects. This paper therefore aims at showcasing the scope of Digitalization in the current scenario and its role in helping nations globally attain the ideal aim of Inclusive Growth by following the path of sustainability. Also, it proposes a model of “5Cs of Inclusive Sustainable Growth”, which establishes a relationship between Digitalization and Growth. The Globalization of Digitalization has given a great boom to the corporate, financial and administrative sector which has exponentially widened the horizon of services being offered to the society like better technology to access everything at one click, improved facilities in the healthcare and hospitality department and good opportunities in educational sector for the less privileged. In the growing economies, such approach solely aims at providing a common platform to those millions of people who remain grounded within the walls of poverty, illiteracy and unemployment to reach out for any kind of assistance, register their existence and ask for their rights and development and connect with the nation. This digital platform would integrate the urban and the rural worlds together under a common sheath of Sustainable development keeping in close touch with all social aspect and along with this social upliftment, there would be tremendous economic growth leading to a prosperous nation. With this holistic approach, nations would not only be able to offer inclusive growth but give an efficient sustainable and digital life to their people. As a result of which better living conditions, active public participation, dynamic urban framework, clean governance, and transparency in public welfare policies and procedures would be observed which would result in well aware, self-enabled and digitally equipped people who would be good learners, thinkers, reformers, participators and agents of change and growth marching ahead on the path of sustainable development. 

Keywords: Collaboration; Digitalization; Inclusive growth; Socio-economic; Sustainability.

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Production of Biodiesel from Waste Cooking Oil Using the Cruzesterification Process for Rice Farming Operations
D.B. Fenangad a, J.E.O. Abon b, P.E. Mabalot c, R.F. Orge d
a,b,c,d Philippine Rice Research Institute, Maligaya, Science City of Muňoz, Nueva Ecija, Philippines.

Volume 08, Issue 12, Pg. 25-33, 2015.

Abstract:  Providing the farmers alternative sources of fuel such as biodiesel produced from waste cooking oil is one possible way of helping them reduce their dependence on fossil fuels. Waste cooking oil (WCO) can be a stable source of feedstock for biodiesel production since it can be easily accessed from restaurants and fast food establishments. If farmers would be able to use biodiesel, not only will they have a cheaper source of fuel for their farm equipment but they will also aid in the reduction of greenhouse gas emission. Moreover, they can have the chance of earning additional income from glycerin, a by-product of the biodiesel processing that could be used to manufacture soap, among other possible products.  The utilization of waste cooking oil for biodiesel production could also help solve the problem of its improper disposal which would lead to some serious health issues.  This study was therefore conducted to: (1) gather baseline data in the processing of waste cooking oil to biodiesel, (2) develop a system for a large scale processing of waste cooking oil to biodiesel, and (3) test the performance of biodiesel on different rice farming machinery.  The cruzesterification process developed by Dr. Rico Cruz was adopted in processing the WCO into biodiesel. To account for the varying quality of purchased WCO, each container purchased from local food establishment was subjected to testing to determine the proper amount of KOH to be used per batch of mixing. It was observed that highly reused cooking oil required up to 21 grams KOH per liter of WCO with a conversion rate of 72-75%. WCO which was relatively less degraded on the other hand only required 11-15 grams KOH per liter of WCO with a recovery rate of as much as 92-95%.  Using a fabricated micro-processing plant, the production of biodiesel in larger volumes was tried to enhance the system of production and utilization of biodiesel from WCO for farming operations.   The processed biodiesel were tested in PhilRice-CES farm machinery in different blends: B20, B50 and B100. B20 and B50 biodiesel blends were tested in a 75hp four-wheel tractor. Moreover, B20, B50 and B100 biodiesel blends were tested in an 8hp diesel engine. One notable difference was that colorless smoke came out of the exhaust pipe in engines run on biodiesel blends as compared to the black smoke emitted in 100% petroleum diesel fuelled engines. No notable performance difference was observed in the engines run in biodiesel blends compared to 100% petroleum diesel. 

