Volume 08 Issue 03

OIDA International Journal of Sustainable Development
Open access peer-reviewed journal 

Psychometric analysis of self-efficacy encouragement in the university environment: A Malay version
Muhammed Yusuf 
Faculty Of Education And Human Development, Department of Educational Studies
Sultan Idris Education University, Tg.Malim – Perak, Malaysia.

Volume 08, Issue 03, Pg. 11-18, 2015.

Abstract: This study introduced the Self-efficacy Encouragement Questionnaire (SEEQ). The researcher developed the instrument to investigate whether or not the university lecturers encourage undergraduate students to develop their academic self-efficacy through learning interactions. The researcher applied the Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA) to test the cross language equivalence of the SEEQ and to explore whether its psychometric properties are universally sound and therefore it can be used by Malay speaking researchers. Additionally, frequency analysis was used to test proportion of the lecturers’ self-efficacy encouragement. The researcher distributed the Malay version of the SEEQ to 232 Malaysian undergraduate students who are currently studying at Sultan Idris Education University – Malaysia. The PCA was used to answer the research question 1: What are the psychometric properties of the Self-efficacy Encouragement Questionnaire?  The CFA was applied to answer research question 2: What is the hypothesized model fit of the self-efficacy encouragement? The results show satisfactory validity and reliability for the SEEQ. The research model fits were statistically acceptable and therefore, it’s justified to be adopted in other related studies. Further, the frequency analysis test indicated that the proportion of lecturers’ self-efficacy encouragement in the university is encouraging. The combination of the present results suggested that the university lecturers play an important role to build students’ self- efficacy, therefore, they are crucial pillar and a source of students’ self-efficacy development.

Keywords: psychometric analysis, self-efficacy encouragement, Malay version, and undergraduate students.

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AKs or Spades?:  Al-Qaeda, Al-Shabaab, Boko Haram and ISIS and its threat to sustainable development
Johan Ras
Department of Criminal Justice, University of Zululand, South Africa.

Volume 08, Issue 03, Pg. 19-28, 2015.

Abstract:  Al-Qaeda, Al-Shabaab, Boko Haram and the Islamic State of Iraq and Syria (ISIS) are regarded as terror organizations that pose a threat to the peace and stability of their respective geopolitical areas.  Their armed struggle and commitment to violence and radical change through deeds of terror definitely hamper any form of sustainable development in their respective regions.  Their ideological and idiosyncratic beliefsystems necessitate that law enforcement agencies worldwide, must not only act in a proactive manner to identify and prevent these members from executing their terror plans, but it also requires that the public, who must benefit from sustainable development, need to assist those responsible for maintaining  social order and not be influenced in any manner whatsoever to also join the jihadist struggle to establish a worldwide Islamic Caliphate.      

Keywords:  Al-Qaeda; Al-Shabaab; Boko Haram;  ISIS;  Sustainable Development

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Boko Haram Insurgency And The Nigerian Federation: A Socio-Political Analysis Of Causation And Strategy For Peace And Security
James Olusegun Adeyeri
Department of History and International Studies, Faculty of Arts, Lagos State University, Ojo, Nigeria.

Volume 08, Issue 03, Pg. 29-40, 2015.

