Volume 05 Issue 06

OIDA International Journal of Sustainable Development
Open access peer-reviewed journal 

Public Private Partnership in an Emerging Economy: Evidence from Infrastructural and Manufacturing Subsectors of Nigeria
Patrick Linus Akpan a, Audu Oyiwodu Racheal b, Onamusi Olakitan Uzoma c, 
Okoroma Ekene Genevive d
a Department of Business Administration, Faculty of Management Sciences, 
Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Awka, Nigeria.
b, c, d Research Department, National Gallery of Arts, Abuja, Nigeria.

Volume 05, Issue 06, Pg. 12-20, 2012.

Abstract: In recognition of Public –Private Sector nexus, this paper examines the implications of Public-Private Sector participation on infrastructural development and manufacturing sub-sector of Nigeria. The Public Sector is associated with the management of societal affairs and the need to partner with Private Sector becomes eminent as this fosters satisfactory infrastructural development and the development of the manufacturing sub-sector. Public-Private Partnership (PPP) in Nigeria is beset with infrastructural challenges which impact on manufacturing sub-sector and economic development. These imbalances include but are not restricted to increase in population, inadequate planning, political instability, corruption, transaction cost, poor socio-economic structures and high incidence of poverty. This paper therefore sets out to investigate in empirical terms, the relationship between PPP in the area of infrastructural developments and manufacturing sub-sector of Nigeria using Nigerian data. In the analytical methodology, a two step model is specified in line with appropriate ordinary least square(OLS) techniques. These cover two equations and with the empirical modeling the study unveils a functional and respectable linkage between the dependent and independent variables. The paper advocates that for effective and efficient functioning of PPP in the area of infrastructural development and manufacturing, constant energy supply and availability, technological development and financing, effective transportation and communication facilities should be provided as insufficient infrastructure is capable of constituting heavy cost on the economy thereby leading to high cost of doing business and bottleneck in manufacturing.

Keywords: Development, Infrastructure, Manufacturing, Private, Public

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Sustainable Development in Nigeria: The Role of Adult Education in Ensuring Sustainable Management of the Environment  
 T.V. Bakare a
a Department of Adult Education, University of Lagos, Akoka, Yaba.  Lagos.  Nigeria. 

Volume 05, Issue 06, Pg. 20-29, 2012.

Abstract: Rapid urbanization has led to many unfavourable conditions, like the development of slums, overcrowding and sub-standard living conditions as well as poverty.  This is a vicious cycle of cause and effect, as all the problems lead back to the root cause of poverty. This paper focuses on the environmental issues in Nigeria, especially in Lagos state.   Lagos is the largest urban city in the country and faces different challenges in engendering environmental sustainability.  The government’s efforts at sustaining the environment seem like a losing battle in the face of the overwhelming and often peculiar circumstances surrounding the urban poor.  The paper examines the various factors that contribute to environmental degradation, government’s efforts to combat them, and concludes by suggesting a model of operation for the government and other stakeholders, along with commensurate adult education programs.   

Keywords:  sustainable development, adult education, methods, environment, Lagos

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India’s Integrated Child Development Scheme and its Implementation: Performance of Anganwadis and Analysis
R. Shashidhar a, Parampalli Sadananda Maiya b , V. Ramakrishna c
 a Department of Studies & Research in Business Administration, Tumkur University, Tumkur, India.
b   Food Sciences & Technology, Tumkur University, Tumkur, India.
 c   Department of Political Science, Tumkur University, Tumkur, India. 

Volum 05, Issue 06, Pg. 30-39, 2012.