Keywords: biodiesel, biofuel, rice farming, transesterification, waste cooking oil 

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Effect of Rice Hull Biochar on the Fertility and Nutrient Holding Capacity of Sandy Soils
Marilou M. Sarong a, Ricardo F. Orge b
Philippine Rice Research Institute
Maligaya, Science City of Muňoz, Nueva Ecija, Philippines.

Volume 08, Issue 12, Pg. 25-46, 2015.

Abstract: In the Philippines, under an integrated and diversified system of farming called Palayamanan, rice hull biochar (carbonized rice hull) has a lot of uses.  Among other things, it is popularly used as soil conditioner and as main ingredient in the production of organic fertilizers.   It is also used as bedding or absorbent material to facilitate urine and manure collection as well as help eliminate foul odor in poultry, swine and livestock. Once saturated, it is collected and applied to the soil as fertilizer.  This study tries to further explore more uses of biochar and was generally conducted to determine the effects of rice hull biochar on the growth of upland kangkong and peanut and its effects on residual properties of sandy loam soil. Specifically, it aimed to (a) determine the appropriate level of rice hull biochar for peanut and upland kangkong grown in sandy soils, (b) evaluate N, P and K uptake of peanut and upland kangkong with different rates of rice hull biochar grown in sandy soils, and (c) evaluate the nutrient holding capacity of rice husk biochar in sandy soil.   The experiment was carried out in a sandy loam with the following particle size distribution: 71.22% sand, 20.41% silt, and 8.37% clay; had a pHKCl  of 4.93 , 0.64 % organic C, 0.16% total N, 1.53 mg kg-1 extractable P, 2.88 cmol+ kg-1 soil exchangeable Al, 3.08 cmol+ kg-1 soil exchangeable acidity, 0.25 cmol+ kg-1 soil exchangeable K, 3.57 cmol+ kg-1 soil exchangeable Ca, 1.38 cmol+ kg-1 soil exchangeable Mg, and 0.25 cmol+ kg-1 soil exchangeable Na.  There were six treatment combinations from levels of amendment (0, 10, 20, 30, 40 and 50 g kg1 soil). The processed biochar was applied at levels specified in the treatment on oven-dried weight basis. It was added and mixed well with the soil just immediately before filling the pots. The pots were allowed to stabilize for 3 days before planting.  Blanket application of 70 mg each of N, P2O5 and K2O kg-1 soil using urea, solophos and muriate of potash was done five days after seedling emergence. Urea and muriate of potash were applied as aqueous solution while solophos was applied as granules.  A linear trend in the liming benefit and positive change in pHKCl with biochar application were observed in two “plant biotest” especially at higher levels (30, 40 and 50 g kg-1 soil). On the other hand, the positive change in extractable P due to residual effect of rice hull biochar application was obtained even at 10 and 20 g kg-1 soil in both upland kangkong and peanut. In peanuts, direct effects of application of uncharred or charred poultry litter resulted in better plant growth, nodulation, biomass, and K uptake than the control plants.  From the results of the study, it can be concluded that the application of biochar can enhance fertility of acid sandy loam soil.  The rice hull biochar holds nutrient in place that is needed for plant growth and development. Application at 30-40 g kg-1 soil appears to be the most appropriate rate for both upland kangkong and peanut grown in acid sandy loam soils.

Keywords:  biochar, nutrient-holding capacity, organic fertilizer, rice hull,  sandy soil

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When extractives come home: An action research on the impact of the extractives sector on women in selected mining communities in Zimbabwe
Kudzai Chatiza a, Davison Muchadenyka b Dorcas Makaza c Fanny Nyaunga d , 
Ronnie James Murungu e Lillian Matsika f      
a,b,c Development Governance Institute, Zimbabwe.
d Independent Researcher, Zimbabwe.
e,f Action Aid, Zimbabwe.

Volume 08, Issue 12, Pg. 47-73, 2015.

