OIDA International Journal of Sustainable Development
Open access peer-reviewed journal
The Application of Producer and Consumer Surplus Concept and Accounting Method in Estimating Losses Caused by Marine Pollution
Mohd Fadzil Shuhaimi bin Ramli
Faculty of Integrative Sciences and Technology,
Quest International University Perak,
Jalan Raja Permaisuri Bainun, 30250 Ipoh, Perak, Malaysia.
Volume 09, Issue 02, Pg. 11-24, 2016.
Abstract: Aggrieved fishers can sue for compensation for their losses due to pollution. Normally, the estimation of their losses is based on the loss of income compared between before and after the intervention. However, fishers are not the only one affected by the pollution. Fish consumers, who are non-fishers, are also losing in monetary term when fish prices increased in time of intervention and thereafter. Thus, the usual compensation procedure is considered lacking since it does not take into account the spill over costs onto the non-fishers. The application of producer and consumer surplus concept is being used to determine the societal losses as a whole. The alternative way of describing the impact of fish catch on society is using the concepts known as consumer surplus and producer surplus. By comparing these measures before and after a market disturbance, it is possible to quantify how society has been affected. Both concepts stem from the change in commodity price and the amount they are willing to pay if he or she is a consumer or the amount produced if he or she is a producer. Consumer surplus can be gauged from the demand curve that is econometrically constructed with the availability of time-series data on market price of the commodity and the quantity consumed. Similarly, the producer surplus can be obtained from the supply curve that is econometrically constructed using the time-series data on selling price and amount supplied. In addition to econometric method of obtaining the producer surplus, the accounting method offers a much easier way provided there exist, apart from time-series data on revenues, variable cost data. Between 1997 -2000, a huge land reclamation project was underway causing a significant impact on the marine environment in the coastal waters of South Manjung district in Perak, Malaysia. The fish landings data before and after the intervention were used for this study to gauge the fishing losses. The result shows that consumer and producer losses were RM 16.7 million and RM 13.3 million respectively. Producer losses can be also gauged by accounting method taking into consideration the total revenues minus the total costs that indicates the loss of RM 93.2 million. It is proposed that these figures as the guideline for the court of justice to make decision when awarding compensation to respective fishers. With respect to consumers, perhaps, the purpose of the compensation is to improve the fisheries resources, example by sponsoring the artificial coral reef project.
Keywords: compensation; consumer surplus; fishers; producer surplus; spill over
Analysis the Effect of Company’s Fundamental Characteristics and Real Earnings Management to Stock Return Moderated by Audit Quality
Vinola Herawaty Ismail a, Kiki Munandar Witarno b
a,b Accounting Graduate Program, Faculty of Economics, University of Trisakti, Jakarta, Indonesia
Volume 09, Issue 02, Pg. 25-47, 2016.
Abstract: The investors’ motive for investing their funds in securities in the capital market is to get a return maximum return with a certain risk. Return on securities owned, especially stocks can be obtained in two forms of dividends and capital gains. By investing in stocks, an investor would expect a higher return. Stock prices provide an objective measure of the value of an investment in a company. In principle, the better the performance of the company in generating profits, the more demand for company shares is concerned, so that the stock price will increase. Otherwise, if the circumstances are contratry then this will decrease the company’s stock price. For investors, the rate of return is a major factor because the return is the result obtained from an investment . Therefore the investor will require a wide range of information and analysis that will be used to determine the investment options that will be chosen. Based on the exposure of the facts, the average return received by shareholders of the company has always fluctuated from year to year. Investors who choose to invest in the capital market in the form of securities shares means investing in the company’s prospects.
Financial statement information is one of the potential sources are used by investors to assess the price of shares in the stock. If the financial statements showed good results, the it means that the company has a good performance, otherwise if the result is not satisfied, it is a symptom of the onset of problems. In the capital market, not all of the shares of companies that have a good profile will give you a good return to investors so that investors needs to do more in-depth analysis about the company. It can be said that many factors affect the movement of the stock return. The investors need to do in-depth analysis of the changes, such as by conducting fundamental analysis based on financial ratios.
Fundamental analysis is the analysis to calculate the intrinsic value of companies using financial data, the company’s intrinsic value can be realized by the stock price. If the prospect of company is strong and good, then the stock price will reflect that strength and rising with an increase in the financial condition of a company. In fact, investors often concern only financial statements to gain information, regardless of how profits are generated. This prompted the management company to perform an action, i.e earnings management.
