Volume 09 Issue 01

OIDA International Journal of Sustainable Development
Open access peer-reviewed journal 

Food Security in India: Problems and Prospects
Shaleen Jain
Hidayatullah National Law University, Raipur, India.

Volume 09, Issue 01, Pg. 11-20, 2016.

Abstract: The concept of Food Security is multi-dimensional.  Food security exists when all when all people at all times have physical and economic access to sufficient and nutritious food that meets their dietary needs and food preference for an active and healthy life.  Ensuring food and nutrition security is a challenge for India given its huge population and high level of poverty and malnutrition.

This paper examines performance, issues, challenges and policies in food security in terms of availability, accessibility and affordability. In particular the paper addresses the following questions:

(1) What is the advancement in supply side of food as far as accessibility at national level?

(2)  What are the policies that India is following as has followed in achieving food security?

(3) What ought to be done to acknowledge food security for all citizens of India?

This study adopted descriptive methodology to demonstrate the term food security and its scenario in India. It relied on upon auxiliary information from books, references, and in writing in subject to analyzing the data submitted by FCI and Food Security Portal and Food and agriculture Organization. The present paper attempts to analyze some issues related to food security in India and suggest some ways to achieve food and nutritional security in India for overall growth of an individual and sound and sustainable development of Indian economy.

Food is considered among basic amenities essential for the sustenance and growth of an individual. It has three dimensions (a) food availability- total food production including imports and buffer stocks maintained in government granaries like FCI. (b) Food accessibility- food should be made available or should be in reach of each and every person (c) food affordability- an individual should have enough amount of money to purchase proper, safe, healthy and nutritious food to meet his dietary needs. In the recently released Global Hunger Index, 2014 India ranked 55th out of 120 countries and this report is quite disturbing since India is one of the largest producers of food grains in the world. Still India lacks in fulfilling the basic amenities of its people. India is home of 25 per cent of hungry population. It has been well established that India has become self-sufficient in food availability. Hence India can take pride in being able to fulfill the present demand with indigenous production. But the fact is that there are millions of people below poverty line who are unable to get square meals per day and according to recent data approximately 320 million people in India go to bed without food and the data is very alarming and situation is going even worse. The crux of India’s food problem pertains not so much on increasing food availability but with the distribution of food. There are various challenges which India faces in attaining food security. Natural calamities like excessive rain fall, accessibility of water for irrigation purpose, drought, soil erosion, undulating topography and various soil types such as degraded soil, infertile soil, acidic & alkaline soil, non-improvement in agriculture facilities, growth in population, lack of education and job opportunities have further added to the problems. Another challenge which India faces in attaining food security is dependence on monsoon as well as labor on daily wages basis which tends to be variable on different times thus food procurement and access is fluctuating. The income of the family governs the access to food affordability and inflation acts as fuel in fire. PDS (Public Distribution is not satisfactorily functioning hampering distribution of food at low prices. 

Thus there is a need to shift from the current inefficient, expensive, perennial and corruption ridden institutional arrangements to those that will guarantee cheap delivery and distribution of requisite qualities of food grains in a transparent manner. To curb existing problems of food security the government has implemented various programs. In the backdrop the government of India enacted new Act i.e. the National Food Security Act, 2013 which aims to provide subsidized food to approximately two thirds of India’s 1.2 billion people. The bill is considered as the biggest ever experiment in the world for distributing highly subsidized food for any government through a “right based approach”. The proposed bill aims to provide legal right over subsidized food grain to around 67 per cent of the population. Despite its advantages the bill has been severely criticized since it will use extremely “leaky” PDS to distribute food grains. The cost of food grains is rising globally then how would the government be able to provide subsidized food to 70 per cent of Indian population in the situation of inappropriate climate conditions? In nutshell, despite ensuring ample availability of food, existence of food insecurity at the micro-level in the country has remained a formidable challenge for India.

 Keywords: Food security; Food Corporation of India (FCI); India; malnutrition; Public Distribution System (PDS).

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Impact of the FabLab Ecosystem in the Sustainable Value Creation Process
Babasile D. Osunyomi a, Tobias Redlich b, Sonja Buxbaum-Conradi c, 
Manuel Moritz d, Jens P. Wulfsberg e 
a,b,c,d,e Institute of Production Engineering, Helmut Schmidt Universitat, Hamburg, Germany.

Volume 09, Issue 01, Pg. 21-35, 2016.

Abstract: The value creation concept aims to create not just a paradigm shift in developmental strategies, but also a shift in the distribution of livelihood, thereby providing adequate means of wealth and job creation to the populace in the developed, and developing countries. In response to the need for adequate value creation, some initiatives were rolled out to tackle the urgent issue of inadequate value creation, among which is FabLab. FabLab signifies fabrication laboratory, it is a small-scale workshop equipped with flexible computer controlled tools and systems for the production of digital fabrications of widely distributed products, which are used to encourage creativity and innovation among individuals irrespective of their anthropological status.