Abstract: The phenomenon of anti-state militant movements is not new to the Nigerian federation. Just a few years after the birth of the Nigerian State, a militant group under the leadership of Adaka Boro, an ex-police officer, attempted to create the Niger Delta Republic out of the nascent federation. From 1967 to 1970, the Federal Government was locked in a devastating civil war with eastern region secessionists intent on carving out the State of Biafra out of Nigeria. Between 1980 and 1983, the Maitasine uprising unleashed large-scale terror and destruction of lives and property in the northern part of the country. Previously peaceful agitations in the Niger Delta over economic and political marginalization  snowballed into an armed conflict between militant groups and the Federal Government from the 1990s, and only began to simmer down in just about two years ago. During the same period, the Oodua People Congress (OPC), a Yoruba ethnic militia  emerged as a protest movement  against General Ibrahim Babangida’s annulment of  the June 12,  1993, Presidential elections widely acknowledged to be free and fair and won by Chief Moshood Abiola, a Yoruba politician and business mogul. OPC eventually became a thorn in the flesh of the Nigerian state  for a long while. In addition, the Bakassi militant group emerged as a resistance force in response to the grave  insecurity of  lives and property orchestrated by a  so-called “Mafia” in major markets in South East Nigeria. However, the Boko Haram insurgent movement currently rocking the country is unique in terms of its avowed objectives, organization, tenacity, sophisticated strategy, weaponry and audacious operations. Causes of the insurgency have received diverse explanations from various quarters overtime. While some observers conceive of Boko Haram as an extremist Islamist sect bent on Islamizing Nigeria  (or at least Northern Nigeria) by any means, some others see it as a mere nihilist movement with the sole intent of bloodletting, destruction, panic and chaos. Yet, in some other quarters, Boko Haram is viewed as the epitome of the political agenda of certain Northern elements. In its response to the insurgency, the Federal Government of Nigeria adopted a two-pronged conflict management strategy: force and diplomacy. But the crisis persists, unabated, living in its wake wholesale  destruction of lives and property, palpable tension and fear of the unexpected. This paper is a socio-political analysis of the Boko Haram insurgency and government’s strategy to restore peace and security. The study shall also explore alternative strategies that could enthrone peace and security in the affected areas, and avert the spread of the insurgency to other regions of the country. The study adopts the historical research methodology of intellectual discourse. Research data was obtained from both primary and secondary sources. Sources of primary data comprise of oral interviews, while the secondary data consist of books, journal articles,  newspapers, magazines, etc. The study concludes that the basic causes of the Boko Haram insurgency are an admixture of complex socio-economic and political factors which require appropriate immediate and long- term government policies for the restoration of peace and security.

Keywords: Boko Haram, Causation, Insurgency, Nigerian Federation, Peace/Security Strategy.     

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Changing Political Attitudes Of Cosatu Members In South Africa 
Lucky Ehimatie Asuelime a, Adekunle  Iwalesin b, Raquel A. Adekoye c
a,c  Department of Politics and International Studies, Faculty of Arts, 
University of Zululand, Kwalagezwa South Africa.
b Department of Social Sciences, Faculty of Humanities, University of KwaZulu-Natal, 
Kwalagezwa, South Africa.

Volume 08, Issue 03, Pg. 41-50, 2015.

Abstract: The challenge of globalization and increasing competition has signalled a range of ideas and reflections on whether national policy-makers and organisations are capable of meeting the challenge of enhancing representation of historically disadvantaged groups. One of such challenge is the extent to which equality of opportunity is afforded to members of increasingly diverse labour forces in the global economy.  In South Africa, the reconstruction of the country since the end of apartheid has made the country to witness a rise of new political parties – all promising better standards for the labour sector and integration into political spaces. Indeed, the involvement of workers in community and political structures, coupled with their loyalty to the labour movement, provides the foundation for a set of interlocking organisational and political relationships that strengthen partnerships with like-minded allies to advance the interests of workers and the working class more broadly. This form of relationship and commitment with the labour unions in South Africa has sparked up debates and new perception of workers on every issue surrounding the politics and democratic practice of South Africa. This paper evaluates the relevance of these new political relationships and labour development in South Africa as it affects its trade union members, particularly COSATU.

Keywords: ANC; Apartheid; COSATU; Political Parties; South Africa; Trade Union                 

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Absorption of Arabic Words in Malay Language
Noor Azlina Zaidan a, Muhammad Azhar Zailaini b, Wail Muin Ismail c
a,b,c Faculty of Education, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.

Volume 08, Issue 03, Pg. 51-58, 2015.