Abstract: Integrated Child Development Services (ICDS) programme continues to be the world’s most unique early childhood development programme, which is being satisfactorily operated since three decades of its existence. The programme provides package of services, comprising supplementary nutrition, immunisation, health check-up, referral services to children below six years of age and expectant and nursing mothers. Non-formal pre-school education is imparted to children of the age group 3-6 years and health and nutrition education to women in the age group 15-45 years. High priority is accorded to the needs of the most vulnerable younger children under three years of age in the programme through capacity building of caregivers to provide stimulation and quality early childhood care. In this backdrop the paper considers the ICDS has performance well in our socio-cultural system during last few years to ensure children’s right for survival, growth, protection and development and their active participation in environment where they live, grow and develop.  On the basis of ICDS programme it is to discuss in this paper about role played by anganwadis through out the country for improvement of health and nutrition status for children in rural areas especially and in particular to analyze the performance of the anganwadis in view of funds allocated through five year plans and finally to paper will conclude the project implementation progress in order to bring the universal health and education in rural areas for the growth of development and made some suggestions in implementation of the ICDS and anganwadis role performance to carry out the project in an effective and efficient manner with the cooperation of the government, semi governments and other stake holders to achieve the millennium development goals of Government of India.  

Keywords: Child development, Anganwadis, Health & Nutrition 

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The Composition of Government Spending and Economic Growth in Developing Countries: the Case of Latin America
Raul Alberto Chamorro-Narvaez a
a Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Carrera, Bogota, Colombia.

Volume 05, Issue 06, Pg. 40-51, 2012.

Abstract: This paper aims to identify the effects of the two economic components of government spending, namely, capital and current spending, on the per capita economic growth rate in a set of Latin American countries over the period 1975 – 2000. Within the neoclassical framework (Solow, 1956; Swan, 1956), government spending, and public policy in general, has no role in determining the long-run economic growth rate, since this is determined by the exogenous population growth and technological progress rates. On the other hand, in some endogenous growth models developed mainly since the early 1990s, such as Easterly (1990), Barro (1990), Barro and Sala-i-Martin (1992, and 2004), Cashin (1995), Bajo-Rubio (2001), and Milbourne et al. (2003), fiscal policy affects the long-term growth rate through decisions on either taxes or expenditures.

The empirical literature tends to reject the predictions of the neoclassical model, in the sense that according to this model, fiscal policy cannot affect growth in the long term. However, results are far from conclusive and it seems they depend on various aspects such as methods or techniques used, assumptions, country or set of countries analyzed, and so on. As long as theoretical models about the influence of public spending on growth is concerned, some of them such as Barro (1990), Cashin (1995), Bajo-Rubio (2000), and Milbourne et al. (2003) predict that a positive effect is expected to be found in countries where the size of government is smaller than a certain threshold, and a negative one in countries where the size of government is bigger than that. Therefore, since generally speaking, with few exceptions, one finds very large public sectors only in developed countries (DCs), studies evaluating the impact of public expenditure on growth should analyze DCs and less developed countries (LDCs) separately. In line with recent growth literature, the study uses a generalized method of moments as suggested by Arellano and Bond (1991) in order to obtain consistent and efficient estimates for a dynamic model, such as an economic growth model.

This paper’s findings suggest that neither government capital nor current expenditures have any impact on the per capita economic growth rate. The positive effect of government capital spending reported in some literature was not found here. Statistically insignificant estimated effects of these kinds of spending could be due to inefficiency. Perhaps they are vulnerable to rent seeking. In addition, inefficiency of government spending has widely been associated in the literature with poor governance and corruption, which are, typically, some characteristics of developing countries.

Keywords:  Economic growth, generalized method of moments, government spending, Latin America

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Environmental Hazards and Sustainable Development of Rock Quarries, Lower Benue trough Nigeria
Nwachukwu M. A a, Huan Feng b
a Department of Environmental Technology, Federal University of Technology Owerri, Nigeria. 
b Department of Earth & Environmental Studies, Montclair State University New Jersey U.S.A

Volume 05, Issue 06, Pg. 52-71, 2012.

