Volume 08 Issue 10

OIDA International Journal of Sustainable Development
Open access peer-reviewed journal 

Revolutionising The Civil Courts In South Africa Through Information Technology
Rashri Baboolal-Frank
Procedural Law Department, University of Pretoria, 3rd Floor, Law building, Main Campus, 
Lynnwood, Pretoria, Gauteng, South Africa

Volume 08, Issue 10, Pg. 11-19, 2015.

Abstract: A consultative approach was undertaken by a handful of academics in assessing the information technology of court systems from a global perspective inter alia southern hemisphere countries to European trends, which resulted in academics writing critically about this process in revolutionising the case management process and technology. Chief Justice Mogoeng Mogoeng of the Constitutional Court in South Africa remarked that the e-filing system was required to address some of the problems that judicial officers face in hearing appeals when dockets are lost in their entirety. In this specific context there is needed reform for the case management structure of matters that appear on the court roll. The time delay in transcribing records for Judges/Magistrates to access the evidence for writing their judgments inevitably creates backlogs of judgments only being delivered eight months after the trial. This is unfavourable for the litigants that have their matter unduly delayed and causes an incremental rise in litigation fees. A possible solution is for the technology that enables and allows for ‘real-time transcript,’ which ensures that when evidence is given in court it is automatically transcribed. This means that the Judge/Magistrate has immediate visual access to it on the computer. This particular technology could save costs and allow for accurate information to be given to the Judge/Magistrate for faster digestion of the matter before them. The paper-based system perpetuates that copious amounts of pages are filed at court. An environmental lawyer’s worst nightmare of seeing so many pages that have to be printed instead of referring to a ‘soft’ copy. To a litigants aghast, after the very tedious process of paginating the court files and their own files and on the day of the trial/application the court file goes walkabout. The result is that it is impossible for the matter to proceed on the same day, accordingly the trial is postponed to locate the file and the originals alternatively for the respective litigants to file the necessary copies to ensure that the matter can proceed with a copied file for a civil dispute. However from a criminal perspective when the docket is lost, then the case is postponed for the location of the docket and if it cannot be found then the matter is removed from the roll, until it can be found and then the matter will then be re-enrolled on the court roll, sometimes matters take years to re-appear if at all. The result sadly is that when documents go missing that criminals are released into society once again. European countries have adopted e-Courts that function on an online basis where witnesses can attest to evidence through online mediums akin to skype. In the Southern Hemisphere countries such as Singapore and Australia have some of the most advanced Information Technology systems such as e-filing systems and video conferencing are some of the developments that contribute to the ‘dawn of a new era of cybercourts.’ Australia had initially developed the online court system for matters that were ‘complex’ but then a particular necessity for it evolved and as a result at least one permanent cyber court sits in each court. Another reason for using information technology in Australia was to ease the backlog of a paper-based system. The trends in technology is not only to revolutionise business and marketing but also has its place in court. Advanced technology usually sums up convenience and especially in the struggle for access to justice ‘convenience’ is a fad that can address access to justice. A major drawback of information technology is that it is an expensive system, but surely government may address the cost concern if it weighs the successes of the system to paper-based outdated systems. In Singapore the courts have converted to an electronic litigation system, meaning every iota of the litigation is computerised. This paper shall only deal with an analysis of the court online system to revolutionise the civil system within a South African context. 

Keywords: court information process revolutionise technology 

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Decision-making patterns among Iranian family members
Seyed Mahdi Etemadifrd
Department of Sociology, Faculty of Social Sciences, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran. 

Volume 08, Issue 10, Pg. 20-29, 2015.

Abstract: Participation in the decision-making process is a significant factor for recognizing the sustainable development. People of all ages and of both sexes shall feel the same attachment to contribute an effective sustainable development. Several factors have been proposed to realize the sustainable development in different countries. Family is mentioned to be  a determining social institution which plays a vital role in social changes and development. This paper, thus, aims to examine the situation of the family in Iran and its evolutions over four decades. Family changes in the Iranian family have been gradual and continuous in recent decades . Accordingly, the development trends will be explained based on these changes. 