This paper provides the result of the research survey conducted to explore the tools and techniques used within the FabLab ecosystems to ensure its sustainability, analyze the growth pattern of FabLab, and finally uncover both the socio-technical and socio-economic impact of the FabLab ecosystems. A total number of 94 (N=94) respondents participated in the online survey globally. From the survey, we discovered that FabLab have been productive up to date, though the lack of a formalized operating structure and unified communication platform amongst other constraints poses as the major impediments to the full effectiveness of the initiative.

Keywords: Collaboration, FabLab, Innovation, Sustainability, Value creation. 

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The Relationship  of Corporate Social Responsibility and Corporate Image With Risk Society as a Moderating Variable on Service Provider Company
Yvonne Augustine Sudibyo a, Nusrah Nur Atikah b
a,b Department of Accounting, Faculty of Economics, Trisakti University, Jakarta, Indonesia.

Volume 09, Issue 03, Pg. 36-47, 2016.

Abstract: Research about Risk Society was still new issue and only few researcher consider this risk in their idea of research. Also, only few researchers consider Trust information in their research. Besides, the object of the research is unique, that is service providers. All of this were the significance motivation for doing research with this topic and object. The purpose of this research was to determine that corporate social responsibility have an influence on corporate image with risk society as a moderating variable. The independent variables in this model are corporate social responsibility. The dependent variable is corporate image, measured by corporate organizational image and corporate product image. The moderating variable is risk society. This research was the replication of the research of Chiu and Hsu (2010), but the industry is different which was used Telecommunication industry.

Data for this research were obtained by distributing questionnaires to students of some Unoversities. We distributed 200 Questionnaires to respondents who use a telecommunications service or service providers. The sampling technique used was purposive convenience sampling method. The number of questionnaires collected were 176, but there were 4 questionnaires deleted because of not fully answered. This research uses multiple regression analysis. An analytical tool that used to analyze the hypothesis is SPSS 21.

The finding of this research were those Corporate Social Responsibility has positive influence and significant effect on the Corporate image. Second, Corporate Social Responsibility has positive influence and significant effect on the Company’s Product Image. Third, that Risk perception did not support the relationship between Corporate Social Responsibility with company Image. Fourth, Risk perception did not support the relationship between Corporate Social Responsibility with company Product Image. Fifth, Trust information does not support the relationship between Corporate Social Responsibility to Company Image. Sixth, Trust information does not support the relationship between Corporate Social Responsibility and Company product image  .All the hypotheses supported the research of Chiu and Hsu( 2010) which was conducted in Taipei. 

This research has limitation of number of samples that was respondents just in Jakarta and should be extended to outside Jakarta or Indonesia for future research. Also, this research was only in the area of service provider .It is better to consider other industry which has risk society such as cigarette  company.

Future research needs to considering other variables such as modern technology instead of Risk society and fashionable needs instead of trust information as important thing that customers choose to buy product. Also, there is possibility to consider Company Reputation as intervening variable.

Keywords:  Corporate Social Responsibility and Risk Society 

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Managing Sustainable Practice Changes in A Low Input Bali Cattle Production System in West Sumbawa
Nurul Hilmiati a, Sutartha b, Tanda Panjaitan c
a,b,c Assessment Institute for Agricultural Technology, Jalan Raya Peninjauan Narmada, 
Lombok Barat, West Nusa Tenggara, Indonesia. 

Volume 09, Issue 01, Pg. 48-58, 2016.

Abstract: Bali cattle enterprise in Eastern Indonesia is characterized by low productivity and small holder farming system that rely heavily on natural resource for feed. Although innovations of improved forage and feeding management are available, Sumbawanese farmers still practice extensive traditional feeding system. This paper discusses approach and strategies applied to manage change on farmers’ practices in a low input cattle production system aiming for higher productivity and profitability. An action research study was conducted in Sumbawa between 2010-2014 to assess contribution of approaches, methods and strategies towards farmers’ practice changes. The research was entwined in an adaptive research project entitled ‘improving forage tree legume management for cattle fattening in Eastern Indonesia”. The study has shown that a combination of methods and strategies developed from the results of a community based situation analysis was effective to manage farmers towards practice changes. These methods included rising self awareness, adaptive trial, increasing knowledge and skills and providing access to inputs. The practice changes can be seen by farmers started implemening the introduced innovations including planting improved feed Leucaena sp. and improved cattle management.  These changed practices subsequently have improved the cattle productivity which has provided increased return for farmers. This paper concludes that more intensive stakeholder participation in planning processes resulted in a greater sense of ownership over achievements, followed by faster, more sustainable and self-motivated practice change. Sustainable practice change is likely to lead to higher agricultural productivity, in turn enhancing farmers’ livelihoods.

