Volume 05 Issue 01

OIDA International Journal of Sustainable Development
Open access peer-reviewed journal 

Conflict Resolution Strategies among Farmers in Taraba State Nigeria
Bolarinwa Kolade Kamilu a, Oluwakemi Enitan Fapojuwo b , Foloruso Ibrahim Ayanda c
a,b  Department of Agricultural Administration, College of Agricultural Management and Rural Development University of Agriculture Abeokuta, Nigeria.
c Department of Agricultural Extension and Economic, Kwara State University, Molete, Nigeria.

Volume 05, Issue 01, Pg. 12-20, 2012.

Abstract: Agriculturalists and pastoralists tend to differ from each other both regarding principles and practices of land use.  For instance, many disputes often occur around water courses where farmers grow vegetables in dry season and herder’s water cattle there.  If crop damage occurs and it does frequently, conflict occurred when vegetable farmers claim right to grow vegetable around the water courses and the herdsmen should stop destroying their corps.  However, the herders will perceive this act as sabotage, indicating that their cattle need to be watered somewhere.  The conflicts in Taraba State have been over land resources and the settler phenomenon. In the conflict large settlement were burnt and villagers were murdered. The Nigeria government believe in resolving conflicts by using force. The international community has gone beyond the level of brute force.  Conflict resolution cannot be achieved in that way. This brutal method will not only drive violent conflict parties  underground the remaining parties  will  make those vestiges regroup and fight back in a vicious manner, thus escalating the conflict situation in the area. Hence attempt made to resolve these conflicts by governmental and non governmental agencies only calm the conflict but could not provide sustainable resolutions to the conflicts that necessitate this study. Opinion research sampling technique was used to generate sustainable conflict resolutions from farmers. The local government that witnessed violent conflicts were purposively selected. One hundred and twenty eight farmers were randomly selected from the list of farmers kept by extension agents in Taraba State Agricultural Development Programme (TADP) . Data were collected using interview schedule and analysed using frequency counts, percentage, chi-square and regression analyses .Finding revealed that  mean age of farmers was 40.5 and 72.1% had one formal education or the other. Prominent causes of conflict in the area were agitation for farm land and scrambling for political power between the settler and land owner as rated by 72.1% and 62.2% farmers respectively. Concerning level of involvement in the violent conflicts 70.0% of the farmers consented that they were actively involved. Farmers 90.6% and 95.3% rated clear demarcation between grazed land and farmland and farmers should compensate landowners for using their land respectively. There is significant between farmers personal and socio economic characteristics of the farmers and farmers’ level of involvement in the conflict.   Hence, there is need to search  for farmers oriented solutions to conflict in order to make recommended solutions to conflict sustainable in conflict ridden areas. 

Keywords: Conflict, causes of conflict, farmers, land and  resolution strategies 

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Sustainable Sheep Grazing Based on Range Suitability Classes  
H. Arzani a, B. Nourian b, A. Tavili c, S. Alikhani d 
a, c  Department of Reclamation of arid and semi arid regions, College of Natural Resources, 
University of Tehran, Karaj- Iran. 
b, d  Natural Resources Office of Nour, Iran. 

Volume 05, Issue 01, Pg. 22-37, 2012.