Among the various aspects of family, the emphasis is put on the quality of the decision-making and its changes in the Iranian family. Traditionally, these were the husbands and fathers who enjoyed the authority to make the important decisions and other family members were bound to comply. Due to the political, economic and social changes over the past four decades and in result of  the implementation of several development programs in Iran during the same period, it sounds to meaningfully change.

The present paper, then, addresses this main question that how the quality of the decision-making in Iranian families has changed over the past four decades. The answer to this question can demonstrate the quality of family member’s participation especially women in the decision-making process and its ups and downs. Methodologically, it is  a secondary analysis of the national survey datasets. The major dataset sources include  The  Future-study Survey (1974), the Cultural Trends and Social Attitudes of Iranians Survey (2004), and a range of other major national and minor various surveys conducted between over three decades to measure and indicate the mentioned changes. 

The findings suggest that men still have the benefit of priority in decision-making in the family, however, it has been declining. Interestingly and unprecedentedly, it is nor replaced by women’s power to decide, yet,  it is the participation of all family members which is desired. The father’s decision-making has been decreased from 72 percent (in 1974) to 33 percent (in 2004), as well as women’s decision-making that has been lessened from 11 percent (in 1974) to 6 percent (in 2004). This emerging family decision-making process  has caused a formula, the  “collaborative decision-making”, in recent surveys to be added, while there is no such option in the primitive similar surveys. Other national surveys also confirm this changing process. It recommends  that the participatory approaches are being replaced the polar decision-making system in the family. Then, it seems the grounds for the sustainable development is provided more than any time before since now both sexes have the sense of participation in decision-making.

Keywords: collaborative decision-making, Iranian family, secondary analysis , social changes, sustainable development

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Evaluation of Honeybee Products Marketing in Nigeria: An Experience from Ganye Region, Adamawa State
Yohanna, K.a , Ja’afar-Furo, M. R.b
a,b Department of Agricultural Economics and Extension, Faculty of Agriculture,
Adamawa State University, PMB 25, Mubi, Nigeria.

Volume 08, Issue 10, Pg. 30-37, 2015.

Abstract: As one of the oldest forms of farming in Nigeria and the most rarely understood by both the rural and urban farming population, apiculture business still remains one of the areas of agriculture that is grossly under explored.  This study attempted to assess the marketing efficiency of honeybees’ products in Nigeria focusing on Ganye domain for its role as the most producing area in the locality. Primary data were purposely collected from 140 respondents using structured questionnaire and supported by oral interviews and group discussions. Analysis using Descriptive Statistics and Marketing Efficiency (ME) revealed that males constituted majority (90.0%) of the marketers, with a larger proportion (41.4%) accounting for individuals within the age range of 30-39 years. While about 78.6% of the marketers were married, 37.1% were said to have had primary school certificate. The most experienced honey marketers had between 6-10 years in the field. Most (58.6%) of the marketers sourced their funds through \personal savings. Of the containers used in the sales of beehive crops, one-litre bottle recorded the larger chunk (47.1%). Even at the local level of sales, the ME indicated a very efficient market (1862.3%), with the traditional producers serving as the major (68.6%) suppliers of the products. Prominent of the constraints recorded were poor road linkage and lack of government support. It is therefore, recommended that the government should intensify efforts toward formulating policies that would address these inadequacies with the hope of encouraging more participants in the business. 

Keywords: Beehive, efficiency, honeybees, marketing, Nigeria, products,  

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Spatial Planning Approach: An Efficient Pattern for Accessing Territorial Sustainable Development
Case Study: European Spatial Planning
Mostafa Taleshi a , Sara Bisheii b 
a Department of Geography, Payam Noor University, Tehran, Iran.
b   Department of Geography and Urban Planning , Payam Noor University, Tehran, Iran

Volume 08, Issue 10, Pg. 38-42, 2015.

Abstract: Sustainable development stands for meeting the needs of present generations without jeopardizing the ability of futures generations to meet their own needs. Sustainable development requires improvement in social, economic and environment dimensions of development and shift in approaches using natural source, investment management, technology and institutions and organizations to meet the needs of present and future generations simultaneously.