Abstract: The increasing number of abortive and abandoned quarry pits, and the several associated geo-environmental hazards have given cause for greater concern. Environmentalists, governments, and the general public now seek innovative ideas, and research collaborations that will reduce incidents of abortive and abandoned quarry pits. Quarry operators may be charged with the responsibility to reclaim quarry pits as soon as their operation is over, or make equivalent cost payment to government agency who will take over the responsibility as soon as mining is over. The goal is to achieve sustainable quarry practice in the Nigeria lower Benue Trough so that future generations may benefit from the igneous intrusive, and still have livable and sustainable environment

This study has found that many quarry operators do not conduct proper intrusive mapping prior to excavation or mining. Blind mining in this way is unsustainable; results in several abortive quarry pits that destroys ecosystem. Environmental impact assessment of such trial pits in the Nigeria lower Benue Trough shows loss of human life and arable land, rock fall, landslides, and health effects. For example, stagnant water in the pits supports daily breeding of mosquito and tsetse fly, causing persistent malaria and sleeping sickness in the area. Spectroscopic analysis of water samples from the abortive quarry pits and domestic water wells show excess of Sulfate (SO4), Sodium, Total Dissolved Solids (TDS), Total Hardness (as CaCO3), Turbidity, Salinity, and Total suspended solid (TSS). Near surface water table, joints and fractures enhance pit water and groundwater interaction, thereby increasing groundwater pollution. This paper shows how electrical resistivity survey could be used successfully to map intrusive bodies prior to quarry development. The aim is to reduce abortive quarry pits, and the associated hazards. Diabase (the target rock) shows bright spots, with resistivity values in the order of diabase > quartzite > siltstone > sandstone > shale. Overburden thickness to diabase is 2-11 m, confirmed by physical measurements at quarry pits. Result of geo-electric mapping is presented in a quarry concession map as a tool for pit planning and design, and sustainable quarry development rather than blind mining or trial excavation in the study area. This paper calls for collaborative research that could lead to sustainable quarry development.

Keywords: Blind mining, Environmental hazards; Geophysical mapping; Sustainable mining

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System Dynamic Model Approach for Urban Watershed Sustainability Study
Huan Feng a, Danlin Yu b, Yang Deng c, Michael P. Weinstein d, George Martin e
a, b, c  Department of Earth and Environmental Studies, 
Montclair State University, Montclair, New Jersey 07043, USA
d PSEG Institute for Sustainability Studies, Montclair State University, Montclair, New Jersey 07043, USA.
e Department of Sociology, Montclair State University, Montclair, New Jersey 07043, USA.

Volume 05, Issue 06, Pg. 70-82, 2012.

Abstract: Over a century of rapid urbanization and industrialization in New Jersey brought visible impacts on the watershed. Consequently, it puts ever-increasing stress on the resource and environmental capacities of the region. This research focuses on an urban industrial coastal area in New Jersey (Water Management Areas 4, 5, 6 and 7), USA, an ecology heavily impacted by human activities.  The objective of this research is to investigate the dynamic interactions between natural environment and human society and to model long-term trends in environmental impact and sustainable development.  The data include 21 environmental, social and economic indicators for five counties (Bergen, Essex, Hudson, Morris, and Passaic Counties) collected for years between1980and 2010 (Some indicators have data only from 1990 to 2010).  The data show that within the study area, population has increased by an annual average of 6.4% with a range from -7.9% to 20.7% over 30 years , and per capital GDP increased from $11,836 to $53,362 , while unemployment rates fluctuated from 4.4% to 10% over 20 years .  The environmental investment increased steadily from $143 million to $247 million from 1990 to 2010. To project the future of environmental sustainability, a system dynamic model was established based on the 21 indicators.  Results suggest that population will remain stable, reaching 3.35 million in 2025 from 3.3 million in 2010, and per capita GDP will reach $71,990 with an annual growth rate of 1.7%. A continued increase of environmental investment is also predicted, as per capita GDP growth is forecast to be reasonably strong. The average value of the Pb hazard quotient, which is a pollution indicator, is projected to drop from 5.0 in 1999 to 2.46 in 2025. However, this value will remain within the moderate hazard range.  The research indicates that environmental pollution in this urbanized area will remain as a consequence of historical urbanization and industrialization. The system dynamic model suggests that we will be walking a finely-balanced line in Northern New Jersey as the environment continues to suffer from the consequences of long term industrialization and urbanization at the same time that climate change may present new challenges.

