Volume 09 Issue 06

OIDA International Journal of Sustainable Development
Open access peer-reviewed journal 

The Impact of Customary Law on Children’s Rights in Botswana
Nqobizwe Mvelo Ngema
Department of Public Law, University of Zululand, South Africa

Volume 09, Issue 06, Pg. 11-20, 2016.

Abstract: Botswana has a dual legal system, one based on customary law and the other on the received law.  This appears clearly from the Constitution that ring-fenced customary law from any constitutional scrutiny. A customary practice may continue even if it discriminates against women and children. As a result of this, numerous human rights of children are infringed. Firstly, if parents are married under customary law and separated, the custody is granted to the father and the mother merely having the right to visit. Secondly, female children are not entitled to inherit property. Thirdly, there is no age for marriage under customary law and even a child at the age of 10 years can get married. Lastly, marital power of a husband still continues under customary law and therefore females are still treated as perpetual minors. The latter infringement of rights is not in the best interests of children and conflicts with Botswana’s international obligations. Botswana is a signatory of various international and regional human rights instruments and it is suggested that it has to accelerate the incorporation of human rights instruments into domestic law in order to safeguard the best interest of children.

Keywords: custody, marital power, best interests of a child

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The Reasons of Discontinuing the Use of Contraceptive Methods
Ajita Mitra
Department of Population Sciences, University of Dhaka, Dhaka, Bangladesh.

Volume 09, Issue 06, Pg. 21-24, 2016.

Abstract: The family planning programs of Bangladesh has been considered to be an example of a successful program with a setting without a high level of socio-economic development. However, Contraception is the most important determinant contributing largely to fertility decline and some other related issues. Therefore, contraceptive prevalence has been used as an indicator to evaluate the implementation of family planning programs in the country.  In the early stage of an implementation of the program, its focus was to motivate couples to adopt contraception, which is a proximate determinant of fertility control, to increase the contraceptive prevalence rate (CPR). The impact of contraceptive use on fertility depends upon its continuity, knowledge of contraception, client’s experience, and perception and attitudes towards contraception. The reverse relationship of CPR and TFR (Total Fertility Rate) is well established in the literature and to uphold the further decline of TFR, a key concern for family planning programs is the rate at which users discontinue use of contraception and the reasons for such discontinuation. Since contraceptive use has increased, contraceptive discontinuation has become a major concern for the professionals involved to the field of population management to make it sustainable. Apparently, there is a lot of study on the prevalence rate of contraceptive among couples, but not sufficient knowledge about the reasons why couples do not use contraceptives even if they are motivated to limit family size, why couple switches the method used, and why they give up the contraceptives after using some days or a period. This implies that the study of discontinuation of contraceptive use, along with the associated factors for such discontinuation, becomes important that would have further implications for continuing the success of family planning programs in Bangladesh. The study investigates the reasons for married women not continuing specific method of contraceptives in Sylhet division of Bangladesh. They study was conducted in 2007. The findings suggest that the reason for discontinuation of contraceptive use were several side effects like heavy bleeding, spotting, anemia, weakness, irregular menstruation, burning sensation, and blood clot in the abdomen. The study recommends further emphasis on quality of care, as well as providing supplementary vitamins to the vulnerable groups to overcome the effects of malnutrition. It is also found that, discontinuation is highest for the method pill and the dominant reasons for this are side effects. The other reasons for the discontinuation of contraceptives are method related problems, method failure, infrequent sex, discomfort and some perceived negativity of methods. 

Keywords: Contraceptive, CPR, Discontinuation, Family planning, TFR

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The Corporate Social Responsibility as a Means for Transforming Rural Community
Zulnaidi Yaacob a,  Nazarudin Zainun b
a School of Distance Education, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Malaysia.
 b School of Humanities, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Malaysia.

Volume 09, Issue 06, Pg. 25-37, 2016.

Abstract: This paper presents a case study of a Corporate Social Responsibility Program, managed by a big corporate firm in Malaysia. The program involved a rural community from Northern Malaysia and the focus of the program is to transform the socio economic status of village folks through education. The data of this study was collected through questionnaires and interviews. The respondents for the questionnaires were village folks, while the interviewees were key persons involved in administering and managing the program. One of the major challenges of village folks from the area understudied was the low academic performance among their children. However, the findings indicated that the academic performance of the students from the village had tremendously improved since the implementation of the CSR program. The successful factors of the program were identified based on the feedbacks given by the respondents. The implications of the study were also discussed. 

Keywords: Corporate Social Responsibility, Malaysia, rural, socio economic

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 Sustainable Development and Thresholds of Education: Education for Sustainable Development
Valmiki Rama Krishna a, Rudrappa Shashidhar b, Devraj Smitha c
a Department of Studies and Research in Political Science, Tumkur University, Tumkur, India.
b Department of Studies & Research in Business Administration, Tumkur University, Tumkur, India.
cDepartment of Political Science, Sri Basaveswara P U College, Sondekoppa Road, Nelamangala,
 Bangalore Rural District, India.

Volume 09, Issue 06, Pg. 38-42, 2016.

Abstract: Education for all has always been an integral part of the sustainable development agenda.  Education for Sustainable Development (ESD) takes a holistic and realistic approach to learning by linking ecological, social and economic aspects of our daily lives.  Thus ESD develops students’ knowledge of environmental challenges and their abilities to promote sustainable development by fostering holistic, critical and independent thinking, the ability to formulate and solve problems and the ability to participate in democratic systems and to take responsibility for the well-being of our planet will be discussed in this paper.  ESD can be implemented in educational practice which reveals a more competent child who can think and make well considered decisions.  Further the paper also tries to highlight the issues of environmental changes and the principle of sustainability through education.  The sustainable education for all require a new educational trend which is responsible accountable and expertise in both systemic and educational change for sustainable development.  Finally the paper will observe the ways of education for sustainable development with literature review which motivates the principle of sustainability to their everyday activities and decisions.

 Keywords: Curriculum, Education, Environment, Society, Sustainability, Decisions

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