Keywords: traditional system, participation, adaptive trial, dry land.

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Agricultural technology adaptation through farmer-to-farmer learning process (FFLP) model resulting to  increase income and productivity
Krailert  Taweekul a,  Kanya Kamsiripiman b, Charin  Mangklang c, , Siwarak  Siwarom d
a Development Education Program, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai province, Thailand.
b,c,d Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai province, Thailand.

Volume 09, Issue 01, Pg. 59-69, 2016.

Abstract: One of the most difficult institutional problems of extension approach in Thailand is the lack of a close working relationship between national agricultural research and extension organizations, and with different categories of farmers and farm organizations. Research and extension organizations compete over the same scarce government resources and leaders of these institutions do not see themselves as part of a broader system: the agricultural technology system (ATS). Instead, they try to increase the flow of resources coming to their respective institutions and to solve day-to-day management problems, rather than ensuring that their respective organizations contribute to the broader goal of getting improved agricultural technology transferring to farmers. 

Presently, environmental concerns, decentralization and community participation in agricultural development are being emphasized.  The transition to diversified small farming systems will require new skills and capacities among farmers.  Traditional forms of extension support to rural farmers from the Green Revolution era, such as the Training and Visit system (T&V), mainly addressed crop and livestock production through technological packages. The nature of knowledge needed today is more complex, diverse and local.  Much of this knowledge needs to be developed or adapted “on the spot” through local experimentation.

For this research, farmers were introduced to the concept and methods of on-farm experimentation and learning in an initial workshop. Four farmers from each village participated in an initial workshop and visited farms in the original site.  When they went back to their villages, they organized and conducted a workshop for other farmers. A total of 85 farmers attended these secondary workshops. During these workshops, farmers made farm plans and selected technologies that were suitable for their farms. Some farmers, then,  began to experiment with the newly introduced technologies. Farmer-to-farmer learning process (FFLP) Had been focused on four agricultural technologies: 1) custard apple pruning and cultivation; 2) liquid organic fertilizer; 3) herbal repellent extraction and 4) cassava–based animal feed.  Farmers were exposed to these technologies through the following four methods:  1) group visits to farms carrying out these four technologies; 2) farmer workshops in each village to exchange information; 3) farmer trials with the new technologies and 4) observation of adapted technologies, farm visits and farmers’ meetings to share experiences and gain new knowledge from the trials. 

The aims of research were to  examine characteristics of four agricultural technologies,  effectiveness of technologies that transferred by farmers, and effectiveness of a farmer-to-farmer learning process (FFLP) developed and also tested over three years in four amphoes (districts) in Northeast Thailand, and changes in adapted technologies and diversification. Interviewed of 100 farmers had been used. Assessment was made of adaptation of four introduced technologies and of the effects of these technologies on farm income and diversification through annual interview.

The results  found that  1) Liquid organic fertilizer was the organic matter that provides the nutrient and improve the physical component of soil and  it stimulated the microorganism in soil working actively and efficiently. The cost of liquid  organic fertilizer was 5.92  baht/ liter. 2) Bio-extraction is the white liquid made of herbal plants by boiling and streaming  technology. Then, the stream flew through a cooling tank and became to be the white liquid. The substance basically protected the crops from insects. The technology cost 75baht/liter. 3) Custard apple pruning and cultivation introduced farmers to prune and cut the tree after two -three years cultivation, the purpose of pruning was to shape a custard apple tree suitable for flowering and fruiting, and then, leading to be good quality of fruit.  The cost of technology was 1,601 baht / rai. 4) Cassava-based animal  feed had been  used for  reducing feed cost for cattle production, by using cassava root and leaf products as supplementary feed, such as the cost was  1.3   baht / 1 kilogram of cassava silage.

The research also presented adapting farmers have generated at least one of four technologies on their own farms.  Adapting farmers also reduced cost and gained high revenue after applying FFLP technology. The diversification activities were supplementary incomes for adapting farmers. It also indicated that this was high relation level. Farmers gained more farm income from implementing more diversification activities, the Exponential between of diversification activities and number of technology on farm income as  R2 = 0.958

The research also presented 64 % of the farmers adapted custard apple management, 58 % adapted liquid organic fertilizer, 38 % adapted herbal repellent extraction, and 18 % adapted cassava–based animal feed. Farmers who adapted more technologies and generated more diversification gained higher incomes. Agricultural technologies introduced and adapted through FFLP contributed 24.6 % of farm income and 20.5 % of total income of the 100 farmers. 

