Volume 05 Issue 12

OIDA International Journal of Sustainable Development
Open access peer-reviewed journal 

Electoral Reforms, Good Governance and Sustainable Development in Nigeria
Dare Ezekiel Arowolo a
a Department of Political Science and Public Administration, Adekunle Ajasin University, 
Akungba Akoko, Ondo State, Nigeria.

Volume 05, Issue 12, Pg. 12-18, 2012.

Abstract: The paper investigated the relationship between electoral reform and good governance and how the two can enhance sustainable development in Nigeria. Electoral reform has become inevitable in Nigeria granted shenanigans that have come to pervade process of election in the country. Election frauds have constituted a threat to the corporate existence of Nigeria. Military incursions in 1966 and 1983 were attributed to election frauds that led to arson and wanton destruction of lives and property. Even recently, the Fourth Republic has witnessed unprecedented rate of election violence, politically motivated killings and excessive use of thugs. The common parlance in electoral arena in Nigeria is “do or die”. The essence and purpose of election have been defeated and discarded while monopoly of weapons, violence and money politics have displaced and replaced the electorate in determining who occupies what position. There has been promotion of personal aggrandisement in governance; electoral politics has promoted mediocrity while at the same time relegated merit and competence. Little wonder that sustainable development has become elusive  and rule of man has overtaken rule of law. It is on this basis that this paper has decided to find out the factors that have made it impossible to have decent and credible election in Nigeria. It is also important to look at the past electoral reforms in Nigeria with a view to finding out while they were incapable of correcting the anomalies in the election. The paper employed content analysis as a method of data gathering and relied, to a large extent, on public choice approach as a scientific tool of analysis that places premium on the political space and citizens’ participation in policy process including electoral reform. The paper was thematically divided into six sections comprising introduction; conceptual elucidation; theoretical discourse; relationship between electoral reforms, good governance and sustainable development; the need for reforms; conclusion and way forward to descriptively link the critical issues of reforms, which consists, inter alia, of composition of electoral body; campaign finance; independent candidacy; media access and  party system in order to determine if the focus of reform is potent enough to be able to adequately address the challenges of electoral politics in Nigeria. The paper concluded that reform on its own can not lead to good governance and sustainable development; there must be, the paper insisted, commitment and political will on the part of the political elite to play the game according to the rules and that regulations must be able to impinge on individuals’ behaviour and punish offenders. It proffered viable suggestions to conclude the study.

Keywords: Development, Election, Governance, Politics, Violence

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The Role of Arabian and Western Civilizations in the Extinction of African Traditional Religion: 
South Africa, Senegal and Nigeria as Case Studies
Fatai Ayisa Olasupo a
a Department of Local Government Studies, Faculty of Administration, 
Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile- Ife, Osun-State, Nigeria.

Volume 05, Issue 12, Pg. 20-36, 2012.

Abstract:  In the world of competing religions, African Traditional Religion is gradually going extinct. Not because it is lacking in basic tenets of all religions but because of colonialism, imperialism, enslavement and their attendant imposition of ‘civilized’ religions. Though the damage had been done, Africans are awakening to the fact that their indigenous religions are not inferior to the imposed ones and have therefore begun the process of reversing themselves. How they are going bout this is what this paper set out to examine.

Keywords: colonialism, imperialism, civilized, religious

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Impact of Water Conservation on Rural Agricultural Productivity and its Sustainability
N. K. Ambujam a, B. Anuradha b
b Centre for Water Resources, Anna University, Chennai-600025, India.
a Department of Civil Engineering, Madha Engineering College, Chennai-600069, India.

Volume 05, Issue 12, Pg. 36-41, 2012.