Keywords: Environmental pollution; Sustainability; System dynamics; Urbanization and industrialization; Watershed 

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Sustainability Study of the Application of Geosynthetic Clay Liners in Hostile and Aggressive Environments
Devapriya Chitral Wijeyesekera a, Eric Wooi Kee Loh b, Siti Fathima Diman c, 
Alvin John Meng Siang Lim d, Adnan Bin Zainorabidin e, Mihaela Anca Ciupala f
a, c, d, e Universiti Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia, Malaysia.
b Linton University College, Malaysia.
f University of East London, UK .

Volume 05, Issue 06, Pg. 82-98, 2012.

Abstract: This paper discusses the sustainable performance of geosynthetic clay liners (GCLs) which are popularly specified as “leachate retaining” or as “water proofing” membranes in the geo-environmental construction industry. Geosynthetic clay liners (GCLs) are composite matting comprising of bentonite clay with two covering geosynthetics. These are innovative   labour saving construction material, developed over the last three decades. The paper outlines the  variety of Geosynthetic Clay Liners (GCLs) can be classified essentially into two distinctly different forms viz; (a) air dry (< 8% m/c) with  granular or powdered bentonite or (b) bentonite cake factory prehydrated  to  a moisture content (~ 40% m/c) beyond its shrinkage limit and vacuum extruded as a clay cake to enhance its sustainable  performance.  The dominant mineral in bentonite clay is the three-layered (2:1) clay mineral montmorillonite. High quality bentonites need to be used in the GCL manufacture.  Sodium montmorillonite has the desired characteristic of high swelling capacity, high cation exchange capacity and the consequently very low hydraulic conductivity, providing the basis for the hydraulic sealing medium in GCLs. These encapsulate the active montmorillonite clay minerals which depend on the water and chemical balance between the sealing element and the surrounding geo environment. Quantitative mineralogical analyses and an assessment of the adsorbed cation regime, diffusion coefficients and clay leachate compatibility must necessarily be an integral part of the site appraisal to ensure acceptable long term sustainability and performance. Factors influencing the desired performance of bentonite in the GCLs placed in difficult construction and hostile chemical environments are discussed in this paper. Accordingly, the performance specifications for GCLs are identified and the appropriateness of enhancing the cation exchange capacity with polymer treatment and the need for factory prehydration of the untreated sodium bentonite is emphasised. The advantage of factory prehydrating the polymer treated bentonite to fluid content beyond its shrinkage limit and subsequently factory processing it to develop laminated clay is to develop a GCL that has enviable sealing characteristics with a greater resistance to geochemical attack and cracking. Since clay liners are buried in the ground as base liners, capping layer or as structural water proofing membrane, they can easily avoid strict quality and performance monitoring being “out of sight, out of mind!”. It is very necessary that   barrier design for leachate containment must necessarily be in accordance with legislative requirement Assessment of long term hydraulic conductivities and clay-leachate compatibility assessment is deemed necessary. The derogatory factors affecting the sustainable performance of the bentonite in GCLs placed in difficult construction and hostile chemical environments are discussed. Sustainability concepts incorporated in waste management practice must aim to achieve 100% recycling and fully implement the handling of solid waste in developing countries with relatively lower labour costs. These concepts are also applicable in land-filling the waste in developed nations, leading to sustainable landfills.  This paper also presents laboratory scale information on the influence of aggressive tropical heat on the GCLs which cause them to shrink with the development of characteristic crack patterns reflecting the intrinsic structure of the clay agglomeration. It also presents a scientific physical – mathematical model to predict the hydration loss when used in tropical countries with an adverse thermal environment prior to the confinement of the clay liner. In particular, observations from isothermal drying of factory controlled pre-hydrated and extruded GCL over a wide range of temperatures (20°C to 40°C) and relative humidity (15% to 70% are presented as a part of the sustainability study.. The most commonly used kinetic drying models, i.e.; Page, Wang & Singh, Henderson & Pabis and Thin layer equation were investigated and it was seen that the Page model was more appropriate to simulate the equilibrium water contents of the clay mat for the range of temperatures and relative humidity studied. Critical study of the effective diffusion coefficient and exponential model parameter showed that the drying condition and type of polymer incorporated in the clay mat strongly influenced the drying kinetic and transport parameters.