Abstract: Rangelands are complex ecosystems with balanced and accurate relationships between its parts. Correct management of these ecosystems needs enough knowledge of various parts to be able to consider their capability for suitable utilizations in each region. Range suitability and its grazing capability are the most important criteria in rangeland analysis and monitoring. Recognizing factors affecting range suitability and diagnosing them is important. All range ecosystem components affect range suitability; however investigating all factors is impossible. So, physical factors and vegetation’s role in the creation of the sub-models including yield, water resources and soil erodiblity were considered. This research has been done in Sorkhabad watershed located in south-west of Pole Sefied city in Mazandaran province. The framework of this research was based on F.A.O (1991) method for land evaluation assessment. For determining the soil erodiblity model the EPM model was used. In terms of range production suitability, proper use factor was determined based on the soil erodiblity class, range condition and range condition trend. Then production suitability was determined based on available forage to animals. Water quality, water quantity and distance of watering points were integrated to create water suitability sub-model. Sub-models of soil erodiblity, forage suitability and water resources formed the final suitability model using GIS. According to the results 23.63% of the rangeland area was classified as high suitable (S1), 33.91% as having moderate suitability (S2), 26.5% as low suitable and 15.98 % as being non suitable (N). Limiting factors of soil suitability was sensitivity of soil to erosion, also limiting factors of low available forage was because of that available forage was affected by soil suitability through small utilization level. There were no serious problems in terms of water resources; only in some areas distance of water resources and high slope (>60 %) caused limitation in water resource accessibility. GIS facilitated integration of information within and between models. Among all land characteristics, slope and erosion were the most important factors in reduction of range suitability for sustainable sheep grazing. Utilization of rangeland based on grazing capacity, range readiness and rehabilitation of degraded areas can improve suitability of rangelands in the region for their sustainable utilization.

Keywords: GIS, Range suitability, Sheep grazing, Sorkhabad catchment, Sustainable utilization

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Proposing Criteria to Locate New Towns according to the Principles of Sustainable Development
 (Case Studies: Hashtgerd, Andishe and Parand New Towns in Iran)
Hamid Majedi a, Farah Habib b, Hosein Zabihi c, Mansoureh Kianersi d, Fereshte Ahmadi e
a ,b,c,e Department of Art and Architecture ,Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University ,Tehran , Iran.
d Department of Art and Architecture and urbanism, Islamic Azad University, Najafabad Branch, Esfahan, Iran.

Volume 05, Issue 01, Pg. 34-42, 2012.

Abstract: The new towns are planned settlements that were created in response to predetermined goals. Concepts to build new towns in the world, have formed generally science the beginning of the twentieth century, after the Industrial Revolution and the increasing problems of megacities, in order to solve the population and economic problems of them. After years of new towns creation and their performance analysis, can be mentioned several factors in their success or failure function which One of the most important of them is the establishment of new town on the appropriate location. Locating the place is regarded as the first factor to along with formation of new towns goals and it will affect survival and existence of city. So, what criteria to locate and where to found new towns are main issues in urban planning. Among the after issues the principles of sustainable urban development as the most current theoretical basis to locate places correctly and to ensure the survival of these cities are taken in to consideration.

Therefore this article seeks to answer the following questions: (a) what are the criteria for locating of new towns according to the principles of sustainable development? (b) How will be the Principles of sustainable development affect the locating in new towns? (c) To what extent will considering the locating criteria of the new towns based on principles of sustainable development affect the success or failure of the performance of new towns?

The main objectives of this research are: (a) Achieving Criteria to locate new towns considering the principles of sustainable urban development by assessment relevant documents and the extraction process of locating and its analysis according to the sustainable locating criteria. (b) Prioritizing criteria to new towns locating according to the principles of sustainable urban development. (c) Comparative assessment of the principles of sustainable development criteria to locate new towns, case study of sample cities: Adishe , Hashtgerd and Parand Iranian new towns in the west and southwest of Tehran, and analysis rate of  the functional success or weakness of  these towns, according to these criteria.

In order to achieve these goals, through a descriptive-analytic approach, locating principles and criteria of new towns according to sustainable locating, criteria are analyzed and their location among principles of sustainable development is determined. Then, by comparative analysis method case samples of the study are assessed and compared based on extracted criteria. Therefore, the impact of following or not-following these criteria  will be determined in success or failure of these new towns.

Documentary, library and field studies are collection data methods for in this research. Theoretical principles and basic concepts are described along with the analysis in the study.

Criteria for locating of new towns according to the principles of sustainable development   are classifiable in three main categories: environmental criteria, economic criteria and human- social criteria.

The parameters of environmental standards include: natural ability of land (measuring floods and seismicity), quantity and quality of groundwater and surface water, allowing the exploitation of water resources, access to fuel and energy, ecological sensitive area , ​​power transmission networks, communication network and facilities, security, urban identity, sense of place, space capacity, functionality and ecological environment.

