OIDA International Journal of Sustainable Development
Open access peer-reviewed journal
IMPACTS OF WATER SUPPLY AND SANITATION ON POVERTY IN ETHIOPIA TO MEET MDGS POVERTY REDUCTION GOAL
aInstitute of Public Management and Development Studies Ethiopia Civil Service College, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.
Volume 01, Issue 04, Pg. 11-28, 2010
Abstract: Ethiopia’s water supply and sanitation coverage is one of the lowest in Africa. Such a situation made people in the country to spend much more time collecting drinking water. In addition to this people have been becoming unhealthy due to the spread of water related diseases. The lack of water supply and sanitation is considered as one factor for the deep and wide spread of poverty in the country. This study investigated the impacts of water supply and sanitation on the poverty incidence through improving the health status of people and increasing crop production. The secondary data, mainly from CSA, MOWR and MOFED used to analyse water supply and sanitation situation in the country and even to estimate the impact of water supply and sanitation in poverty incidence. The study used panel data which were collected from different locations over selected years. The log-log model was specified to get the elasticity of poverty incidence due to the change in the water supply and sanitation. The Fixed Effect Instrumental Variable (FE-IV) estimator was used to estimate the equation. Under the new water supply and sanitation program (2006-2012) a total of 58 million people would get water supply at the end of the 2012. In addition to this a total of 75.5 million people would get basic sanitation service during the same period. In the rural areas a total of 149,023 new water supply and 15,893,313 sanitation infrastructure would be constructed during the plan period. Similarly in the urban areas a total of 1,335 new constructions would be undertaken in the same period. The efforts to reach the universal access program would reduce the incidence of poverty by 23 million by improving the health status of 7 million people and increasing the total crop production by 26 million quintals. But Absence of consistent development plan, lack of appropriate technology, poor cost recovery and lack of fund, poor coordination and experience sharing practices, lack of private sector and absence of micro-enterprise would be the major challenges to realize UAP target in Ethiopia.
Keywords: Millennium Development Goals, Poverty, Water Supply and Sanitation
PUBLIC PRIVATE PARTNERSHIP IN SOCIAL SECTORS FOR HARMONIZED DEVELOPMENT IN INDIA
aDepartment of Management and Social Sciences, National Institute of Technology, Hamirpur, H.P, India
Volume 01, Issue 04, Pg. 29-38, 2010
Abstract: Public-Private Partnerships which are an integral part of the new paradigm of good governance has its roots in the concept of New Public Management. The advantages of private sector as innovation, access to finance, knowledge of technologies, managerial efficiency and entrepreneurial spirit are combined with the social responsibility, environmental awareness and local knowledge of the public sector in a PPP framework. India in the post-liberalization period has witnessed considerable growth acceleration and the economy has grown at the rate of eight per cent or so in the past few years. India’s vibrant democracy is also a fundamental determinant of rapid growth. The achievements are impressive, but the inter-regional, intra-regional and inter-personal inequalities in wealth and income are clearly evident in India. In India, almost 370 million people are facing some form of deprivation and thus, poverty needs to be addressed through human development, which encompasses education, health, drinking water, housing, infrastructure development etc. The Government of India is putting in a lot of efforts to achieve all-round socio-economic development for its citizens. But the efforts of the government need to be supplemented by the private sector. Public and Private sectors can come together in building up people-oriented movements and through that process, social sector development can be attained. With this background, the paper aims to study the concept of public-private partnership and the status of PPP in India. Further, an analysis of PPPs in social sector is done and the issues and constraints in the implementation of PPP in India are discussed. The paper concludes with a positive note that PPP is a tool for all-round development and the benefits depend on how such tools are utilized by the policy and decision-makers.