Managers can manage the company’s revenue in two ways, first, establish policies on accrual option that allowed generally accepted accounting principles in order to achieve the desired profit level (known as the accrual-based). Second, managers can manage revenue by changing the timing and scale of operating decisions, it is also called the Real Earnings Management or Real Activity Management (Zang, 2012). Real Earning Management (REM) can be categorized in three activities, namely Sales Manipulation, Over Production and Discretionary Expenses. Real earnings management is very difficult to detect by external stakeholders. Because, they are not included in the supervision and oversight of external auditors and regulators. Factors that differentiate between companies and limit the ability of management to manage earnings include internal structure of governance of the company, and accounting decisions years earlier made by companies that limit the choices of accounting next. This study focuses on one of the factors, namely external quality auditors.Therefore the purpose of this research is to find out the fundamental and real earning management effect analysis to stock return which moderated by audit quality on the manufacturing companies which are listed in the Indonesia Stock Exchange since 2010 to 2014 with size and sales growth as a control variable.
Sample selection method is performed by using purposive sampling method which selects samples based on certain criteria in appropriate with the criteria which is required by the researcher. As much as 49 samples are obtained based on this sample selection method. The analysis method which is applied in this research is the quantitative method and statistics analysis is the multiple linear regressions analysis.
It is found from the result of the analysis that return on asset (ROA) and REM through cash flow with 5% significancy level, positively effect to stock return. While Current Ratio moderated by audit quality had positive effect to stock return or in other words audit quality streghten the relation between Current Ratio and stock return. Furthermore, REM through production cost moderated by audit quality had positive effect to stock return or in other words audit quality strenghten the relation between REM through production cost and stock return
Keywords: Fundamental characteristics, Real Earning Management (REM), Stock return, Audit Quality, Sales Growth, Size.
Model of Noise Propagation in Urban Area
A Case Study in Jakarta
Sandi Prasetyo a, Haryoto Kusnoputranto b, Hadi S.Alikodra c Raldi Hendro Koestoer d
a Postgraduate Program on Environmental Science, University of Indonesia, Indonesia.
b Department of Environmental Health, Faculty of Public Health
and Postgraduate Program on Environmental Science, University of Indonesia, Indonesia.
c Department of Silviculture, Faculty of Forestry, Bogor Agricultural University, Indonesia
d Ministry of Economic Affairs, Republic of Indonesia.
Volume 09, Issue 02, Pg, 48-51, 2016.
Abstract: One of the most developed cities nowadays is Jakarta. Jakarta as the capital city of the Republic of Indonesia is a metropolitan region with a population of more than 9.9 million people (BPS, 2013). One of the environmental impacts is noise problem. The problem in urban areas is an urgent matter because it has direct impact on health of inhabitants. Motor vehicles are major sources of noise (Doelle, 1993). According to Satriyo (2008), the overall noise level in the city of Jakarta is very high. For example, the noise in the Semanggi area measured to 68.7 – 69.5 dB (A). Another measurement (Martono et al., 2004) stated at the Sudirman areas, it demonstrates the value of 66.95 – 71.28 dB (A). Values that have passed the standard noise level for residential areas, based on the Regulation of the Indonesian Minister of Environment (1996), which amounted to 55 dB (A). The quality standard is used for residential areas, because until now there is no noise quality standard for urban areas. While the quality standard for office area is 70 dB (A). The objectives of this study are two folds: (a) to determine the noise source and level in Jakarta and (b) to create a model for propagation of noise. This study was conducted in August 2013 to August 2014 in the heart of the city, especially along Sudirman road, of Jakarta. The area chosen not only it is a major area, but also it has concentrations of offices, housing, green areas and industrial activities. This area is the central business in Jakarta. Noise level measurements carried out at 64 points affecting Sudirman street. A model of noise propagation built using inverse square law approach to the type of point source, involving excess attunuation which includes the atmosphere, soil condition and barrier. This study uses an analytical approach that space needs to be supported by the method of the Geographic Information System, which is a method to demonstrate the ability of spatial information, and can display visually. The instrument used was ArcView 3.2 program. This method serves to provide the following information: (a) The area being affected spatially or spread of noise distribution; (b) The most noisy location along the Sudirman. The closer the lines contained in the noise contour maps, the more noisy. The highest noise was in the middle of junction location between North-South and East-West; (c) contour map which is converted to dB (A) can provide information about the locations that have noise level of more than 85 dB (A) for the 8-hour exposure period. This location is catagorized as not healthy places for people who are staying in these areas; and (d) noise contour map gives information about a particular location with spatially gradual noise levels. According to the noise measurement result, Semanggi areas is the highest level of ambient noise with the range of 64.3 dB (A) – 72.8 dB (A). The area with the lowest noise level is around Istana Negara (National Palace) with 52 dB(A) – 56.3 dB(A). Meanwhile, the propagation of noise due to calculated model reduces from south to north of Sudirman line, and for west of Sudirman street the level remains high.