On the other side, spatial planning is a kind of planning dealing with land or territory and to be applied in different levels of national, regional and local. It is worth to know that there is a reciprocal relationship between sustainable development and spatial planning. Spatial planning brings integration in different levels so it is a suitable tool to achieve sustainable development. Spatial planning integrates sectorial policies from different organization and administrations. This articles tries to answer this question that how spatial planning could be effective to achieve sustainable development.

In this regard, this article tries to discuss this issue with considering the visions of Europe Spatial Development Perspective (ESDP) and Europe Sustainable Development Strategy goals.

Keywords: Integration, Spatial Planning, Sustainable Development, Sustainable Spatial Development 

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Spatial analysis of common diseases of women in metropolis
Case Study: Tehran metropolis
Mostafa Taleshi a, Fahimeh Shobeirian b   
a Department of Geography, Payam-e Noor University, Tehran, Iran,   
a Sustainable Development of Geographical Environment Excellence,   
Shahid Beheshti University, Iran.
b Geography and Urban Planning , Department of Geography, Payam-e Noor University , Tehran, Iran.

Volume 08, Issue 10, Pg.43-46, 2015.

Abstract: The rapid development of urbanization in recent decades in many developing countries, especially in the National Metropolis Damages provided for citizens. One of the most important of these injuries, diseases, and spatial distribution of these diseases in urban areas. Spatial analysis of disease citizens and examine how the allocation of health and medical resources, One of the ways to achieve integrated management of urban health in the metropolis is among the developing countries[11]. As one of the major metropolitan cities of Tehran metropolis always has problems and plenty of living and housing is limited .In this study, spatial analysis of common diseases in women are recognized metropolitan Tehran, It is obvious that the condition of women in urban society exerts considerable losses every Plan and modify will help a lot in this matter, To achieve the ultimate objective of urban planning as well as urban areas is considered[3]. The results show that the spatial distribution of gynecological function of sociality-economic conditions and spatial distribution of health facilities is Environmental damage so achieve urban health systems in large cities solve environmental problems on the one hand create the Family health centers, particularly for women and also the very important and critical. 

Keywords: urban health, women’s diseases, spatial analysis, metropolis, Tehran

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Delivering Sustainable Low-income Housing in Uganda, Challenges and Opportunities
Arman Hashemi a, Heather Cruickshank b
a,b Centre for Sustainable Development, Department of Engineering, University of Cambridge, UK..
a Corresponding author: a.hashemi@eng.cam.ac.uk 

Volume 08, Issue 10, Pg. 47-60, 2015.

Abstract: While the developed world is adapting to the consequences of climate changes, global warming will negatively affect the quality of life and economic growth in developing countries. The low-income populations from low and medium Human Development Index (HDI) countries would suffer even more from climate changes because of their vulnerable living conditions and the lack of appropriate and adequate infrastructure. Particular attention should therefore be paid to the low-income housing conditions not only to address the environmental concerns but also to improve the living standards and health and wellbeing of low-income populations. This paper reviews the Ugandan housing conditions in order to identify the opportunities and challenges for delivering sustainable energy efficient low-income housing in Uganda. Urbanisation; slums; housing costs, types and sizes; construction methods and materials and renewable energy sources are some of the areas which have been reviewed and discussed in detail. The findings reveal some critical areas such as informal settlement, overcrowding and access to housing facilities as well as embodied energy of construction methods and materials which require immediate attention.

Keywords: Sustainable Housing, Low-income, Tropical, East Africa, Uganda.

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Georeferentiation and Social Sciences: An Interdisciplinary Way To Detect Vulnerability
Maurizio Norcia a, Antonella Rissotto b, Elisa Colì c
a, b, c Istituto di Scienze e Tecnologie della Cognizione, Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche
via San Martino della battaglia, 44 – 00185 – Roma, Italia.

Volume 08, Issue 10, Pg. 61-68, 2015.