The parameters of economic standards include: economic infrastructure – job creation, capacity of production activities, capacity of factors providing livelihoods, capacity of making economic stability.

The parameters of social-humanistic standards include: the capacity of utilization of public participation, the capacity of being populated, the rate of migration, social structure and availability of health and welfare services.

The result of the present Research indicate that when sustainable development in the phase of locating new towns is considered as the base , it will have significant and profound effects on the functional health of new towns and will decrease the risk of functional failure and also unstable environmental and settlement. Through comparative Comparison of case studies based on the above parameters, the city Hashtgerd is the leading position, followed by the city Andishe. The new city Parand is in the third acceptable level  due to not considering any of the indicators. 

Keywords: New Towns, Locating New Towns, Sustainable Development, Stability Criteria

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Some Tips of Sustainable Evidence Conforming to Traditional Iranian Architecture
 (Wind Tower, Watering Place)
Mansoureh Kianersi a , Fereshte Ahmadi b
a ,b Architecture Group , Art and Architecture and Urbanism Collage, 
Islamic Azad University, Najafabad Branch, Esfahan, Iran.

Volume 05, Issue 01, Pg. 42-47, 2012.

Abstract: Traditional tips in architecture and urban planning have unique features which not only take into consideration the aesthetic aspect and the conservation of the environment but also have full filled the climatic needs in any regions. Sustainability in architecture has been considered one of the important issues in recent decade and has always been hand in hand with energy, ecology and climate. A sub branch of sustainable architecture is the architecture which is climate friendly in which energy management is considerably important. Considering the issue of irreversibility of energy resources which is one of the concerns of us for the future. Natured energies can be used as a solution. The traditional and local architecture in Iran through different ways has had the ability the manage energy through intelligent use of natural energies. The present research aims to find answers for the following questions: (a) What considerations have been thought of in traditional architecture to make use of natural renewable sources of energy in hot and dry climates? (b) What has been the role of wind tower in the management and use of natural energy from wind in the local and traditional architecture in Iran and its application in the architecture of watering place? (c) What can be the role of traditional wind tower in contemporary situation?

Traditional Iranian architecture has been able to respond to ecological and energy efficiency issues due to its low primary price as well as its current price and performance. In traditional and local constructions, the use of renewable sources of energy such as air stream, light, sun, wind and etc. has always been paid attention to. To this aim, some strategies have been used including compact and continuous urban fabric, proper orientation of the city, being position a suitable wind direction, using appropriate construction materials, building walls with high thermal capacity, central yard, proper organization and hierarchy of space, being down from alley level etc. in order to provide cooling, and heating comfort needed for humans.

Wind towers are towers leading fresher, cooler, less dusty air in the highlands into the residential building or public watering place. Wind tower constructions have used thermodynamic, aerodynamic, heat transfer and thermal comfort parameters in designing wind tower. Also becomes of the effects of arid and semi-arid climate, water collecting places are created. These places were first made of holes that water was collected which evolved by civilization progress. In the process of water collecting places evolution, the ponds were covered and these covered were called water collecting places watering place. The brilliant combination of wind tower and watering places, the number of which has changed from one to six, is an outstanding example of stability. In other words the wind tower in residential parts in combination with ponds functional likes water coolers suitable for hot and dry climate. It functional as ventilator in watering place, as well strategies used in traditional architecture have been in diverse scales in house, locality and city. 

The research is the result of observation and library studies which describes the function of wind tower, alone and in combination with watering place. Through an objective analytical study, it tries to find out hidden angles of these elements in sustainable architecture and its relation with energy consumption and adaptability with climate ecological issues. Considering this fact that traditional architecture has a strong background in different aspects, the investigation of these characteristics in order to have the highest efficiency while having the least damage to the environment can serve planning, designing and providing the environment in today’s life.

Keywords: Sustainability, Sustainable Architecture, wind tower, watering place

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Towards Sustainable Development in Upper Egypt
(Case Study: City of Assiut)
Amr Zaghloul Taha Elfeky a, Nadia Saber El-Baghdady b, Mohamed Assem Hanafy c
a,b,c Department of Architecture, Faculty of Engineering, Alexandria University, Egypt.