Abstract: Agriculture has undergone significant developments since the time of the earliest cultivation. India’s water resources potential and the country’s agricultural economy hinge on the monsoon rains and its spatial and temporal variations. Water resources of a country constitute one of its vital assets which are conserved in tanks (an earthen bund constructed across a shallow valley) during monsoon and the same is used for various purposes in the following dry periods. The pre-eminence of tanks as a source of water storage and supply for multiple uses was lost due to a variety of factors. Realising the importance of tanks, the south Indian states have started rehabilitating the tanks in mid 1980’s under state funds as well as external assistance. The main focus of tank rehabilitation is to maximise the agricultural productivity per unit area, per unit time and per unit of water. In rural village, tank system rejuvenation helps people to develop their source of revenue in an equitable comportment. This is only because of farmers cooperation through active Water Users Association and proper planning of water distribution. In order to prove the above statement a study was carried out in a rural village named ‘Pelasur’ of Thiruvannamalai district in Tamil Nadu, South India. Households of women and men farmers who owned at least one irrigated plot of land under the study tank command area were taken into consideration. From the above mentioned households 20% of the total respondents from both the villages were selected in a stratified sampling method. Stratification with sampling unit i.e. households was felt necessary and the households were divided into different strata i.e. size of the land holding, reach, and well owning status. In order to achieve the proposed objectives, combinations of qualitative and quantitative methods were used to gather information. Data obtained were coded, master tabulated and analysed using SPSS (Statistical Package for Social Science). Though many questions were included in the interview schedule, other qualitative methods such as stakeholders meetings and group discussions with certain categories of non-farm villagers too added important information. Results envisages that after irrigation tank rehabilitation a drastic improvement was experienced by the local farmers in terms of bio-physical characteristics such as cropping pattern, cropping season, crop diversification and ground water status. Hence conserving rainwater through irrigation tanks plays a major role on sustainable agricultural productivity.

Keywords: Agricultural productivity, water conservation, rural development, cropping pattern, tank rehabilitation

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Factors Contributing the Incidence of Child Labour in Small Scale Commercial Establishments: 
a Study in Delhi
Bishnu Mohan Dash a
a Department of Social Work, B.R.Ambedkar College, University of Delhi, Yamuna Vihar, Delhi, India.

Volume 05, Issue 12, Pg. 42-59, 2012.

Abstract: In the India’s national capital, Delhi, a large number of children are engaged in jobs and many of them in hazardous occupations are deprived of basic rights resulting in the denial of childhood, education, recreation, health and social security provisions. Due to rapid industrialization and urbanization there is an unprecedented flow of the poor from villages to Delhi, mostly in search of gainful vocations. Such migrant families often concentrate in slums and squatter dwellings and have to struggle for their existence. So, in order to meet the survival needs, children are put to work. The nature of child labour in urban areas particularly in Delhi is very complex, because most of the child labour is found in unorganized manufacturing and service sector. Of Course there are plethora of laws, involvement of large number of non governmental organizations, but still we are witnessing wide spread prevalence of child labour in the India’s national capital of Delhi and the problem deserves immediate attention.

The study is descriptive in nature. The study is based on interviews with 120 child labourers in the age group of 7 to 14 employed in small scale commercial establishments viz; vegetable markets(subzi mandi) garages, dhaba/tea stalls, and shops.  Beside that, the views of parents and employers were also included in the study.

This paper has been divided into three sections. Section-I describes the factors responsible for the incidence of child labour as reported by the child labourers. In this section, besides children’s’ responses on determinants of child labour, their views on reasons of school drop out, age and education at the time of migration, reasons of migration, aspirations of child labourers, and their awareness about compulsory education and legal provisions were studied as these were important factors responsible for the entry of the children into the labour force. Section-II describes the factors contributing to child labour as reported by their parents. In this section, other important factors, poverty and inadequate income of the parents, illiteracy of the parents and occupation of the parents were studied separately as these variables were responsible for the growth of child labour. Section III describes the responses of employers regarding the reasons for appointing them in their establishments. The study has also forwarded various suggestions for abolishing the problem of child labour.

Keywords: Child labour, Small scale commercial establishments, Determinants, Empowerment

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Freedom of Information Act: A Paradigm Shift in Press Freedom in Nigeria?
Olusegun Oladiran Onakoya a
a Private and Business Law Department Faculty of Law, University of Ibadan, Nigeria.

Volume 05, Issue 12, Pg. 60-70, 2012.