Keywords: Public-Private Partnership, Government Policies, Public sector, Built Operate and transfer
CHILDREN IN THE SOCIO-CULTURAL CONTEXT OF BANGLADESH
aUniversity of Dhaka- Development Studies Department, Dhaka 1000, Bangladesh
Volume 01, Issue 04, Pg. 39-46, 2010
Abstract: Exclusion and inequality are major obstacles on the way toward development. In Bangladesh, inequalities are primarily in terms of gender, ethnicity, disability, or geographical location. Women and children are still considered as dependents and minors. The inequalities are leading to social exclusion of women, children, indigenous communities, and people living in geographically remote and vulnerable places (river islands, coastal areas). They are marginalized and cannot escape from the poverty traps. Children of Bangladesh, who constitute about 50% of the total population of the country, are being ignored as an excluded group in most situations. Bangladesh signed the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child (UNCRC) on August 3, 1990. After almost twenty years, till today children appear to be excluded in the total development thinking. Among the Bangladeshi people, the understanding of the concept “child” is found to be vague. The present paper, in this context, using literature review, informal discussion and observation aims (1) to reveal the meaning of the word “child” in the socio-cultural context of Bangladesh; (2) to explore the situation of children (girl/ boy, without parents, disable, working, etc.) of different socio- cultural context (i.e. urban/rural, poor/non-poor), children with disability and also about children living in rural and urban context; and (3) to identify the obstacles on the way to implement the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child (UNCRC) in Bangladesh. Rural communities of Gaibandha, Kurigram, Nilfamari, Shariatpur, Rajbari, Borguna and Potuakhali districts, and urban communities of Dhaka, Chitagong and ethnic communities in Mymensingh and Netrokona districts were considered in this regard. The vagueness is identified in this article through revealing inconsistency in the available legislation government documents and other relevant documents. The secondary literature review leaded to the understanding that the major obstacle on the way to implement the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child (UNCRC) in Bangladesh is the vagueness of the concept ‘child”. The importance of the socio-cultural considerations with regard to children in this context, is established through field findings in this paper. It is near 20 years that Bangladesh ratified the UNCRC, yet many children who have grown up within the lifetime of the CRC have now ended their childhood years knowing little or nothing of what it is to have the protection and freedoms mentioned in their rights. This paper identifies and discusses about the obstacles on the way to implement the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child (UNCRC).
Keywords: Development, inclusive development children in Bangladesh, United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child (UNCRC).
Environmental Impact Assessment (Eia) Of Infrastructure Development Projects In Developing Countries
Attaullah Shaha, Salimullah.Kb and M.H.Shaha, Razaulkah.Kc, Irfan.U.Jand
aAllama Iqbal Open University, bHazara University, c National Agricultre Research Centre, dUniversity of Peshawar
Volume 01, Issue 04, Pg. 47-54, 2010
Abstract: Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) is a tool used to identify the environmental, social and economic impacts of a project prior to decision-making. The process leads to the selection of the projects on the principle of sustainable development, so that the adverse effects of the new developments are mitigated through proactive and rational decisions making. Over the years, EIA has not been practiced holistically in the developing countries and particularly in South Asian Nations. However in the last few years Governments, environmentalists, researchers, media and communities of these countries have formulated sufficient legislative and institutional frame work for the EIA. In this paper, an overview of the EIA practices in developing countries and particularly South Asia, have been given, with special reference to the developments in Pakistan. The creation of awareness and formulating legislation has thus forced the countries to abandon many developmental projects, which were detrimental to the environment Some of the basic flaws in the EIA of a mega project (Zero Point Interchange Project- ZPIP0 have been highlighted.
Keywords: Environmental Impact Assessment, economic impacts, South Asia.
The Effect Of Poverty On Education In Nigeria: Obstacles And Solutions
Ismail Hussein Amzata
aFaculty of Education, Department of Educational Management, Planning & Policy, University of Malaya, Malaysia
Volume 01, Issue 04, Pg. 55-72, 2010
Abstract: This paper embarks on a long journey deep into the history of a country that is supposed or predicted generally to be economically one the leading countries in the world or at least in Africa. Nigeria has been blessed tremendously and generously with remarkable economic resources such as oil, cocoa, rubber and plantations. Despite all these natural resources and blessed assets, it is really lamentable to see an increasing number of Nigerians still living in absolute poverty in recent times. In the rural areas, poverty seems to be higher compared to urban areas. The effects of poverty in the country, the instability of the government and the country’s leadership have seriously damaged the educational system as well as its quality. The graduate unemployment rate is high and frightening as well as that of adults, and the number of children dropping out from schools, joining the street traders and snatch-thieves is alarming. Adequate planning, resources and materials are not invested and technological intervention is not incorporated. In this regard, this paper is a qualitative research by nature based on interviews with some Nigerian experts, educationists and scholars about what the Nigerian government should do to reduce poverty that is tearing our educational standards and quality apart. Besides, the paper proposes some solutions and makes recommendations through interviews which perhaps the Nigerian government will consider to raise the standard and quality of education in Nigeria.
