OIDA International Journal of Sustainable Development
Open access peer-reviewed journal
Model of extensive cattle grazing for sustainable use in rangelands
Hossein Arzani a, Mehdi Beiniaz b, and Esmaeil Alizadeh c
a College of Natural Resources, University of Tehran, Iran
b Department of Rangeland and Watershed Management, Hormozgan University, Iran
c College of Natural Resources, University of Tehran, Iran
Volume 10. Issue 07, Pg. 11-14, 2017.
Abstract: To design a model for sustainable utilization of rangeland suitability to cattle grazing, based on geographic information system (GIS) was considered. The framework of the study was based on FAO method for land evaluation (1991). The most important and feasible factors affect in rangeland suitability for grazing was investigated. From which three sub models including water accessibility, forage production and soil erosion sensitivity were developed. Suitable areas in four levels of (high suitable (S1), moderately suitable (S2), marginally suitable (S3), and not suitable (N)) were calculated in Sorkh-abad watershed. In general, slope and sensitivity of soil to erosion, were major limitation of range suitability in this region. Also, it was pointed out that none of the vegetation factors, was limiting factor, but some areas were recognized as S3 class due to the effect of erodible class as limiting factor and reduced production suitability class. High slope was caused reduction of suitability for cattle grazing due to difficulty of accessibility to watering points. Also, the results shows that 34.94% of rangeland is classified as moderate suitability (S2) and 6% and 59.60% are arranged as low suitability (S3) and non-suitable (N).
Keywords: range suitability, land-use, extensive grazing, sustainable, land evaluation.
Perspectives on Strikes, Collective Bargaining and The Quest for Industrial Peace in Nigeria
Department of Public Law, Faculty of Law, Olabisi Onabanjo University,
Ago Iwoye, Ogun State, Nigeria.
Volume 10, Issue 07, Pg. 15-20, 2017.
Abstract: Hardly is there a day in Nigeria when there are no news on the pages of newspapers that a labour union or the other is giving ultimatum to the government of its intention to embark on strikes. In fact, strikes have become so rampant in Nigeria that even our courts will be prepared to take judicial notice of them. The strike embarked upon by (ASUU) Academic Staff Union of Nigerian Universities some time ago, spanning almost six (6) months is a pointer to this fact. Some health workers are also currently on strike and this has affected the operations of most public health institutions in the country. The above observation therefore underscores the urgent consideration of collective agreements as a conflict resolution mechanism in labour matters. This paper therefore considers the issue of collective agreements and contracts of employment under the Nigerian law and the urgent need for reforms. Efforts are made to discuss the legal status of collective agreements and the impact of statutes on collective agreements. The issue of the controversies surrounding the enforceability of collective agreements and the general attitude of the courts are also considered in this work. The article concludes that, if industrial peace and harmony is to be achieved, employers, including the government and all the stakeholders should take collective bargaining and its implementation very seriously. Necessary suggestions and recommendation are also made in this work.
Keywords: Strikes, Collective Bargaining, Collective Agreements, Industrial Peace, Contract of Employment.
Improving construction clients’ satisfaction level in Johannesburg, South Africa
Chike Eke a, Clinton Aigbavboa b , Wellington Thwala c
a,b,c Department of Construction Management & Quantity Surveying, Faculty of Engineering and the Built Environment, University of Johannesburg, Doornfontein Campus, Johannesburg, South Africa.
Volume 10, Issue 07, Pg. 21-32, 2017.
Abstract: This study present the findings from a client satisfaction survey of private and public sector construction clients in Johannesburg, South Africa. The study was done in the city of Johannesburg, Gauteng Province. The aim of the study is to identify possible strategies that could be implemented for improving client satisfaction levels in the South African construction industry. A quantitative research method was adopted in this study. The data used for the study was derived from both primary and secondary sources. The primary data for the study was collected through a well-structured questionnaire survey while the secondary data was derived from the reviewed literature. Out of the 65 questionnaires sent out, 56 were received back which represent 86% response rate. Findings from the study revealed that most clients strongly agree that making use a competent professional team when executing projects could result in better satisfaction levels, reducing contractual and variation claims.
Keywords: Satisfaction, construction, expectations, return on investment
Water-Energy Nexus Challenges & Opportunities in the United Arab Emirates under Climate Change
Department of Geography and Urban Planning, College of Humanities and Social Sciences
United Arab Emirates University, Al-Ain, UAE.
Volume 10, Issue 07, Pg. 23-26, 2017.
Abstract: The “Water-Energy Nexus” is a concept that identifies the numerous interconnected aspects between water and energy and considers these in planning and policymaking. The use of water covers all stages of the fuel cycle, from extraction of energy resources such as oil and natural
gas, to energy production and electricity generation. Energy is needed for extraction, conveying, purification, and transfer of the water to different forms of consumers in the economy. In addition, the water is used in the treatment of industrial and municipal wastewater. Major development initiatives, fluctuating demographics and more dependency on desalination have currently attracted attention to the links between water and energy use, and the fuels and infrastructure incorporated in their production.
The use of a water-energy nexus method is a highly relevant and specific planning framework for countries in the Gulf region. The framework of the “water-energy nexus” perceives water as a portion of a combined water and energy system, rather than as an independent resource. Until recently, energy and water have been viewed as isolated planning challenges separate from each other. Any connections between water and energy have usually been considered on a case-by-case basis. In the UAE, the management of water resources has been noted as an emerging challenge of high significance to sustainable development in the long-term. At the national scale, domestic, agricultural, and industrial usage of water have grown at yearly rates approximately steady with the population growth rate, hinting that little conservation or efficiency improvement is taking place. However, the UAE depends on desalinated water to keep up with the increasing share of water supply. The amount of energy required for desalination is an order of magnitude higher than the energy needed for either pumping of groundwater or moving water from surface rivers or reservoirs. Thus, energy and water are connected to significantly higher extent in the UAE compared to other countries where the climatic conditions aid in higher annual rainfall and water resources are more abundant. Looking into the future, individual municipalities are projected to grow the capacity of their desalination plants to meet the needs of the increasing population and development in the economy, hinting that dependency on the desalination process is equally an energy and water challenge.
In a situation where there is scarcity of water, supply of fossil fuel-derived energy is abundant, demands for both are high, and issues surrounding climate change are increasing, coupled with the continuous growth in population, links between water and energy can potentially reveal opportunities for enhancements in efficiency or tradeoffs of mutual benefit. Despite the analysis within this paper examining both a demand oriented scenario (High Efficiency) and a supply oriented scenario (Natural Resource Protection), the findings of the analysis firmly propose that the region, specifically the UAE will need to employ demand and supply side policies in a simultaneous manner to accomplish increased sustainable uses of energy and water over the course of the next half century (the Integrated Policy scenario).
Keywords: climate change, water security, energy, nexus, development, UAE.