Volume 08 Issue 06

OIDA International Journal of Sustainable Development
Open access peer-reviewed journal 

Effects of Bank Credit Access on the Productivity of Small and Medium Manufacturing Enterprises Evidence from Ethiopia
Ajebush Argaw Shafi a, Ajay K. Garg b Mammo Muchie c   
a, Business School, Tshwane University of Technology (TUT), 159 Nana Sita St. Pretoria, South Africa. 
 b, Business School, Tshwane University of Technology (TUT), 159 Nana Sita St. Pretoria, South Africa
c Alma Du Toit Campus, Tshwane University of Technology (TUT), 210 Steve Biko Road, Pretoria South Africa. 

Volume 08, Issue 06, Pg. 11-22, 2015.

Abstract: The productivity of enterprises in low income countries like Ethiopia is insignificant and very low. This low productivity feature is even more common among Small and Medium Enterprises. This paper present the effects of access to bank credit on productivity of small and medium enterprises. The study makes use of the 2008/9 large and medium enterprises manufacturing survey data collected by the Central Statistical Authority (CSA) of Ethiopia and 2011 enterprises survey collected by World Bank respectively. The study is designed as a combination of descriptive and analytic research. Descriptive part of the study mainly rely on 2011 enterprises survey from World Bank while the analytic part is derived from 2008/9 Large and Medium Manufacturing Survey data in which a sample of 1294 enterprises are drawn from a list of over 2172 SMEs. The study identified the type and size of enterprises that is more likely responsive for access to bank credit and examined the link between SMEs productivity and use of bank credit. Above all, this paper opens the door for future research in this area.

Key words: bank credit; enterprises; large and medium; productivity; SMEs

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An Overview of Malaysian Government Initiatives on Sustainable Consumption and Production Practices
Khairul Naim Adham a, Chamhuri Siwar b, Md. Anowar Hossain Bhuiyan c
Institute for Environment and Development (LESTARI)
National University of Malaysia (UKM), 43600 UKM Bangi, Selangor, Malaysia

Volume 08, Issue 06, Pg. 23-32, 2015.

Abstract: Many countries have realized that unsustainable patterns of consumption and production could hinder sustainable development. For this reason, sustainable consumption and production (SCP) concepts have gained international prominence since 1992 and become one of a tool in achieving sustainable development. SCP has demonstrated its significance in reducing environmental burden and at the same time enhances quality of life and human well-being. In general, SCP refers to the production and use of goods and services that minimize the impact on the environment and enhance the people’s quality of life and well-being without comprising the ability of future generation to meet their own needs. Government plays an important role to enable SCP practices by establishing SCP-related national policy and institutional framework, and promoting efficient use of resources amongst producer and consumer. In order to obtain an overview of Malaysian government initiatives with regard to SCP, relevant national policies were analyzed. This study finds Malaysian Government has shown commitment towards the implementation of SCP and several initiatives have been taken. Mainstreaming SCP practices in Malaysia would potentially contribute significantly towards achieving high income developed nation, inclusive and sustainable by 2020. 

Keywords: sustainable consumption and production, sustainable development, sustainable energy, sustainable agriculture, green building

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Strategic Analysis of Past Experiences of New Towns in Iran for the Purpose of Achieving New Approaches in the Future
Hamid Majedi a, Farah Habib b, Fereshte Ahmadi c
a,b Department of Art and Architecture, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran ,Iran.
c Department of Urban Planning , Faculty of Art and Architecture and Urban Planning, Najafabad Branch, 
Islamic Azad University, Najafabad, Isfahan, Iran.

Volume 08, Issue 06, Pg. 33-52, 2015.

Abstract:  There have always been new towns throughout history. However, since after the Industrial Revolution and the increasing problems of bustling metropolises, these new towns have been paid more attention in order to solve the population and economic problems of metropolises. 

In our country, creation of new towns was proposed to make balance and help decentralization of big cities.

Now after a couple of decades, irregularities and problems observed have made us unsure or hesitant about continuing creating new towns because the past experiences of new towns show that, except in a few cases, the goals and objectives of these settlement centers have fundamentally changed.

This paper seeks to answer the key question: what are the most important strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats of past experience of New Towns in Iran?

On the one hand, this paper focuses on strategic analysis of various factors involved in the process of creating and building new towns in Iran, and on the one hand it attempts to answer the essential question of this research.

This study has been conducted with qualitative method and SWOT technique. SWOT analysis, is a strategic planning   tool used to evaluate the Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities, and Threats involved in a project. It involves specifying the objective of the project and identifying the internal and external factors that are favorable and unfavorable to achieving that objective. Four new towns in Iran including  Baharestan,  Shahinshar,  Puladshahr,  Majlesi new towns in Isfahan have been selected as cases of this research. These new towns were studied in eight dimensions consisting of region and spheres of influence in the town, environment and geography, urban management, population and social factors, economic and urban activity, spatial and quality of accommodation, urban infrastructures and facilities, movement and access network.