Volume 05, Issue 01, Pg. 48-62, 2012.

Abstract: Egyptian cities began in the last decades to experience growth and development in order to enhance the comprehensive and integrated its components of urban areas. The aim of the paper is to focuses on the research study , analysis of the development process , the problems and obstacles that have appeared and monitor urban image that have taken place in the form of the city, evaluation of the development process to draw strong factors and its repercussions – if any – to take advantage of the concepts, methods, stages of this experiment and the extent of their applicability to the Egyptian cities of similar, and perhaps the closest resemblance to the cities of Upper Egypt neighbors. the study aims to analyze the frameworks applied to the development process and the constraints experienced by this experience. The paper ends with results and recommendations to draw methodology that can benefit the upgrading of other nearby similar Egyptian cities.  

Keywords: Assiut city, Egypt, Sustainable Development, Urban areas

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Epistemology Beliefs about Mathematical Problem Solving among Malaysian Students
Nabeel Abedalaziz a, Sharifah Norul Akmar b
a Faculty of Education, Department of Educational Psychology and Counseling,
University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.
b Faculty of Education, Department of Mathematics and Science Education,
University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.

Volume 05, Issue 01, Pg. 60-76, 2012.

Abstract: The aim of this study is to investigate  student’s epistemological beliefs about mathematical problem solving.  Specifically, the present study sought answers to the following questions: What is the overall profile of student’s epistemological beliefs about mathematical problem solving? Do student’s epistemological beliefs about mathematical problem solving differ in terms of gender variable? Do student’s epistemological beliefs about mathematical problem solving differ in terms of grade level variable? Do student’s epistemological beliefs about mathematical problem solving differ in terms of mathematical ability variable? A total of 120 secondary (form 1, form 3, and form 5) schools students were participated in this study. A  Likert Scale compressed 36 items was validated and applied to answer the research questions. Results revealed that: (1) Malaysian students had moderate levels of epistemological beliefs about mathematical problem solving; (2) there were no significant differences among Malaysian students’ in their beliefs about problem solving due to gender, academic level, mathematical ability, and race.

Keywords: Epistemological beliefs, Problem solving, Mathematical ability.

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Social Development and Medical Education: A Gender-Based Policy Making in Iran
Azam Ghavidel a , Fereshteh Nadriabianeh b , Susan Amiri Farsi c, Mehdi Damaliamiri d
a Literature And Humanities,Islamic Azad University,Hamedan Branch,Iran
b Humanities Department, Bu-Ali Sina University, Iran.
c Humanities, Islamic Azad University,Iran.
d Humanities, Bu-Ali Sina University, Hamedan, Iran.

Volume 05, Issue 01, Pg. 76-81, 2012.

Abstract: Confronted with the critical demands of human resource development in Iran after 1978,the authorities of medical education under the prohibitions or reinforcements of religion and ideology decided to implement a gender-based medical approach both in education and practice. Due to the regulations established in this field, there were chosen some female physicians to become specialists in each medical branch so that the women could refer to women specialists without any concern about opposite sex contact and touch imposed by religious perceptions. The referral system, defined as equal accessibility for women to female physicians, was based on separating sexes in medical institutes and health centers. In practice, some correlated difficulties appeared which lowered the confidence level for people. The first, lack of accessibility to female physicians in remote villages forced people to use by-pass directions to get medical treatment. Second, gender-based skills in medicine believed to be in favor of men, were platforms for women to choose the opposite sex physicians .The last but not the least, ignorance of abilities in finding higher positions could be a dual misstep in which competent men were deprived of access to specialty and low-competent women could be selected for the education they could not use in future. The continuous change in policy making to select competent candidates to bridge the gap in gender-based  treatment took its poll on sustainability and social development in all aspects of life especially in rural areas. This paper analuses the negative attitudes brought about in gender-based medical education in Iran.