Abstract: This paper is concerned with using georeferenced information in Social Sciences as a concrete case of interdisciplinary research and building of knowledge related to vulnerability. Geospatial framework is a central factor in analyzing data from sociology, psychology, anthropology and economics. That notwithstanding, its potential contribution has been substantially ignored. In the last years, the reconciliation between GIS techniques and Social Sciences is occurring, mainly because of improvements in software to manage complex data. 

The paper arises from CLARA project, an Italian national project on risk assessment and management in the field of natural disasters. The article discusses the theoretical and technical steps aimed at georeferencing specific data on a geographical map. This process entails two main pros: information on a map are more quickly readable and relations among them stand out more easily. Furthermore, georeferenced data bring back complexity to the object studied, because they allow a multidimensional, contextual and integrated reading of it. The multidimensionality highlights the importance of interdisciplinarity as an opportunity for encounter of scholars and technicians and for acquisition of diversified, deeper and richer perspective, which allows better outcomes. Finally, the paper discusses several advantages for interventions and policies.

Keywords: Vulnerable people, Georeferenced data, Risk, Risk exposure

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Media Commercialization, Public Interest and Sustainable Development in Nigeria
Dele Odunlami a, Tokunbo Adaja b
a,b Department of Mass Communication, Olabisi Onabanjo University, Ago-Iwoye, Nigeria.

Volume 08, Issue 10, Pg. 69-77, 2015.

Abstract: The economics of media production, distribution and consumption makes the issue of commercialization an inevitable reality in the modern society. But the mass media exist essentially as a social institution to provide voice to the populace through a ‘full, truthful, comprehensive and intelligent account of the day’s events in a context – that gives meaning’. However, unfolding realities reveal that commercial considerations have vitiated the statutory mandate of the media as the fourth estate of the realm. In Nigeria, like other developing countries, the challenge is how media professionals can balance their desire to break even and successfully navigate the complex and harsh mace of economic realities for an enhanced bottom-line on the one hand and remain committed to the professional demands of their calling on the other. This is crucially so because of the media’s place and role as societal conscience, compass and barometer of development. This paper x-rays the emerging issues in the wake of media commercialization in Nigeria and their implications for public interests and sustainable national development with suggestions on the way forward.

Key words: Commercialization, Media Economics, Social Institution, Public Interest, Sustainable Development.      

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Small is beautiful and bountiful: Bangladesh, from “ basket case” to “development model”?
Masudur Rahman
University of Nordland, 8049, Bodø, Norway.

Volume 08, Issue 10, Pg. 78-94, 2015.

Abstract: Bangladesh was termed as a basket case. However, its development experience during the last three decades is a mixed one. On socio-economic performances, its achievements are outstanding, and better than its neighboring countries. Its annual growth rate is lower than India, yet, it has been surprisingly good at improving the lives of the rural poor. But, its political culture seemingly appears to be a dysfunctional democracy. The obvious question is, despite a comparatively lower annual growth rate, and dysfunctional democracy, how the so called “development basket case” has managed a disproportionate poverty reduction for its amount of growth? Interpreting the findings of a number of studies, this paper relates such a development with the social organization of the economy with a strong rural connection on two major dimensions: a. increased agricultural production; and b. small scale business activities. The combined effects of both these rural economic activities are the increased income of rural household, increased enrolment in educational institutions of the rural poor, female students in particular empowering women. It is beyond the scope of this paper to go into detail of all dimensions. It rather discusses (based on the preliminary findings of a study) what role small scale economic activities played in the process. The positive role of small loans is recognized however, as the findings suggest, such loans are not a panacea for macroeconomic growth. Small loans, microcredit, made contributions to the welfare of the poorest of the poor, the rural women, through providing possible means by which they gained control of their economic life.  This achievement, in turn, exerted pressure for social change that included child education, women’s participation in the economy and politics. There are also cases of borrowers left worse off. The varied effect, apparently, is due to structures of network relations. Theoretical discussion, therefore, includes a reassessment of how NET (Network Embedded Trust) works including the concept of social capital. It is suggested that the concept should be oriented to broader power structures, which remained neglected in existing studies. 

Keywords: Adaptability; Agricultural sustainability; Bangladesh; Microcredit

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