Abstract: Malaysia is a developing country in South-East Asia. As a dynamic and developing country economically, cultural and education, Malaysia borrows a lot of languages such as Portuguese, Netherland, Chinese, English and Arabic. Arabic itself a Quranic language is used in Muslim’s everyday (especially) spiritual life. This research analyzes the classification of Arabic borrowed words (after this “loanword”) in Malay language based on theory of typology. The objectives of the study were to identify the Arabic loanwords (after this “the words”) in Malay language (after this “recipient language”) in premier Malay language dictionary, “Kamus Dewan” by the abbreviation “Ar” (Arab) as etymology of the words, to get the percentage of words which commonly used in current Malay speaking and writing. Also it attempted to calculate the percentage of both types of words which were fully absorbed in Malay language as model language (Arabic) and which words have undergone some changes by identifying the phonemic elements in the words. The analysis to the words will be done based on Jawi writing (“Jawi” is a term of Arab alphabet with some phoneme additions in Malay language) which has been applied in Malay language since Islamization in Malay Archipelago in early 14th century when Arabs came to trade and spread Islam religion. This study used a quantitative method. The data is collected from the premier Malay language dictionary, “Kamus Dewan”. The words later were identified whether they were commonly used in present Malay language speaking and writing or not longer in used in nowadays Malay speaking and writing by examining the type of words, such as abbreviation “ark” (for archaic – ancient, no longer used) and “sl (for sastera lama – ancient literature). The words later were analyzed by its phonemic characteristic using Malay language-Jawi glossary, “Daftar Kata Bahasa Melayu Rumi-Sebutan-Jawi”, and made comparison of the phonemes with its original phonemic words, Arabic dictionary, “Mu’jam al-Wasit”. The words were further classified into typology classification “Fully Absorption” and “Partial Absorption” based on the phonemic changes. This research will classify the Arabic words in Malay language based on the specific categories which will be discussed later. The result of this research shows that there are 1791 Arabic borrowed words in Kamus Dewan i.e 6.25% of all base words in the dictionary. The result also shows that the Arabic borrowed words which were used commonly in current Malay speaking and writing are 1005 i.e. 56.1 % of all Arabic borrowing words in the dictionary. Based on the classification, the result shows that 708 words i.e. 70.4% were fully absorbed in the Malay language. Meanwhile, i.e 29.6%, 297 words are changed phonemically. The huge amount of Arabic loanword (70.4%) fully absorbed Arabic loanwords can help Arabic teachers to teach Arabic vocabulary in Arabic Language Education and Religion Education programmes.

Keywords: Absorption, Arabic, Borrowing Words, Learning Arabic, Malay Language

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Sustainability: A missing essential for development projects
Shuchita Sharmin a
a Department of Development Studies, University of Dhaka, Dhaka 1000, Bangladesh

Volume 08, Issue 03, Pg. 59-70, 2015.

Abstract: This study is an effort toward a theoretical understanding of ‘sustainability’ which follows analysis of field level realities of selected project interventions regarding sustainability. The NGO projects start with specific targets and are considered complete when those targets are achieved. However, the concern for sustainability of achieved consequences is usually never found among the objectives of a project. Reviewing relevant literature, this paper demonstrates the concern for sustainability.  Sustainability when defined for development projects are considered to be those with beneficial impacts enduring beyond the original time frame of the project, and that may be diffused beyond the original spatial limits of the project. A variety of concerns for project sustainability could be identified through review of relevant literature. However, of the identified variables, previous studies recognise the absence of sufficient attention to any specific of the concerns for sustainability. Again, contradictory findings on the consequences and sustainability of consequences of the present time asset transfer projects also set the scene for necessary academic research. In this context, the issues of consequences they lead to and their sustainability remain either unresolved or superficially/unsatisfactorily addressed. Hence, the present study aims to reveal the consequences of selected asset transfer projects and their sustainability. On the basis of field level realities through the voices of project beneficiaries, the study also proposes necessary recommendations. Data is collected for particular ‘asset enhancement’ and ‘vulnerability reduction’ interventions of Chars Livelihoods Programme and River Basin Programme in a river char (RC) community named Pepulia, located in Fulchhari Union at Fulchhari Upazila in Gaibandha District. Likewise, in Char Wadel which is a river estuarine char (REC) community in Nazirpur Union at Bauphal Upazila of Patuakhali District, consequences and sustainability of consequences of interventions of Specially Targeted Ultra Poor (STUP) programme of BRAC and Disaster Preparedness and Rehabilitation Management (DPRM) project of SLOPB is studied. The respondents of the questionnaire survey were 156 beneficiaries- 34 from STUP, 42 from DPRM, 40 from CLP and 40 from RBP. They also participated in Household (HH) level interviews. focus group discussions (FGDs) were conducted with available bebeficiaries. Key informant interviews (KIIs) were conducted on selected government officials and respective NGO personnel. A reciprocal relationship between HH level components and community level components was found to exist. Thus, at the community context, as interventions come, the success of the intervention and sustainability depend on the interaction of the community and HH level realities. Further, ‘type, duration, topicality, intensity, and frequency of interventions in time and space’ were also found to be crucial in this context. 

Keywords: Sustainable, sustainable development, sustainable livelihoods, sustainable livelihoods approach, sustainable livelihoods framework..

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