Keywords: Jakarta, model of noise propagation, noise, noise measurement, urban area.
Water Quality Index in Lake Maninjau as a Parameter to Determine the Optimum Economic Growth of Floating Net Cages and Land-based Livelihood
Yudi Antomi a, Djoko M. Hartono b, M. Suparmoko, c, Raldi H. Koestoer d
a,b,c,d Environmental Science Postgraduate Programme, University of Indonesia, Jakarta, Indonesia.
Volume 09, Issue 01, Pg. 52-66, 2016.
Abstract: United States Environmental Agency defines pollution point sources and nonpoint sources pollution as follows: “The source of contaminants (pollutants) can be either a specific location (point source) or indeterminate / spread (non-point / diffuse source). Point source pollutant sources eg car exhaust, smokestacks and industrial waste channel. Pollutants emanating from the point source is local. The effects can be determined based on the spatial characteristics of water quality. Volume of pollutants from a point source is usually relatively fixed. Sources of non-point source pollution can be a point source in large numbers. For example, runoff from agricultural areas containing pesticides and fertilizers, runoff from residential areas (domestic). Meanwhile economic growth of Floating Net Cages (FNC) and land-based livelihoods in the basin Maninjau increase the income of local people but also increase pollution in the lake. Without proper watershed management, water quality will decline so would endanger the preservation of lakes and human health. The aim of this study was to determine the optimum value of the land-base and FNC economic growth based on threshold values of water quality index in the lake Maninjau. The method used to determine land use predictions using the Land Change Modeler (LCM). Patterns of land use change using the Land Change Modeler (LCM) revealed that in the area of Lake Maninjau affect the level of Water Environment Quality Index, in which the highest contribution of pollutants comes from FNC. Land use changes that occur in the area of Lake Maninjau have affected significantly the economic growth and environmental degradation. Changes of land use with a low value to a higher value has proven to improve productivity, thereby increasing the economic value, such as a change from forest to mixed farms, orchards mixture into a field, the field becomes settlement, as well as rice paddies turned into settlements. On the other hand, the use of land in a watershed with a variety of both residential and agricultural uses has donated contaminants which empties into the lake, causing the quality of the environment in each estuary is varied and has a steadily declining trend. Spatial modeling showed contamination levels touching bad condition in 2023. In that year the percentage of forest cover in the area of Lake Maninjau is still dominant, amounting to 21.78%, 20.74% mixed gardens and fields 7.77%, 3.94% rice, land up 2.07% and the open land of 0.001%, while the number of FNC many as 29 146 units, and the total economic value of 3 trillion rupiah region but has experienced a polluted condition. In 2023 the maninjau lake water conditions already in polluted conditions, so that economic activity related to water cannot continue.
Keywords: Maninjau, Land Use, WQI, Economic growth, LCM
Arabic Grammar Teaching Methods in University of Fatoni, Thailand
Muhammatsoreh Hayisama-Ae a, Muhammad Azhar Zailaini b,
Wan Mohd Zuhairi Wan Abdullah c , Anfal Gulam Muzammil d
a,b,c,d Faculty of Education, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.
Volume 09, Issue 02, Pg. 67-70, 2016.
Abstract: Grammar teaching and learning is a vital component in Arabic language. This is because without the grammatical aspects, one will not be able to understand what is meant by the sentence. Thus, methods and techniques of teaching grammar are considered to be important for teachers to ensure the mastery of Arabic language skills among students. The used of accurate methods and techniques will contribute to the successful outcome in teaching and learning process. This quantitative study was carried out to study the methods used by teachers in the teaching of Arabic grammar in Arabic Learning Centre, at Yala Islamic College of Fatoni University. Survey was conducted using a questionnaire as an instrument involving a total of 130 samples of 70 men and 60 women. Results showed that the method used by the teacher in teaching Arabic grammar practice indicated a mean value of 3.65 with a standard deviation of 1:32 which seen at the moderate stage.