Abstract: Freedom of expression and the press had since 1979 been introduced into the constitution of the Federal Republic of Nigeria particularly under Chapter IV of the constitution captioned ‘Fundamental Rights’.

This right of expression and free press, particularly as provided for in section 39(1) of the constitution of Federal Republic of Nigeria 1999 (as amended) confers on everyone freedom of expression, which includes freedom to hold opinions and to receive and impart ideas and information without interference.

However, inspite of the aforestated constitutional provisions and other similar enactments, access to information, particularly public records by members of the public in general and the press in particular has remained a mirage. 

It is against this backdrop that this paper examines the impact of the Freedom of Information Act, 2011 (which was enacted into law after its prolonged set-back and delays) on press rights of unfettered access to information.

This paper further examines among other things, the extent to which FOI Act 2011 had been implemented, the challenges confronting its applicability as well as the prospects of the Act in the nearest future. Likely means of improving its effective implementation/enforceability are also suggested.

Keywords: Act, Freedom, Information, Paradigm shift, Press.

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Managing the Impact of Operational Risk on the Solvency of Insurance Companies
Festus M Epetimehin a, b
a Joseph Ayo Babalola University, Ikeji –Arakeji, Nigeria.
b Actuarial Science and Insurance, Nigeria.

Volume 05,Issue 12, Pg.70-80, 2012.

Abstract: Insurance companies face many risks, which should be managed.  Though their core competences and main contribution to society is to accept the risks of businesses and individual and to protect their assets and revenues, they have to ensure a minimum financial solvency and the continuity of its operations. Operational risk is increasingly important in the management and corporate governance of insurance companies, which increasingly have greater implications and interactions with other risks, such as market or credit risk. The management and analysis of operational risk is a necessary activity for insurers, presenting many opportunities for development and a major field of study on conceptual and practical issues due to the particularity and complexity implied in this type of risk. Making use of secondary data collected through library research, journals and analysis of reports, the paper reviewed the operational risks of insurance companies and their management for solvency.  The new European regulation Solvency II if adopted will inexorably increase the need of an effective management of operational risks, the development and implementation of structured methodologies for the analysis and quantification of operational risk. 

Keywords: Corporate Governance, Insurance, Operation risk Risk Management, Solvency ll,  

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Prospects and Challenges of Sociological Conception of Law: The Nigerian Experience
Gbade Olomu Akinrinmade
Department of Jurisprudence and International Law, Olabisi Onabanjo University, Ago-Iwoye, Ogun-State ,Nigeria.

Volume 05, Issue 12, Pg. 80-95, 2012.

Abstract: The evolution and application of Law to human activities dates back to time immemorial as revealed by one of man’s earliest books and the various philosophical theories. The role and importance of law in regulating human activities is unquantifiable. Customarily laws are couched and or drafted in words, which ordinarily are not instruments of mathematical precision.  Words by nature are evasive, and slippery consequently a particular word is capable of more than one interpretation.  In view of the evasive and ambiguous nature of words which is the principal medium of expressing law, coupled with human dynamics, it is not possible to draft or have a law or  statute which will be free or devoid of ambiguity and also cater for all situations or circumstances which may arise.

In order to ameliorate these inherent shortcomings of law and also ensure the attainment of justice, the legal system is endowed with various legal philosophies and judicial practices which are veritable tools adopted to meet the end of justice, particularly in the area of law making and judicial interpretations.  Instances abound under common law where an existing principle of law is extended to meet the realities and justice of the case under consideration by the court. 

It is in the light of the above that this paper seeks to examine the prospects and challenges of sociological conception of law in Nigeria. The paper will be divided into four segments. The first segment will briefly summarize some major concepts of law – Natural law, Positivism, American Realism, Historical and Sociological conception of law along with the role of law within the society. 

The second segment will entail an assessment of the application of sociological conception of law to judicial administration and legislative processes in Nigeria, while areas of lapses will be identified along with an x- ray of the challenges confronting the courts. 

The third segment will entail an examination of the practice in other jurisdictions, particularly (Britain, United States and South Africa) as regards the role played by Sociological concepts of law in promoting the end of justice, while the fourth segment will be the concluding part).  