Keywords:  Bentonite, Cation Exchange Capacity, Geosynthetic Clay liner, Hostile Geo environment, Sustainability 

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Investigation into the Urban Heat Island Effects from Asphalt Pavements
Devapriya Chitral Wijeyesekera a, Noor Affida Raffika Binti Mohamad Nazari b, 
Sin Mei Lim c, Mohd Idrus Mohd Masirin d, Adnan bin Zainorabidin e, John Walsh f
a, b, c, d, e Universiti Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia, Malaysia.
f University of East London, UK.. 

Volume 05, Issue 06, Pg. 98-120, 2012.

Abstract: The accelerated global activities in urbanisation and industrialisation have significantly altered the form and composition of the environment, particularly in the densely populated areas with engineered surfaces. These have contributed to changes in the respective micro climates with increased air temperatures in the urban areas than in the surrounding vegetated rural areas. Urban Heat Island (UHI ) are urban and sub-urban areas that are significantly warmer than their surroundings. It is often warmer in the city than in surrounding rural areas during summer time and especially at night. Traditionally, highly absorptive construction materials and the lack of effective landscaping are the main causes.  Concentration of high thermal capacity buildings, low-albedo asphalt pavements and increased urban surface area are some of the factors that lead to an enhanced absorption of solar heat that causes the changes in the microclimate.  UHI effect studies are increasingly important all over the world  in terms of increased energy consumption, reduced air quality and effects on human health and mortality, are becoming more pressing as cities continue to grow and sprawl. Asphalt pavements are widely used as a necessity in urban development. Temperatures in the asphalt pavements are dependent on pavement material’s thermo physical properties such as albedo, thermal conductivity and thermal emittance. This paper reports investigations of such micro climate changes observed in two distinctly different Köppen climates viz; tropical and temperate climates. The tropical climate in Malaysia is comprise of a warm and humid region ith excessive rainfall and considerable sunshine. The temperate climate in UK is presumed to have four seasons with relatively less precipitation and lower mean temperatures and relative humidity  The field monitoring of UHI effects  from asphalt pavement within the Research Centre for Soft Soil (RECESS),Johor, Malaysia and Aggregate Industries (UK) Ltd. Leicestershire, United Kingdom are compared.  LabVIEW programming was designed and adopted to read data from thermocouple sensors located at experimentally strategic depths in the experimental asphalt pavement to obtain continuous temperature – depth profiles that indirectly portray the diurnal storage of thermal energy. Environmental parameters such as groundwater level, air temperature, relative humidity, wind speed, and rainfall intensity were also observed where possible to assess their contributions to UHI. Different and innovative road pavement fabrics are also studied with a view to assess the potential to capture the clean ad renewable solar energy from the highly diffused radiation that makes vertical collection possible and in turn secure less impact on UHI. Both traditional and sustainable porous materials were considered in the assessment trials.   Such measures and proper environment sensitive urban planning and design can positively improve the urban climate. One dimensional mathematical model to simulate heat transfer through and from a road pavement is also presented taking into consideration that the temperature profile at a point on the ground level shows a periodic variation.

Keywords: Asphalt Pavement, field monitoring, micro climate, sustainability, urban heat island

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Police Investigative Structure and the Adoption of Strategic Policing: The Case of South Africa
Jacob Tseko Mofokeng a
a Department of Safety and Security Management, Faculty of Humanities , 
Tshwane University of Technology, Aubrey Matlala Road, Soshanguve South Campus, Pretoria, South Africa

Volume 05, Issue 06, Pg. 120-130, 2012.