Keywords: Arabic Grammar Teaching, Arabic Language Centre, Higher Education, Education in Thailand, Teaching Techniques.
The Effect of Global Competitiveness and Trade Openness through the Investment, Tax, and Inflation towards Economic Growth
Eleonora Sofilda a, Dini Hariyanti b , Tri Ismawaty c
a,c Magister Economic Program, Trisakti University, Indonesia.
b Economic Development Program, Trisakti University, Indonesia.
Volume 09, Issue 02, Pg. 71-90, 2016.
Abstract: Based on the great economic potential and in order to face the challenges of regional cooperation, the leaders of ASEAN countries to make long-term plans the establishment of an ASEAN Community comprising the ASEAN Economic Community (AEC), ASEAN Security Community (ASC) and the ASEAN Socio-cultural Community (ASCC). These three pillars are interrelated to each other and mutually reinforcing objectives for achieving sustainable peace, stability and prosperity in the region equalization.The main objective is to achieve sustainable economic growth and equitable, as well as supporting individual katahanan member countries and regions. Cooperation between ASEAN countries has been strengthened with the spirit of economic and social stability in the region, including through accelerating economic growth, social progress, and culture with regard to equality and partnership that became the foundation for the achievement of a prosperous and peaceful society. To create economic growth, each ASEAN country should conduct an open economy. With the open economy, capital can move from one country to another and investors can buy assets in various countries in an unlimited amount. So will cause a rise in the amount of foreign direct investment into the economy of the country.
In the development of the concept of the MEA with the ultimate goal of economic integration, ASEAN perform this feat with several steps, namely the free flow of goods services investment, skilled labor, and freer flow of capital. Conducted economic cooperation especially in the fields of trade and investment. This can be seen with the start prefential Trade Arrangement (PTA, 1977), the ASEAN Free Trade Area (AFTA, 1992), the ASEAN Framework Agreement on Services (AFAS, 1995) and the ASEAN Investment Area (AIA, 1998), and then fitted with the formulation of sector priority of integration and cooperation in the field of monetary another. All this is a manifestation of the pursuit of MEA
Measures to strengthen the framework MEA rolling back in 2006, among others with formulations containing the blueprint for achieving the targets and time MEA clearly. Weigh the benefits and interests of ASEAN to face the challenges of global competitiveness, it was decided to accelerate the formation of MEA from 2020 to 2015 (12th ASEAN Summit, January 2007). This decision is also the political will of the leaders of ASEAN by at signing of the ASEAN Charter.
The background of the formation of the AEC in 2015, research was conducted to investigate the factors of economic growth in the ASEAN 6 countries. Indonesia, Singapore, Malaysia, Thailand, Philippines, and Vietnam became the object of research to-six countries. As for the purpose of this study is; (1) To analysisthe effect of the Global Competitiveness of Investment, (2) To analysis the effect of trade openness (TO) on investments, (3) To analysis the effect of investment on economic growth, (4) To analysis the effect of the State Tax Revenue (TaxR) on economic growth, (5) To analysis the effect of inflation on economic growth in the period 2004-2013 6 ASEAN countries.
This study uses a panel model and within a period of 10 years from 2004 to 2013. The variables tested in the form of a variable percentage of competitiveness, trade openness, state tax revenue, investment, and inflation. Regression testing using a panel with two-step method. The first step in which the investment is the dependent variable, while its independent variable is global competitiveness and trade openness. In the second step, the economic growth becomes the dependent variable, and independent variables it is tax revenue, investment, and inflation.
The results showed that 4 out of 5 of these variables significantly. The result is that in the first step, trade openness variable have negative impact and no significant on the investment but significant value of 0.7831 which express the degree of confidence in doubt.Meanwhile, global competitiveness have a significant effect with 95% confidence level. In the second step, where the variables in the test is revenue from taxes, inflation, and investment, all significant variables and according to the theory of economic growth in the ASEAN-6.