 Keywords: (Jurisprudence, Law, Natural Law, Positivism, Sociological School.

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Knowledge, Attitude and Behaviour Regarding Use of Iodised Salt: An Evaluation of National Iodine Deficiency Disorders Control Programme in India
Pardeep Kumar a, Vijay K. Tiwari b, Rajesh K. Gautam c,
a University of Delhi, Delhi, India.
b National Institute of Health & Family Welfare, New Delhi, India.
c Department of Anthropology, Dr. H.S. Gaur University, Sagar, M.P., India.

Volume 05, Issue 12, Pg. 96-109, 2012.

Abstract: An Evaluation of National Iodine Disorder Deficiency Control Programme (NIDDCP) in India was undertaken by National Institute of Health and Family Welfare on the behest of Ministry of Health and Family Welfare in the year 2005-06 in ten States of the country selected from North, East, South, West and Central Regions. The objective of evaluation was to find out the level of awareness about use of iodised salt by the community. The data was collected using semi-structured interview schedules from households regarding knowledge, attitude and behavior about consumption of salt. Salt samples from 2404 households, both from urban and rural areas, were tested on the spot using MBI kits. It was found that more than 72 per cent respondents were aware about the iodised salt. Regarding ban on sale of uniodised salt, only 10 per cent respondents were aware. Except Giotre, other ill-effects of IDDs were hardly known to the community. Major source of information about this awareness was television. Iodised salt was easily available at a distance of less than a km. It was found that consumption of non-iodised salt was common in salt producing States because small producers were usually selling non-iodised salt in rural areas at cheaper rate as there was no check on transportation of salt through road. In rural areas salt was also being used for cattle consumption, bricks preparation, coconut trees, ice-cream preparation and burial purposes. Though the programme has been successful in ensuring the reach of iodised salt in remote areas but people still found the price of iodised salt unaffordable. The average rate to which people may like to purchase iodised salt was between rupees 2 to 3/- per kg. 

The study came out with suggestions to strengthen the programme at district level and below in terms of awareness generation through IEC, testing of iodine content in urine and salt, monitoring and evaluation, public private partnership initiatives in different components of the programme. 

 Keywords: Deficiency, Disorders, Evaluation, Goitre, Iodised, National, Programme.

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Environmental Impact of the Flying Scenario: An Approach towards Sustainable Air Transportation: 
A Case Study of India
Anuradha Maurya
Department of Geography, University of Delhi, Delhi, India.

Volume 05, Issue 12, Pg. 108-118, 2012.

Abstract:  It is a well acknowledged fact that the air transport at present is the fastest growing and the safest mode of transportation. And with this current trend, it is expected to be further expanding all around the globe. In India, the aviation market has witnessed massive growth making India the ninth largest aviation market in the world. It is expected to grow into the third largest position in the world by 2020. With this increasing growth, development and consolidation of the aviation market, it is inevitable that it will have serious implications for the environment. 

The harmful impacts of aviation on the environment are basically in terms of pollution (air, noise) and also in relation to the land use planning (for infrastructure use, terminals and runways).  All of these ultimately contribute to climate change. Emissions from aviation are growing faster than any other mode of transportation. Also emissions from aviation is considered to be the fastest growing source of anthropogenic green house gases which include both CO2 and non-CO2 induced effects, as the aviation emissions have a greater climatic impact because aviation is the only sector in which bulk of gases are emitted in altitudes between 9 km and 12 km leading to a stronger climatic effect than from the emissions made at ground level. At current rates, with the amount of growth seen in this industry, it is expected that the share of emissions from the aviation sector to total greenhouse gas emissions will increase to about 20 per cent by 2020. 