 Abstract: The fact that mining constitute a major contributor to Zimbabwean economy cannot be overemphasized with the sector contributing more than 60% of the country`s export earnings. However, its contributory role to the economy has been overshadowing its impact on communities, especially women. This paper, thus, is a result of an action research on the impact of mining and the extractive industry in general on women in selected mining communities in Zimbabwe. The study was commissioned by Actionaid International Zimbabwe and conducted by the Development Governance Institute between March and May 2015. The principal focus of the study was to provide a comprehensive understanding of the relationship between women and the extractive industry. In doing so, the research contributes to the design of context specific and appropriate strategies as well as actions to protect and uphold women’s rights in mining communities. Further, the investigation identified the strategies adopted by women to safeguard their rights. This put into perspectives of women engaged in mining activities whether small scale or large scale; positive and negative externalities in relation to water, land, environment, violence, pollution and social capital emerging from mining;  and the role of women in collective action organisations advocating for mutually beneficial and sustainable mining activities. The study also analysed the legal, policy, institutional and community mechanisms that exist with a view to explaining why some of the negative impacts of mining on women persist. This is because governance is vital to promoting positive relationships between the extractive industry and the community in particular, women. In this regard, the research investigated mining governance arrangements (law, policy, institutions) and ascertained how these are reinforcing negative impacts on women. Further, the research assessed the effectiveness of mining governance arrangements in advancing women’s rights and proposes changes to safeguard women’s rights in the mining sector.

The third focus of the study was on citizens’ agency in affected communities, women in particular in bringing mining companies to account for reinforcing women’s rights. Suggestions on how to strengthen women`s agency in claiming their rights in the mining sector are made on the back of analysis of field data. The research focused on the feasibility of women movements being at the centre of advocating for desired change. Most importantly, focus was placed on how women and civil society coalitions can change the relationship between women and mining companies; and an institutional mapping of key authorities and stakeholders to which lobbying, advocacy and action can be directed

Keywords: Extractives, Governance, Mining, Rights, Women

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Political Participation and Women in Public Offices
Ishaku Bitrus Lere a, Dantong  Rahila Timothy b
a,b Department of political Science, Faculty of Social Science Plateau State University Bokkos, Nigeria.
a Corresponding authour: bitruslere@yahoo.com

Volume 08, Issue 12, Pg. 74-80, 2015.

Abstract: The contributions of women in societal development cannot be overemphasized, women in the society constitute about fifty percent of the world`s population. The level of participation of these women folk in public life has been grossly inadequate; it means that we are neglecting about fifty percent development. Thus women supposed to be occupying equal positions with their men counterpart in the public offices but the case is not like that all over the world. Since women are seen as vanguard for societal transformation, they are supposed to be given a pride of place in public offices so that they can also make their own contributions to the realization of the aims and objectives of setting up a state. The enormous role that women perform in the society supposed to be extended to public life. This calls for the involvement of women in political activities since they are seen as partners in progress for the transformation of the society in general. Afterword’s, women participation in political activities has been impeded by some factors which needs to be radically address in order to have equal representation in governance. Most often, women are relegated to the background when it comes to political participation. This is obvious because of some socio-cultural and religious factors which hinder their active participation in politics and other public offices. In the area of political party membership across the globe, women usually constitute a small percentage; this is because of the social, cultural and religious attitudes of different societies against women which most often tend to relegate them to the background. As a consequence, in some of the countries, only few educated men allowed their wives to come out and participate in politics and occupy public offices. A cogent example is found in the northern part of Nigeria “purdah system“ i.e. house seculation of women is one of the major obstacle to women participation in politics. This is applicable in many other countries of the world. Therefore, this paper intends to look at the extent to which women have participated in politics and public offices. It will traced the historical involvement of women in politics and public offices from pre-colonial, colonial and post colonial era, whether they are making break through or they are retrogressing in terms of  political participation and involvement in public offices. The paper will preview the various international, national, regional and local conventions in support of women participation in politics and public offices will be x-rayed to ascertain the extend of the conformity of the various member states to the agreements. The factors impeding women participation in politics and public life will be discussed and the way forward in order to have a society whereby there will be equity, justice and fairness will prevail. The key words are: political participation, women in politics and women in public offices.

Keywords: Politics, Participation, Women, Public office, Development

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Modes assessment practice in teaching Arabic process
Wan Mohd Zuhairi Wan Abdullah a, Muhammad Azhar Zailaini b, 
Shahrir Jamaluddin c
Faculty of Education, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia

Volume 08, Issue 12, Pg. 81-86, 2015.

