Volume 10 Issue 04

OIDA International Journal of Sustainable Development
Open access peer-reviewed journal 

 Challenges encountered in promoting sustainable development
Rajdeep Kaur a, G.S. Aulakh b
 b  Department of Apparel and Textile Science,
Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana, Punjab, India
  b K.V.K, Ferozepur
Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana, Punjab, India.

Volume 10, Issue 04, Pg. 11-18, 2017.

Abstract: Women form an integral part of the society. They are the most neglected part of our society especially those who are residing in the rural areas. They have very passive role in the family decisions due to their low educational level. Looking into the scenario, this study was conducted in one of the Krishi Vigyan Kendras of Punjab state to find the practical challenges encountered in promoting sustainable development.  Trainings were conducted and imparted to rural women/ girls to empower them in present society. In the last five years, twenty one trainings on different aspects of Home Science were imparted to rural women/girls to enhance their knowledge. After attaining knowledge from these trainings, it was expected that some of these rural women would start some work either at household level or commercial level to earn their livelihood in a better way. One third of the trainees were contacted to study the adoption of these trainings in their life with the start of an enterprise to overcome the challenges in their overall development. The reasons for start of small enterprise were unemployment ranked at the top followed by financial problems, hesitation in adoption of new technology, domestic obligations etc. It was noticed that one fourth of the respondents started stitching at household level followed by one fifth of the respondents for preparation of preserved foods like pickles etc. The main constraints for development of various products at commercial level were lack of money, lack of time, male dominance, availability of raw material in nearby market place, market for sale of produce etc. 

Keywords: adoption, challenges, girls, trainings and women.

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Driving Corporate Social Responsibility
An Ethical Approach to Sustainability
Angelo Nicolaides
Graduate School of Business Leadership
University of South Africa, Helderkruin, South Africa.

Volume 10, Issue 04, Pg. 19-33, 2017.

Abstract: Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) is receiving substantial attention since the opening years of the 21st Century. This period has witnessed many organisations engaging in unethical behaviours that have led to huge corporate scandals. It has become urgent for companies to enhance their governance and develop efficient and effective ethics programmes to enable them to operate more responsibly in the societies in which they operate. Numerous organizations are in a quest to define what it is precisely that Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) should encompass and how corporate ethics can be enhanced to proactively thwart unethical behaviours which may arise in both the micro and macro environments. CSR is widely considered to be non-negotiable, due mainly to its clear benefits toward both shareholders and other stakeholders. This paper is grounded on a literature-based exploratory overview research methodology and suggests that without ethical practices such as, especially CSR conducted internally and externally, no business can optimistically hope to be sustainable.

This paper considers the notion of CSR by reviewing past and current literature and strives to explain what it means for an organization to be ethical, transparent, and responsible, given that it has both commercial and social responsibilities. How does a company act transparently and with accountability while protecting the environment, caring for its employees and trading ethically while still maximizing its profits?

The paper concludes with the benefits of implementing internal CSR practices to enhance organisation performance through influencing employees’ behaviour in a positive manner by using well-crafted codes of conduct.  

Keywords: accountability, conscious capitalism, ethics, organisational performance, sustainability.

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Analysis and prediction of land cover change of a biosphere reserve using geospatial tools: A case study of Omo Biosphere, Nigeria
Opeyemi Adeyemi
Department of Forestry and Wood Technology, Federal University of Technology, Akure, Nigeria.

Volume 10, Issue 04, Pg. 34-48, 2017.

Abstract: A land cover change analysis has been previously performed on Omo biosphere reserve in Nigeria, but with a simplistic method, which could lead to wrong management decisions in the biosphere reserve. This study assesses the land cover change of Omo biosphere reserve using a supervised maximum likelihood classification method.  The analysis was carried out using 2000 and 2015 Landsat images. The images were classified with overall accuracy and kappa coefficient of 86.5% and 0.75 for 2000, 86% and 0.79 for 2015 respectively. The result reveals that undisturbed/natural forests have reduced significantly while disturbed/plantation forests, degraded forests/farmland, settlement/bare ground increased over the 15-year period. The 8% annual increase in the settlement suggests that changes in the other land cover classes of the biosphere reserve could be attributed to population growth around the biosphere reserve. Using Omo biosphere reserve, this study justifies the need for regular assessment of biosphere reserves for adequate management plan and appropriate decision to be taken. Consequently, such assessment will help to ensure the sustainable function of the biosphere reserve. If no attention is given to stop the trend of deforestation in this biosphere reserve, there is an indication of complete loss of natural forests.

Keywords: biosphere reserve; gis and remote sensing techniques; landsat images; supervised classification

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The influence of pre-Islamic Near & Middle East Art and Architecture on Islamic Art & Architecture /History and Theory
Marzieh Azad Armaki
Shahid Rajaee Teacher Training University, Iran. 

Volume 10, Issue 04, Pg. 49-54, 2017.

Abstract:  This article presents a Chorological /Historical review of a worldwide and history- wide architectural phenomena named “Islamic Architecture” with special emphasis on appearance of that in first nations that accept Islam either by believing or by force. Defining the phenomenon named “Islamic Architecture” may be led via a series of methods. This paper is considering the historical dimensions, elements and the function of the social and cultural system in sort of the presence of religious elements in various architectural forms or the usage of 

particular colors or motifs.

Key Words: Architecture, History, Islamic, Middle East, Religion 

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