Based on the research findings, the main strength of new towns is that the prices of land and housing in them are lower than in metropolises. The main weaknesses of the new towns are inattention to environmental potentials in locating, fragmentation of urban management, and absence of participation of public in urban development plans, lack of population absorbing centers, limited employment opportunities and low diversity of jobs and so on.  Feasibility to review experiences of   massive urban development projects and feasibility to coordinate both public and private sectors are the biggest opportunities of new towns.  Inconsistency of new towns with the goals expected for them is the main threat facing the new towns in Iran. Environmental sustainability, livability, identity creation and competition admission are the main criteria for projects and programs of new towns in Iran.

Keywords: New towns in Iran, strategic analysis, strengths and weaknesses, opportunities and threats, reviewing past experiences

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A comparative study of urban spaces of hot and arid areas with the principles of sustainable urban design 
(A case study: City of Yazd)
Pegah Dalvand a, Shirin Toghani b , Negar Dalvand c
a Danesh_Pajoohan non-profit Institute.
b Department of Urban planning , Faculty of Art, Architecture & Urban Planning , Najafabad Branch,
Islamic Azad University, Najafabad, Isfahan, Iran. 
c Department of art and architecture and urban design ,Tehran Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran.

Volume 08, Issue 06, Pg. 53-58, 2015.

Abstract : The concept of sustainable development seeks solution for the current environmental, economic and social crises in local or global levels. The important point is that the goal of sustainable development is creating and forming a particular social, economic behavior towards the nature which protects the life  of environmental  and natural systems for the next generations. In fact, sustainability in not a state to reach ,but an effort we should move towards . Therefore, it can be stated that sustainability is an attitude and a process. The ancient architecture of Iran is a chain of experiences and values which have been passed from person to person during  thousands of years by artists, architects and people.

The match between Iranian buildings, towns and villages with social, cultural  ,religious and environmental  condition has made it possible for Iranian architecture to always meet the material and spiritual  needs of the society. Hot and arid climate is one of the  four climates found in Iran and the city of Yazd  is the most outstanding sample the design of which can clearly depict spatial characteristics of an ancient Iranian  city in a hot and arid area ,although  the city has undergone significant structural changes since 1340s.

The present study aims at investigating the characteristics of residential spaces in hot and arid climates and compare them with the principles of ecological sustainability .

Keywords: Hot and area -the parameters of sustainable development- ecological characteristics, texture compression, human scale, usage overlap.

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 Effects of Boko Haram Insurgency on The Socio-Economic Development in Nigeria
Joseph Okwesili Nkwede a, Emmanuel Ogbonna Abah b, Oliver Uchenna Nwankwo c
a,c  Department of Political Science, Faculty of Social Sciences and Humanities, 
Ebonyi State University, Abakaliki, Nigeria.
b Public Administration, Management Sciences, Ebonyi State University, Abakaliki, Nigeria. 

Volume 08, Issue 06, Pg. 59-74, 2015.

Abstract: One of the most intractable elements in the governance of Nigeria as a country is the current Boko Haram insurgency which has continually posed a serious threat to the corporate existence and unity of the country. Contemporaneously, it has seemingly defiled all political solutions to the extent that the spate of terrorist attacks on the innocent Nigerian citizens, are on the increase. Consequent upon government efforts to tame the dreaded ailment in the polity, the fragility of Nigerian state embedded in this monster has fascinated and heightened iniquitous terrorist uprising and dimension. The paper aims at investigating the activities of Boko Haram in Nigeria with particular attention on its effects on the socio-economic development of the country. The paper ventured into panoramic view of Boko Haram insurgency and its manifestations in Nigeria.  A critical examination of the origin, forms and dimensions becomes sacrosanct. This session is therefore devoted to the discussion of Boko Haram insurgency and socio-economic development with Nigeria in perspective.

Keywords: Boko Haram, Development, Insurgency, Nigeria, Socio-Economic.

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New Environmentalism of Kerala for Sustainability
Omana Joyce Russel
Department of History, Sree Sankaracharya University of Sanskrit,
Kalady, Kalady P.O. Ernakulam, Kerala, India

Volume 08, Issue 06, Pg. 75-77, 2015.

Abstract: Kerala is widely well known as the ‘God’s own country’ because of its scenic beauty and bio-diversity. But the multinational companies have exploited the natural resources of Kerala after globalization. In Kerala, the nature lovers, environmental activists, Adivasis or Tribal people, the poor and the marginalized people launched various movements against polluting industries, pesticides, construction of dams etc. They have defended their environment in rural areas and their concern is with livelihood, environmental justice and protection, thereby contributed to the environmental sustainability of the economy. The environmental movements in Kerala are the Silent Valley movement, the Mullaperiyar Dam issue, Save Chaliyar movement, movement against endosulfan and  Coca cola. 

Keywords: Endosulfan; Environmental Movements; Marginalised people; Sustainability; Subaltern consciousness

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