In India explicitly the first annual report on ‘The Carbon footprints of Indian aviation’ presented by the Directorate General of Civil Aviation (DGCA) shows a 6 per cent increase in Carbon dioxide level in the year 2011. This report is a part of the strategy of developing a sustainable aviation framework for the fast growing Indian aviation sector. According to the report, combined operations from both the Indian domestic and International scheduled operations accounted for about 13 million tonnes of CO2 in 2011, which shows a 6 per cent increase in comparison to 2010. This clearly depicts that although the Indian aviation market is a booming sector for the country’s development, yet it is inevitably posing a lot of environmental challenges to be taken up with emissions getting more than doubled to 27 million by 2020.

The reliability on aviation and the environmental impact are becoming critical issues for the future of flights. Therefore in order to reduce the harmful effects of emissions on our environment, there is an urgent need to develop a sustainable aviation strategy. Environmental impact assessment both at the global as well as local level needs to be addressed while thinking globally and acting locally. Thus global initiatives must match with the local level actions while minimizing disturbance levels from flight tests, optimising energy and environmental performance of production facilities and buildings. In India, a real framework for environmental impact assessment does not exist except for the Aviation Environmental Unit proposed by the DGCA, which too has a limited capacity. ICAO on the other hand has itself failed on a global framework on emission reduction. So, these lapses need to be looked upon and further emission mitigation measures need to be studied, highlighting this area of research for the sustainable development of our environment and further analysing how technology induced crises can be overcome by technology itself. This is the focus of this proposed paper.

Keywords: Aviation, climate change, emission mitigation, environment,  sustainable air transport. 

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Legislating on Land Acquisition in India: A Possible Consensual Model?
Rishika Arora a, Ayush Arora b
a Amity Law School, Delhi (Affiliated to Guru Gobind Singh Indraprastha University, Delhi), India.
b Campus Law Centre, Faculty of Law, University of Delhi, India.

Volume 05, Issue 12, Pg. 120-128, 2012.

Abstract: The term ‘Eminent Domain’, refers to the power the State has to take away an individual’s land for public benefit which has been a highly controversial topic of debate since it’s very conception. Following through Sustainable development, the concept wherein, securing the rights of the present generation while safeguarding the interest of the future generations is the focus of present human development, puts today’s society in a seesaw position. On a comparative analysis the two concepts raise questions as to, in a society already suffering from inequality and huge income disparities, whether crushing the rights of individuals today for benefit of the next generation is just and fair? And if not what are the steps or incentives that the State laws shall incorporate to balance the need of today and tomorrow?

With the increase in capitalisation and expansion of modern day infrastructure, such contrasting concepts are applied by the State under the garb of public betterment. Land serves multitudinous purposes as an asset for future; an investment to dwell on; a place you can call home or a farmer’s livelihood and most importantly a weapon which can be utilised towards the development and progress of any nation. At the very outset there is a need for the State to acquire land, specifically to protect the interest of the people displaced; to that effect the Ministry of Rural Development, Government of India in 2011 introduced the, ‘Draft National Land Acquisition and Rehabilitation & Resettlement Bill, 2011.’ Aiming towards development, better livelihood and safeguarding the ecosystem; the Land Acquisition and Rehabilitation Bill provides transparency in the process of land acquisition and brings about a consensual approach towards Land Acquisition, Rehabilitation and Resettlement.

On one hand land being the major source for development of a nation attracts the economic perspective and infrastructural development, whereas on the other hand in a country like India where nearly 70% of the country’s population lives in rural areas; land is the basic necessity for the survival of any individual; providing him food for sustenance, shelter to live and clothing to cover; being his only source of income and traditional form of employment; brings forth the sociological perspective of this new Bill in focus. The present paper emphasizes on how the Bill caters to the competing need for land and natural resources while touching upon the necessity of maintaining the ecological balance arising out of such land acquisitions and development processes; and highlighting the wide lacunae left in the proposed consensual model. Therefore, the paper balances out the need for equitable and just sustainable development. Furthermore, an attempt is made to establish as to what constitutes ‘Public Purpose’ while vindicating the relation between progress and justifiability. For the sake of brevity, the aim of the paper is to determine how well can the Bill facilitates and adapts to anticipated practical applicability in the Indian setup.

Keywords: Ecological Balance, Eminent Domain, National Land Acquisition and Rehabilitation and Resettlement Bill, Sustainable Development.

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