Accordingly, in promoting economic growth, it can be suggested as follows: (1) To promote cooperation among ASEAN countries and makes the MEA in December 2015 into an opportunity of economic growth, not the threat of economic growth, (2) Increasing productivity and innovation in order to invest in the country could increase , (3) Increasing investment opportunities in the ASEAN region by running the ASEAN Comprehensive Investment Agreement (ACIA) and improve the supporting facilities investment activities. (4) In terms of taxes, improve tax payment system so that taxpayers easily willing to pay the tax. (5) Strengthening the foundations of economic security to prevent malicious inflation due to global economic turmoil. (6) Making the rules between ASEAN anticipation of unfair competition. (7) The government provides support for their respective countries as a form of commitment in achieving the AEC 2015.
Keywords: Economic Growth, Investment, Trade Openness, the gross domestic product, Global competitiveness,Tax revenue
Evidence-based Insights for Corporates Supporting
Agro-based Livelihood Interventions
Abhijit Prabhughate a, Anagha Mahajani b, Pearl Tiwari c
a,b,c Ambuja Cement Foundation, Elegant Business Park, MIDC Cross Road ‘B’,
Andheri East, Mumbai, India.
Volume 09, Issue 02, Pg. 91-101, 2016.
Abstract: Traditionally Indian private corporations voluntarily contributed to the society through philanthropic activities, and a few also engaged in direct implementation of social development programs. The CSR policy rules stipulated in the Indian Companies Act 2013 became effective from April 2014. This has bolstered involvement of companies in corporate social responsibility (CSR). These rules have mandated medium and large scale corporations to invest two percent of their average net profit for previous three years in social welfare and development projects. Thus many new companies will now have to invest in CSR in any of the legally approved social development activities. Several companies that need to strengthen their presence in rural areas are likely to invest in the activity of “agroforestry”, which includes agro-based livelihood (ABL) promotion.
There is little research-based evidence to guide new companies in strategic planning of ABL programs. This paper addresses this need by presenting findings of a research on an ABL project of Ambuja Cement Foundation (ACF), the CSR arm of Ambuja Cement Ltd. ACF has promoted “wadi” (a plantation of horticultural fruits within a defined area of land) as an allied income generation option for farmers in semi-arid regions at its three program sites in Rajasthan, India. A mid-term assessment was conducted using a mixed-methods approach at one of the program sites, namely Marwar Mundwa in Nagaur district, where 59 wadis have been developed over the last decade. Analysis of quantitative data from project MIS and qualitative data collected through interviews and FGDs for this assessment was conducted using SPSS and NVIVO.
The analysis showed that farmers’ economic security measured in terms of average earning per acre (AEPA) started increasing every year after a gestation period of 3-4 years. In case of most farmers the cumulative investment in the wadi was recovered by the cumulative gains in the 3rd or 4th year. However, medium farmers with a total landholding between 5-25 acres were able to derive more economic benefits than small and marginal farmers even though most wadis were developed on small plots of two acres or less.
Qualitative data showed that most farmers had made an informed decision to start a wadi. While a farmer considered several factors while deciding to develop a wadi, a key element driving the decision was whether he perceived the wadi to be a relevant option given the prospects for his traditional farming practice. It also became evident that in addition to the tangible criteria such as availability of land and water, socio-economic status-related criteria had the potential to indirectly influence the sustainability of the wadi. The data also showed that difficulties and circumstances faced by the farmer were critical to maintaining farmer’s motivation and involvement in the wadi. The importance of continually modifying ACF’s support in a changing broader socio-environmental context also emerged from this analysis. An important recommendation for ACF was that it will need to provide end-to-end support from wadi’s inception to marketing of produce as a crucial difficulty for farmers is to get the right market for their produce.
The overall insight that can be drawn from this study is that if corporates want to achieve true long-term impacts and garner the maximum return of investment on CSR projects, they need to thoroughly understand the farmers’ social background and circumstances. Any CSR promoted ABL project will need to evolve mechanisms to support those farmers who intrinsically perceive that the proposed ABL intervention can help them address issues relevant to them in their existing social context. The CSR support should be planned for the entire time-span, which can run into several years that are needed for completion of the ABL intervention. Mechanisms for end-to-end support from inception to marketing also need to be instituted as part of the CSR support for an ABL intervention.