Keywords:   adaptation,  farmers, income, learning,  technologies

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Community Radio and Sustainable Development in Nigeria: An Assessment of UNILAG Radio and DIAMOND FM
Ayodele Thomas   Odunlami
Department of Mass Communication, Faculty of Social and Management Sciences, 
Olabisi Onabanjo University, Ago – Iwoye, Nigeria.

Volume 09, Issue 01, Pg. 70-78, 2016.

Abstract: Information is regarded globally as the oxygen of any democracy. In the context of developing countries, the effective dissemination of information is seen as a prerequisite for democracy and sustainable development. Community radios, the world over, provide alternative platforms of expression, public sphere and voice for the oppressed and marginalized social groups and communities often denied access by the mainstream media. As a major precursor of community radio in Nigeria, campus radios owned and operated by academic communities of tertiary institutions, especially universities, are fast gaining recognition. At the last count, not less than twenty seven licenses were approved in the twilight of the President Goodluck Jonathan’s administration in 2015. Observers are however worried that, in spite of their pretensions, many of these stations, in terms of their programming, content, ownership and control, still operate like the conventional broadcast and commercial media. With this trend, it is feared that the development nexus that this crucial sector of the broadcast media are meant to close appears to be widening by the day. This paper analyses the broadcast schedules and the operations of two of Nigeria’s leading community radios – Radio UNILAG103.1FM and Diamond FM(University of Ibadan) with a view to determining how effectively they can achieve the goal of sustainable development in the country. It concludes that if community radios must accomplish their set- goals of broadening democracy and mid-wiving sustainable development through consensus building as well as enhance the cultural diversity of stakeholders, particularly in the context of a university setting, an effective regulatory framework that will ensure that they continuously meet the needs and expectations of the communities they are meant to serve must be urgently put in place. The paper therefore advocates the formulation of a workable Community Radio Broadcasting policy that would provide a realistic roadmap for sustainable national development in the country  

Keywords: Community Radio, Democracy, Mainstream Media, Programming, Sustainable Development.

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The Conversion of Waste Heat From Motorcycle 
Into Small Power Plant
Lia Kamelia a , Adam Faroqi b , Ahmad Ariz Muajianisan c   
a, b, c Department of Electrical Engineering, 
Sunan Gunung Djati  State Islamic University of Bandung, Indonesia

Volume 09, Issue 01, Pg. 79-84, 2016.

 Abstract:  The law of conservation of energy states that energy can be transformed from one form to another but can not be created nor destroyed. Since energy is also gone every time it transferred between organisms, that missing heat must go someplace. That missing energy becomes waste heat in the atmosphere. The heat which generated from the motorcycle is able to reach 579.8oC. To utilize this thermal energy we propose to design power plants from thermoelectric. Thermoelectric is a device that can transform heat energy (temperature difference) into electrical energy directly. The research concludes that the use of Peltier modules that are mounted on two-wheel motorcycle exhaust can generate the maximum voltage at 2.89 volts with a surface temperature of the heat side of Peltier modules is 579.8oC and low temperatures on the surface of the cold side of Peltier modules is 18.9oC (ΔT = 560.9oC) , after tested for 60 minutes. After being processed by the LM2952 voltage regulator, voltage will rise to 12.8 volts at charging batteries for motorcycles.

Keywords: Charging, Peltier module power plant, thermoelectric, waste heat,. 

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Examining the Walkability of Planned Neighbourhood in Malaysia: Outcome of a Pilot Study
Zakaria Alcheikh Mahmoud a ,Yahaya Ahmad b , 
Nila Inangda Manyam Keumala Bintıh Daudc, Ebrahim Alsheikh Mahmoud d
a Faculty of Architecture, Gaziantep University, Turkey.
b,c Centre for Urban Design, Conservation and Tropical Architecture, University of Malaya, Malaysia
d Consultant Architect, Qatar

Volume 09, Issue 01, Pg. 85-101, 2016.

Abstract: In Malaysia, urban development has produced many properly planned neighbourhoods. These areas are expected to provide walker-friendly environment. However, all evidences and observations show that urban people even in the planned areas still depend heavily on car in their movement. This raises the need to evaluate the walkabilty of the environment of planned neighbourhoods. As an initial effort, this paper summarises a pilot study carried out on two neighbourhoods in the city of Putrajay in Malaysia with the aim of contributing to building up a solid background on investigating the walkbility of planned neighbourhoods. Quantitative and qualitative research methods were used.  Three stages of investigation have been adopted; field observation; questionnaire and interview. Rank analysis and rating analysis and other appropriate techniques were used to handle the collected data.  The two neighbourhoods are found to have the most important motivators for their residents’ walking.  The residents’ walking is however, still little.  This raises the need for further investigation.

Keywords: Liveable environment – Neighbourhood- Walkability- Walkability assessment criteria- Sustainable environment  

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