Keywords: Education, Female, Social development, Treatment, Urbanism

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Attitudes towards Internet-Based Distance Education among Academic Staff of Malaysian Universities
Nabeel Abedalaziz a , Hasan Muaidi b
a Faculty of Education, Department of Educational Psychology and Counseling,
University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.
b Faculty of Science & Information Technology, Information Technology Department, 
AlBalqa’ Applied University, Jordan

Volume 05, Issue 01,Pg. 82-91, 2012.

Abstract: The purpose of this study is to examine the academic staff of local universities’ attitudes toward internet-based distance education. A survey was distributed to 61 academic university staff in 3 public universities (University of Malaya, International Islamic University Malaysia and Sultan Idris Education University. The questionnaire used is called ‘Attitudes Toward Internet-Based Distance Education’. The study yielded several findings. First, the level of attitudes towards internet-based distance education among academic staff of local universities which is at the moderate level (mean=66.7). Second, there is no significant difference in attitudes toward internet-based distance based learning on gender, university of employment, academic rank and years of experience. Third, Pearson Correlation test result shows that there is a significant relationship between attitudes toward internet-based distance education and computer and internet access (r=.368, ρ=0.04), institutional support (r=.519, ρ=0.00), computer and internet skills (r=.325, ρ=0.01) and perceived values (r=.750, ρ=0.00). Finally, only institutional support and perceived value have a significant impact on attitudes toward internet-based distance education. 

Keywords: Attitudes, distance education, computer and internet access, institutional support, institutional support, perceived values, computer and internet skills

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Generation Gap in Knowledge and Skill: Modern Anti-Socialism
Majid Mokhtaridoust a, Azam Ghavidel b , Susan Amiri Farsi c, Mehdi Damaliamiri d
a, d Humanities College, Bu-Ali Sina University, Hamedan, Iran.
b,c  Humanities, Islamic Azad University, Iran.

Volume 05, Issue 01, Pg. 92-96, 2012.

Abstract: To become parallel with the progress and advancement in the western world, the educational authorities in Iran decided to modify the educational curriculum in two different aspects. The first aspect was to enter ethical teachings in text books so that the students become familiar with Islamic doctrine and the second was to update the scientific content of the text books to make the students familiar with the modern science of the world. In the first dimension, as the students became familiar with ethical foundations theoretically, they could not use them in practice and the conflict of theoretical ethics taught in schools with the realities of society caused the students be far and far from what the books taught. On the second dimension, the continuous modifications of textbook content based on trial and error created an atmosphere in which the students with one academic year difference had to learn different materials especially in basic courses of physics and mathematics. The students entering the universities in sequential years could not match their knowledge with each other. Above all, the difference of ethical teachings confronted the students with a paradox in behavior and skills. In one textbook, the students were advised to spend most of their time alone to think about the creator of universe and then one year later they were recommended to associate their life more and more with others. Educating skills to students based on ethics differed from year to year varying in different levels and status. This paper discusses the outcomes of these modifications in textbooks and the students` involvement in these changes to clarify the direction of social development and human resources.

Keywords: Curriculum, education, ethics, development

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Sustaining The Right To Privacy In E- Commerce Environment: The Legal Approach
Duryana binti Mohamed a
a Department of Legal Practice, Ahmad Ibrahim Kuliyyah of Laws, 
International Islamic University Malaysia(IIUM), Jalan Gombak, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. 

Volume 05, Issue 01, Pg. 97-106, 2012.

Abstract: The right to privacy is a fundamental human right as declared in Article 12 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights and Article 17 of the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights. Some countries recognise this right as constitutional right of individuals. The importance of this right is also underlined with the enactment of legislation by most countries.  In Malaysia, the privacy protection is available under the Personal Data Protection Act passed in 2010. This Act seeks to regulate the processing of personal data of individuals involved in commercial transactions by data users so as to provide protection to the individual’s personal data, thereby safeguarding the interests of such individual. Since this privacy right is important in e-commerce, this paper will examine the extent of privacy protection available under the existing law and whether such law and other relevant laws provide adequate protection to the personal data when dealing with online transaction. The aim of this paper is to establish justice to the online consumers and to provide information that their right is protected under the law.

Keywords: E-Commerce, Personal Data, Privacy Right, the Laws

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