Volume 10 Issue 09

OIDA International Journal of Sustainable Development
Open access peer-reviewed journal 

Post-Harvest Preservation of Mango Using Tray and Freeze Drying Methods
Oladimeji Adetona, Adeyeye a, Emmanuel Rotimi Sadiku b, Periyar Selvam c 
Anand Babu Perumal d, Reshma B.Nambiar e.
a, b Tshwane University of Technology, South Africa
.c,d,e SRM University, India.

Volume 10, Issue 09, Pg. 11-21, 2017.

Abstract :  Mango is a tropical fruit, which is often labelled as ‘super-fruit’ because of its unquantifiable benefits to human beings. Mango trees may live for more than 100 years and can grow up to 40 m high and are topped with a rounded canopy of foliage. There are hundreds of mango cultivars that are distributed throughout the world, of which Asia and in particular, India have over 500 and perhaps even 1000 cultivars. The mango fruit is a large, fleshy drupe, containing an edible mesocarp of varying thicknesses. 

However, despite its great importance, mango is a seasonal fruit and only very few off-seasonal species are available in the market for consumption. Therefore, in order to overcome the seasonal variation and to increase the shelf-life of mango fruits, different drying methods are considered.

In this study, freeze drying and tray drying methods were used to preserve two different cultivars of mango from South Africa. Moisture content, total soluble solid, ascorbic acid, total phenol content (TPC), antioxidant activity (DPPH) and organoleptic tests were carried out on the samples before and after drying. The effects of different edible preservatives and selected packaging materials used were analyzed on each sample. The results showed that freeze drying method is the better method of preserving the selected cultivars.

 Keywords: antioxidant, cultivar, mangos, Postharvest, total phenol content

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Synthesis and analysis of environment friendly gelatin grafted biodegradable polymer 
Ayesha Mohyuddin a , Wajad Ulfat b , Sohail Nadeem c , Muhammad Amjad d
a, b, c, d Department of Chemistry, University of Management and Technology, C-II, Johar Town, Lahore, Pakistan. 
a Corresponding author: ayesha.mohyuddin@umt.edu.pk 

Volume 10, Issue 09, Pg. 21-28, 2017.

Abstract: Polymers are extensively used in human life with a serious problem of disposal. The non-biodegradable polymers cause severe environmental concerns therefore synthesis of biodegradable green polymer was targeted in this study. Gelatin based grafted copolymer was synthesized with vinyl acetate and acrylonitrile monomers by the use of free radical polymerization technique with potassium per sulfate as initiator. The polymer was characterized by the use of Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR), Thermo Gravimetric Analysis and Differential Scanning Calorimetry (TGA-DSC). FTIR proved the grafting of monomers on the backbone of the gelatin. TGA-DSC analyzed the degradation and melting of the copolymer and nanocomposite polymer. The nanocomposite biopolymer was prepared with the incorporation of suitable quantity of Nickel doped nanoparticles. Soil burial method was used for the study of biodegradation of this polymer for 60 days. The degradation study of the two prepared samples W-1 (copolymer) and W-2 (nanocomposite biopolymer) showed degradation percentage of 29.9% and 11.05% respectively. Initially, weight of the W-1 increased due to the absorption of moisture from the soil but after 20 days the weight of polymer decreased constantly due to degradation. The W-2 sample showed resistance against the biodegradation with slower degradation rate and was also less moisture absorber. Results depicted that the blended nanoparticles imparted resistance against the fungi and bacteria, therefore these nanocomposite biopolymers are more suitable for biodegradable packing. 

Keywords: Biodegradable polymer; Gelatin; Graft polymerization; Nanocomposite; TGA-DSC. 

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Reflection on Developmental Risk Defence 
Under Product Liability Law
Akinrinmade Olomu Gbade
Department of International Law and Jurisprudence, 
Olabisi Onabanjo University, Ago Iwoye, Ogun State, Nigeria.

Volume 10, Issue 09, Pg. 29-38, 2017.

Abstract: Product manufacturers are held culpable for defects associated with their product. However in order to promote product innovation particularly in the area of biotech, pharmaceutical and other related area of human endeavour which impact positively on human safety and sustainability of the environment; the European Economic Community in 1985 promulgated Directive 85/374 EEC  which introduced strict liability principle as an additional theoretical principle of liability in resolving product liability claim; introduced the developmental risk defence  (known as state of the art defence in other jurisdictions). The adoption of this defence was made optional for member states. Since the philosophy behind the adoption of strict liability is to enhance human safety and promote sustainable development, the introduction of developmental risk defence to some extent diminished this gain; because where the defence is sustainable the product manufacturer is absolved of liability where the defect which occasioned harm is unknown and undetectable at the time the product was manufactured. It is likely that these type of risks would have become more or less uninsurable under the strict liability regime introduced by the Directive; thus having the negative effect of slowing down product innovation and such scenario slow down human development. From the consumer’s point of view, the defence is seen as a disappointment; while to the manufacturer it is a catalyst to enhance human development. In view of the above contending views, this papers sets out to examine the implication of this defence in product development.

Keywords: Developmental Risk Defence, Law, Product Liability, Sustainable Development.

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Design and Evaluation of a Control Water Treatment Quality System Based on Chemical Addition Process
Magdi Osman Ali a, Muawia Mohamed Ahmed b, Mohamed Abaker Hussian c
a,,c King Khalid University, KSA.
b Al-Neelain University, Sudan.

Volume 10, Issue 09, Pg. 39-46, 2017.

Abstract: Most of countries have been suffering from the problem of water quality requirements. Automation control plays an essential role in water treatment plant that secures the necessary qualities and quantities of water with high level of efficiency. This paper presents the real-time control systems that measure the water parameters, then accordingly adjusting the addition of chemical materials used in water treatment. Sensors devices readings are used as inputs to the microcontrollers and PLC. An algorithm was designed to calculate the required doses from purification and disinfection chemical materials. The control system has been successfully simulated; therefore the obtained results prove the reliability and applicability of the system with more advantages at similar areas.  . 

Keywords: Water treatment, Real-time application, Chemicals addition, Sensors, PLCs.

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