Abstract: Given the importance of the strategic management and the implementation thereof in the public sector and the empirical evidence of its application in such organizations such as the police, local municipalities, and government departments, the author proposes to analyze the predisposition for its application within the South African Police Service (SAPS) Detective Service. To achieve the set objective, the review of the literature on strategic policing and its implications is briefly analyzed.  Due to the competing priorities, inconsistency and ambiguity characterizing the police environment, a survey was also conducted to solicit the views of a group of serving general detectives or investigating officers within the SAPS, with an attempt to identify factors that might negatively impact on the overall performance of general detectives at station level in South Africa. It was envisaged that the findings will provide with new information that will to a certain extent, improved information system within SAPS Detective Service that supports the decision making process so as to allow for better resource management and more quality in service delivery.       

In support of a bigger research, it was envisaged that the manifestation of respondents’ perceptions of poor performance of detectives with regard to how they respond to fraud- related cases would not always be clear, and subsequently questionnaire that form the core of this paper were developed to gather sufficient information in order to inform the strategic management and policy of SAPS Detective Service. A quantitative approach was followed using data triangulation through the use of a variety of sources as outlined hereafter. The research related to a relatively wide population as the sample of respondents was drawn from the members of the Detective Service from nine Provinces, as well as from Head Office. The research population for this study consisted of 20 005 Police Act Personnel (detectives) and a sample of 1 920 members was identified to respond to, inter alia, their training regarding fraud investigation strategies. This sample was chosen utilizing a random stratified sampling technique.  The sample realisation was 1 198, or 62,4% of the original sample. This study and the findings thereof, represents an opportunity for SAPS managers as well as police practitioners elsewhere to embrace a new management process intended to improve performance and accountability. The author viewed the sample to be representative of those SAPS and other members stationed at police stations in the nine Provinces where the research was conducted. 

Keywords: Accountability, Detective Commander, Performance, Policing, Strategy

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Organizational Commitment, Work Culture, and Achievement Motivation in the State Islamic University Syarif Hidayatullah Jakarta
Mohamad Avicenna a, Yufi Adriani b, Abdul Mujib c
a, b, c Faculty of Psychology, State Islamic University Syarif Hidayatullah, Jakarta, Indonesia. 

Volume 05, Issue 06, Pg. 132-141, 2012.

Abstract: In the global higher education marketplace, the State Islamic University Syarif Hidayatullah Jakarta have been attempting to establish them self in international ranking university. To realize this, several efforts have been created, such as increasing the quality of teaching and research, recruiting international and highly talented students, obtaining government and nongovernment sources of funding, creating academic freedom, opening bigger opportunities to the lecturers and administrative staff to get the scholarship in order to get higher degree in specific area.

One of the most important concepts that influence the university to have strategic position in international ranking is the level of organizational commitment of its human resources. It plays an important role in improving the effectiveness of university. Similarly, work culture and achievement motivation are also significantly important in advancing quality of learning. Work culture will lead and guide people in the university on how they should behave and what should be achieved to create a better university in future. Therefore, the objective of this study is to measure organizational commitment, work culture, and achievement motivation among lecturers, administrative staff, and students in the State Islamic University Syarif Hidayatullah Jakarta. 

59 lecturers, 99 administrative staff, and 101 students that have been working or studying more than 1 year were recruited from different faculties in the University. They were administered a set of scales that were developed by researchers: organizational commitment (18 items), work culture (33 items), and achievement motivation (21 items). Each scale is made on a 4-point rating Likert scale (range from strongly agree to strongly disagree). By using SPSS software, multiple regression analysis was used to analyze the research hypotheses.

The results indicated that more than half of respondents have low scores in organizational commitment, work culture and achievement motivation. Among groups, lecturers that have low scores are bigger than high scores in organizational commitment, work culture and achievement motivation. This study also found that work culture and achievement motivation significantly affect organizational commitment among administrative staff and students. Among academic staff only work culture significantly affects organizational commitment

The university needs to increase organizational commitment, work culture and achievement motivation among its human resources, especially among academic staffs since they play a key central in higher education. The university is recommended to produce policies that enhance participations and involvements of academic staff in the university. The university also must support and value contribution of its human resources. With these efforts expectantly they will commit and perceive themselves as part of the organization. Providing training programs that can increase commitment to the organization, work culture and achievement motivation will highly give benefit to the university.

Keywords: Organizational commitment, work culture, and achievement motivation

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