Keywords: Poverty, Education, Qualitative research, Human Capital
Sustainable Development, Environment and Human Right: An Issue
aRajiv Gandhi National University of Law, Panjab, India
Volume 01, Issue 04, Pg. 73-78, 2010
Abstract: The history of sustainability traces human dominated ecological systems from the earliest civilizations to the ecological systems from the earliest civilization to the present. It is becoming apparent that climate change will have implications for the enjoyment of human rights. Technological advances over several millennia gave humans increasing control over the environment. By the 20th century, the industrial revolution had led to an exponential increase in the human consumption of resources. Late 20th century environmental problems were now becoming global awareness, through the work of climate scientists. Sustainable development is a pattern of resources uses that aims to meet human needs while preserving the environment so that these needs can be met not only in the present, but also for future generation. Sustainable development ties together concern for the carrying capacity of natural systems with the social challenges facing humanity. The effects of global warming and climate change are of concern both for the environment and human life. Climate change means that extreme weather events will become more frequent and more dangerous. The key to sound environment policy is respect for private property rights. The strict enforcement of property rights corrects environmental wrongs while increasing the cost of polluting. Its important to keep in mind that you don’t have to live off the land or more to a cabin in the mountains to start helping the environment. We must have noticed how environmental issues are in discussion every where these days, not to be ignored. We can’t continue to be conspicuous with our consumption habits and we have to understand what exactly means is and think about every single action that we take during our daily lives. This paper offers two perspectives i.e. sustainability of environment and human rights.
Keywords: Environment, human rights, sustainability
MANAGEMENT AS VISIONARY PLANNING FOR DEALING WITH SYSTEMIC CHANGE: A CASE OF MALAYSIAN OPEN DISTANCE LEARNING INSTITUTION
aSimin Ghavifekr; aS. Hussin
aDepartment of Educational Management, Planning and Policy, Faculty of Education, University of Malaya, Malaysia.
Volume 01, Issue 04, Pg. 79-86, 2010
Abstract: Vision has been described as a major element in leadership and strategic planning for all organizations including education. Moreover, planning vision has been assumed as the leader’s key task and responsibility. In managing the change process, working on vision not only means examining and re-examining the strategic planning for the organization but also making explicit to management the purpose for the change. Therefore, the importance of the vision and planning would be more essential when an organization is undergoing systemic changes. This paper is the result of a PhD research study. The purpose of this paper is to examine vision as one of the main components of systemic change management strategies for implementing e-learning innovation in an Open-Distance Learning (ODL) organization with management functions including planning, organizing, guiding, and monitoring. From the data analysis it was found that in the context of technology-based change or systemic change that affects all the levels and aspects of the organization, vision and strategic planning play as the two key prerequisites for the success of the change. The results of in-depth analysis of “vision” as the main theme of this study are presented in this paper.
Keywords: Visionary planning, Change management, Open Distance Learning
COMPARISON BETWEEN STUDENT LEARNING OUTCOMES IN HIGHER ELEMENTARY SCHOOL SCIENCE WITH AN STS MODULES AND TYPICAL TEXTBOOKS
Marwan Abualroba, and Esther Danielb
a,bDepartment of Mathematics and Science, Faculty of Education, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
Volume 01, Issue 04, Pg. 87-103, 2010
Abstract: The purpose of this study is to determine whether science, technology, and society modules (STS modules) enhances student attitudes towards science and their achievement. The study involved 8 teachers and 315 students in 8 grade nine classes in Palestine. This study adopted a quasi-experimental methodology, in which eight intact classes of science were utilized. Four were treatment groups, in which the students were taught using the STS teaching learning modules and the students in the other 4 classes are (control group) were taught using atypical textbook. The dependent variables are gender, places (urban and rural) and teaching materials. The major findings indicated that students who are taught using STS teaching learning materials (Modules) scored higher than the control groups in an achievement test and an attitudes scale survey. Females showed higher achievement scores compared to males; however, there were no significant differences between female and male students in their attitudes towards science. It is concluded that there, are no significant differences in the students’ attitudes in relation to their geographical belongings.
Keywords: Science, technology, and Society (STS) and Module