Abstract: Teacher’s assessment practice is a major and important component in the classroom teaching and learning process. Assessment always happens whether planned or unplanned. This study has found ten modes of assessment practices adopted by the participant in the study include (1) repetition and followed by assessment, (2) classroom assessment through discussions and questions-answers session, (3) oral assessment and written assessment, (4) variety types of questions, (5) teacher assess student’s errors and the accuracy of responses, (6) evaluating weaknesses and followed by immediate and ongoing guidance, (7) choosing and stating student’s name for the purpose of assessment, (8) the use of teaching aids to help the classroom assessment process, (9) Detect assessment evidence to help student’s learning, and (10) Interpret the identified assessment evidence. It was detected naturally and based on findings from field work study through observation, interviews and enhanced by documented evidence. Qualitative methods of collecting and processing data were used in this study.

Keywords: Modes of practice, Assessment for Learning, Teaching and Learning Arabic.

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Consideration of the research setting in a qualitative case study: assessment for learning Arabic language
Wan Mohd Zuhairi Wan Abdullah a, Muhammad Azhar Zailaini b, Shahrir Jamaluddin c
Faculty of Education, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.

Volume 08, Issue 12, Pg.87-94, 2015.

Abstract: The purpose of this study is to observe how assessment is practised by a teacher in the classroom. In good teaching, assessment is not treated as a separate entity. It provides on avenue to improve students’ learning. The main research question is to examine how a teacher conduct assessment in the process of teaching and learning for Arabic Language subject in a secondary school. A qualitative case study method was chosen for this research. The research participant in this case study is a form one teacher who teach Arabic Language. Three types of data were collected, namely; observation, interview and document evidence. The process of collecting qualitative data is a valuable experience and important for researcher in this study. 

Keywords: Assessment for Learning, Interview, Observation, Participant, Teaching Arabic Language.

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Natural Disaster Management – An Analysis of the Ferrara Risk Management Network
Elisa Colì a, Antonella Rissotto b, Maurizio Norcia c   
a, b, c Institute of Cognitive Science and Technology, Italian National Research Council, 
Via San Martino della Battaglia 44 – 00185 Italy. 

Volume 08, Issue 12, Pg. 95-105, 2015.

Abstract: Risk management, part of the risk analysis process, involves three public policies that are risk identification, risk reduction and disaster management. The management of an extreme event, such as an earthquake, is a complex and dynamic process that inevitably involves different organizations who need to coordinate themselves and work together to pursue the common goal to respond to the emergency in the best possible way. These organizations constitute the management network of the emergency, a complex and inter-organizational social system. The complexity of the management network and the characteristics of an extreme event make the emergency management more difficult.  In order to identify the network structures that would facilitate an effective disaster management, we studied the network of stakeholders involved in the management of the earthquake that affected the city of Ferrara in May 2012. In particular, we considered the characteristics of the emergency network, such as numerosity and cohesion, and the positions of the actors based on relational ties, such as centrality, in order to highlight strengths and weaknesses of the network. The risk management network was studied starting from legislative and technical documents, integrated with in-depth interviews with stakeholders who had a key role in the network. The network data collected from the interviews was analyzed using the UCINET 6.0 social network analysis software. The main results have been integrated with parts of the transcribed interviews. Overall, the network of emergency management activated in Ferrara during the earthquake in 2012, has a complex structure characterized by many actors with different functions and roles. The network analysis highlighted that it has a poor level of cohesion and exploits very little of its relational potential. Some pairs of actors are isolated and a hierarchical communication and an asymmetric flow of information seems to prevail between some actors. The functioning of the network also appears to be driven mainly by the establishment of informal relations rather than by formal and pre-existing ones, a flexible operating way probably more suited to the management of an emergency that requires immediacy and rapid response. The population is the most popular actor of this network, however it has a passive role, seen exclusively as the recipient of the process of emergency management.

Several interventions, aimed to improve the functioning of the emergency management network, are proposed in this article.

Keywords: emergency management, Ferrara earthquake, natural disaster, network analysis, strenghts and weaknesses

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