Keywords: Agro-based livelihood, Ambuja Cement Foundation (ACF), Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR), Program research, Sustainable development, Wadi
Stakeholder Engagement for a Sustainable Initiative: A case of a project by ACF focusing on women veterinary care providers in Darlaghat, Himachal Pradesh, India
Ambuja Cement Foundation, Andheri East, Mumbai, India.
Volume 09, Issue 02, Pg. 102-114, 2016.
Abstract: The United Nations’ Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) were ratified in September 2015. They intend to set the development agenda for the next 15 years by deliberating the process of integrating partnerships, thereby achieving goals and ensuring sustainability. It also seeks to magnify the scale to reach its maximum. Partnerships highlight the importance of stakeholder engagement in the process of development planning, implementation and performance review.
The Account Ability 1000 Stakeholder Engagement Standard defines stakeholders as ‘those groups which affect and/or could be affected by an organisation’s activities, products or services and associated performance. This does not include all those who may have knowledge of or views about the organisation. Organisations will have many stakeholders, each with distinct types and levels of involvement, and often with diverse and sometimes conflicting interests and concerns.’ Stakeholder Engagement (SE) is defined as ‘the process used by an organisation to engage relevant stakeholders for a purpose to achieve accepted outcomes.’(Accountability 2008)
Stakeholder Engagement is a critical component in the context of social development projects designed to benefit large section of communities. Sustainability is the key concept in social development and stakeholder engagement plays a vital role in contributing towards sustainability. The available evidence in the literature review indicates positive resultant outcomes in the process of stakeholder engagement. Further, for a project to remain relevant and survive in a challenging environment, it requires sustained interaction with key stakeholders of the project. The process is multifaceted, especially when there are diverse stakeholders involved in the project; and the participation of direct stakeholders play a critical role in ensuring sustainability of the intervention.
Ambuja Cement Foundation (ACF), an NGO and the CSR arm of Ambuja Cements Ltd. (ACL), is engaged in facilitating holistic development of ACL’s neighbouring communities. With its mission, ‘Energise, involve and enable communities to realise their potential’, ACF has been promoting integrated rural development through its programmatic interventions. ACF started working in Darlaghat, Solan district of Himachal Pradesh, India, in 2005-‘06. It is a hilly terrain, wherein villages are spread across a wide area. There is a lack of access to transport facilities, information and better opportunities for development. Animal husbandry, though an integral part of the culture, was never considered as a livelihood source. The community as well as the government veterinary department faced serious issues related to service provision. ACF and the local government veterinary department saw an opportunity to strengthen the primary health care access through a planned intervention. The collaborative project attempted to train local women to facilitate the reach of services provided by the government veterinary department.
This paper is based on an exploratory qualitative study focussing on stimulating partnership model developed by ACF – an NGO and the government veterinary department at Darlaghat in Solan district of Himachal Pradesh, India. The study focused on the participation process of Pashu Swasthya Sevikas (PSS) – the women trained as veterinary service providers at the community level under the partnership model and the resultant outcomes of participation of stakeholders. It uses stakeholder engagement model to review participation of key stakeholders.
The paper draws on the data collected through participant observation, in-depth unstructured interviews and group discussion with varied stakeholders. The analysis captured in the paper highlights target communities’ improved access to animal care services as well as change in the animal rearing practices where women veterinary care providers are today connected. The data shows several evidences about project objective being achieved and further crusade towards unanticipated socio-cultural change.
The paper, however, particularly focuses on key stakeholders and their participation in the process of project implementation. Interestingly, the process of active engagement of key stakeholders further strengthens the project by broadening its scope. The paper also cites an interesting dimension through incidences of participation of the stakeholders and its extent, resulting in stimulating responsiveness from other stakeholders.
The resultant change is multi-faceted. The role of women veterinary care providers broadens to encompass preventive and promotive health care for animal which was unforeseen at the inception of the project. The resulting outcome of effective engagement is witnessed in the area of personal development of participating local women, augmenting economic development, evolving livelihood preference and importantly, in the creation of social capital. The intense engagement of stakeholders led to ownership and adaptability with the changing scope of the project ensuring sustainability of the same.
Based on the data available in this study, the paper hence argues the relationship of the key stakeholder engagement and the project sustainability.
Keywords: Stakeholder Engagement (SE), Ambuja Cement Foundation (ACF), Sustainability, Veterinary Health Care, Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs)