Volume 10 Issue 05

OIDA International Journal of Sustainable Development
Open access peer-reviewed journal 

The effectiveness of criminal law in the enforcement of wildlife law in Cameroon
Neba Olivier Ntungfor a, Njimon Sylvain Atanga b
a Community Initiative for Human Advancement Japan-Cameroon
Saitama-ken, Kawaguchi-shi, Maekawa, Japan.
b Faculty of Laws and Political Science, University of Yaounde II, Cameroon.

Volume 10, Issue 05, Pg. 11-47, 2017.

Abstract: Wildlife crime is considered to be a serious and growing national, sub-regional, regional and global problem challenging national, regional and international efforts to combat it. Burgeoning wildlife crime which has seen the increase involvement of organised criminal groups and armed groups carrying trans-boarder poaching activities is not only a threat to the sustainability of wildlife species but a food security and national, and global security problem. Cameroon is extremely rich in fauna and flora ranking fourth in terms of biodiversity richness in Africa after the Democratic Republic of Congo, Tanzania and Madagascar. Unfortunately, the sustainability of her wildlife diversity continues to be threatened by inter alia mass and indiscriminate poaching activities engendered by the illegal bushmeat trade and illegal trade and traffic in wildlife species and trophies. This has caused the dissipation of the population of major wildlife species like the elephant, big cats and great apes, and the extinction of others like the black rhinoceros. In a bid to reverse this trend, Cameroon’s wildlife law criminalizes and punishes wildlife offences and this since 2003 has seen the arrest, prosecution and imprisonment of wildlife offenders. The objective of this study is to analyse the extent to which criminalisation of wildlife offences has been effective in enforcing Cameroon’s wildlife law in order to enhance sustainable management of wildlife resources in the country. 

In attaining our objectives, we have reviewed and analysed both secondary sources of data; collected through desk research by way of visits to libraries, documentation centres and websites of national and international organisations working in the area of environmental law and wildlife conservation in particular, and primary data collected through interviews with staff and officials of institutions involved in wildlife conservation and wildlife crime prosecution in Cameroon. We came to a major conclusion using the ‘rational choice theory of crime and deterrence’ that the criminal process of investigation, prosecution and punishment of wildlife offences in Cameroon is not very effective as it fails to adequately deter potential and actual wildlife offenders from the commission of wildlife crimes.

It is suggested inter alia that improving on the surveillance and investigative capacity of wildlife law enforcement officials especially frontline law enforcement officials in order to increase success in wildlife crime detection and investigation, and educating judges and other judicial actors on environmental law and wildlife law in particular in order to ensure swiftness, severity and certainty of sentences, can increase the criminal enforcement system’s ability to ensure effective enforcement of wildlife law in Cameroon. This will create a greater deterrence to wildlife crime thereby offering more protection to wildlife resources in the country. 

Keywords: criminal enforcement, illegal wildlife trade; wildlife conservation, wildlife law

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How to successfully change an organization: management perceptions and practices
Lampros Lamprinakis
The Norwegian Institute of Bioeconomy Research (NIBIO), Norway

Volume 10, Issue 05, Pg. 39-48, 2017.

Abstract: Organizational development, change and adaptation are complex and challenging tasks that have been widely studied and debated, spanning from general change models and theories on organizational change, to change management theory and strategy literature. Even though issues surrounding organizational change have been extensively studied, the estimated success rates remain particularly low, thus keeping this kind of studies high in the research agenda. This article examines organizational change and adaptation in the context of institutional change. More specifically, the article examines the case of Valio, the biggest Finnish dairy company, and its reorganization and restructuring during the period surrounding Finland’s assessment to the EU in 1995. Valio’s case is particularly interesting since it involves a well-established “national institution”, with rich history and significant economic contribution to the national economy. The purpose of this paper is to explore how Valio’s managers perceived the organizational change efforts surrounding the period of EU accession and what change practices were followed. In doing so, the analysis adopts the comprehensive qualitative case study methodology having a descriptive and explorative approach. This approach involves several in-depth interviews with key Valio executives, stakeholders, and industry insiders. The analysis maps and identifies key themes and processes that characterized the change strategy and allowed for the successful organizational change.

Keywords: Finland; organizational change; qualitative analysis; senior management; Valio. 

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Natural Belief Based Ethics toward Sustainable Development 
Wanxian Li a, Jinguo Ye b
a, b Hebei University of Economics and Business Shijiazhuang 050061 China.

Volume 10, Issue 05, Pg. 49-54, 2017.

Abstract: The history of human belief indicates: the primitive belief of nature maintained the harmonious coexistence between Man and Nature for thousands of years, only after the Religious Process and the Process of Science and Technology, it fell successively into mysticism and nihilism as well as the present human belief crisis and further leads to the severe relationship between man and nature. Therefore, we need an axiomatic system identified and accepted by all peoples in the world. Natural belief, or simply to say, worshiping nature could be the independent and universal ethics above any countries, religions, regions and cultures that leads to sustainable development. Its theoretical and practical issues are also discussed. 

Keywords: natural belief  ethics  sustainable development 

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The impact of social networks on relationship between spouses in Iran
Shahnaz Hashemi a, Mohammad Soltanifra b, Mahdi Soltanifar c
a Faculty of Communication science and Media Studies, 
Islamic Azad University (Centeral Tehran Branch), Tehran, Iran   
   b Department of Communications, Faculty of Humanity Sciences, 
Islamic Azad University, Science and Research Branch, Tehran, Iran , 
c PhD student of Social Communication Sciences, Qeshm, Iran.  

Volume 10, Issue 05, Pg. 55-63, 2017.

Abstract: The concept of family and the value of this social institution is seen as essential for any community, And a society that puts the family in accordance with their values focus. Today the family living complex structures, has increased the importance of proper communication more. Its couples have been considered as the longest and deepest relationship in the family. Communication in the family transmission of information, ideas, thoughts and feelings. And communication provides conditions that respond to the multiple needs of spouses. For example, physiological needs especially the sexual needs, safety needs, the need to love and respect, cognitive needs, and the need for self-actualization.

 Social networking has created an impact on couples.couples who Continued use of social networking may create problems for them or create new problems in the family. Iranian users is increasing from social networks. Which undoubtedly should be investigated to determine the usage of social media and network interactions because of interest in the continuation of the network. In Iran, the main reason people use social networks the information and news, dating and new relationships with friends, discuss political and social issues, entertainment and leisure time or seek answers to needs that were not met in the real world.

This study has done in Tehran (the capital of Iran). It was conducted in four stages using the Delphi method, The impact of social networking sites collected using structured interviews, Using descriptive statistics showed the first decline due to the constant use of social networks makes the second cut relations and trust each other and coldness in relations between the verbal and the third forecasts broken specialists in the field of legal boundaries. It is recommended to make couples aware of the effects of continuous use social networking to damage the relationship, Strengthening communication skills and be taught face-to-face in the family. on the other hand The use of social networks should be managed at home with his wife and her husband. Be used to a limited extent only when necessary or the motivation to work. Do not use the social networks to purpose entertainment  in home and if used for leisure and entertainment done with the support and presence of a wife or husband. Spouses read messages  of social networks for the parties out loud. See images together, listen to audio files together.

Keywords: social network, relationship, spouses, family

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