Volume 01 Issue 02

OIDA International Journal of Sustainable Development
Open access peer-reviewed journal 

On the Theory of the Development of Science in Iran: Axioms and Postulates from Humanities and Social Sciences
Hamid Abdollahyana
aDepartment of Communication, Faculty of Social Sciences, University of Tehran, Iran.

Volume 01, Issue 02, Pg. 11-26, 2010

Abstract: Primarily, this paper was produced to answer some critical questions raised by student association of the Faculty of Social Sciences, University of Tehran, Iran in fall 2008. The questions concerned issues such as the causes of assumingly underdevelopment of Humanities and Social Sciences in Iran.  Later on, I took the cause as my personal problematic and developed it into a scholarly paper and took into consideration the socio-political developments that took place in 2009.  They raised three questions that I have tried to answer them in this paper and these questions are as follows: 1-what are the main obstacles for the Social Sciences in Iran that must be dealt with in order for the Social Sciences to be recognized?; 2- to what extent the social scientists in comparison to scholars from other disciplines have been able to produce knowledge?; and, 3- are Iranian social scientists able to participate in collection actions so the results be led to offering solutions for socio-economic and media-communication problems of Iran?

I have used ethnographic, phenomenological as well as intensive interview data collection to come up with some possible and plausible answers.

I have developed some 24 axioms and postulates that I consider them as necessary elements in addressing the problematic of scientific underdevelopment in Iran in the area of Humanities and Social Sciences.  In the end I have come up with some solutions that if considered can result in the development of science in the area of Humanities and Social Sciences.  Also I have offered some propositions that I have used them to organize a theoretical framework that can be used to explain the development of Humanities and Social Sciences and its obstacles in Iran.

Keywords: epistemological break, Iranian indigenous knowledge, problematic of science.

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Achieving Universal Primary Education in Bangladesh
Shuchita Sharmina
aDepartment of Development Studies,University of Dhaka, Bangladesh.

Volume 01, Issue 02, Pg. 27-32, 2010

Abstract: Education is a development agenda. Due to lack of reliable data the information is approximate, it is reported in different literature that there are 16.5 million primary-school-aged children (6 to 10 years old) in Bangladesh or overall there are more than 17 million students at the primary level; again it is estimated that 15.09 million children between the ages of 6 and 10 attend primary school. It can be said that somewhat 16- 17 million children between the ages of 6 and 10 attend primary school. Education is their right but achieving their right to education is a huge challenge. Bangladesh’s commitment to education has been clearly stated in its Constitution and development plans with education being given the highest priority in the public sector investments. Education sector allocations are currently about 2.3 percent of GDP and 14 percent of total government expenditure. Maintaining this commitment to the education sector is imperative in order to achieve Education for All (EFA) and the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). Despite international commitments and serious efforts undertaken by the government, 2.21 million children lack access to primary education. In total, about 5.76 million children of all ages have dropped out of primary school. In such a situation the possible role of school psychologists in achieving Universal Primary Education in Bangladesh needs a rethink.

Keywords: Challenges for the School Psychologists, Commitment of Government of Bangladesh to ensure education, School Psychologists, Universal primary education

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Maximization of Hydropower using Strategies of Differential Evolution
Josiah Adeyemoa, Fred Otienoa
Durban University of Technology, South Africa.

Volume 01, Issue 02, Pg. 33-38, 2010

Abstract: Differential evolution algorithm as a family of evolutionary algorithms is extended to the maximization of hydropower generation in this study. Ten strategies of differential evolution are studied to determine the best strategy for the model. The model is adapted to the monthly operation of Vanderkloof dam in the Lower Orange river in South Africa. From the results, differential evolution strategy 8 (DE/best/2/exp) is the best for this model by generating 510 GWH of energy using 11,389.49 Mm3 of water. It is concluded that differential evolution strategies with exponential crossover method are better than differential evolution strategy with binomial crossover method for the model presented in this study.

Keywords: Differential Evolution, Hydropower, Optimization, Reservoir Operation

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Maximum irrigation benefit using multiobjective differential evolution algorithm (MDEA)
Josiah Adeyemoa, Fred Otienoa
Durban University of Technology, South Africa.

Volume 01, Issue 02, Pg. 39-44, 2010

Abstract: This study presents the application of strategies of multiobjective differential evolution algorithm (MDEA) to the maximization of irrigation benefit in the lower orange catchment of South Africa. The two strategies presented are MDEA1 and MDEA3 with binomial and exponential crossover methods respectively. The study compares the non-dominated solutions generated by the two algorithms to find the better algorithm for the irrigation model presented. From the analysis of the results, the results generated by MDEA1 with binomial crossover method are found superior to the results generated by MDEA3 with exponential crossover method. The average total irrigation water of 104 Mm3 was generated with the corresponding averages of 32,208ha of planting areas and ZAR 1257 million total benefit using MDEA1 while the averages of total irrigation water, total area and total benefit of 128.1 Mm3, 28,021 ha and ZAR 808 million respectively were generated by MDEA3. This study concludes that MDEA with binomial crossover method is better in terms of quantity and quality of non-dominated solutions generated. It is further shown that the maximum irrigation water of 3503 m3 per hectare of land cultivated and ZAR 11.25 per m3 of irrigation water used were generated using MDEA1 while MDEA3 generated the maximum irrigation water of 4570 m3 per hectare of land cultivated and ZAR 5.92 per m3 of irrigation water use. This shows that MDEA1 is better in achieving higher profit for farmers using lower volume of irrigation water.

Keywords: Irrigation planning, MDEA, Multi-objective, Optimization

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Predictors of Business Mathematics Grades
I. Ahmada
aSultan Qaboos University, Oman.

Volume 01, Issue 02, Pg. 45-48, 2010

Abstract: This study attempt to investigate the determinants of the grades in mathematics courses taken by the students who graduated from College of Commerce and Economics (CCE), Sultan Qaboos University, Oman. Five years data on grades in mathematics courses, gender and percentage marks in high school along with stream (arts or science) for all the students were obtained from admissions and registration department of the university. Ordinal regression analysis was performed to investigate the effect of gender, high school marks and prerequisite mathematics courses on the probabilities of obtaining the grades. This analysis reveals that high school marks have significant effect on the probabilities of obtaining a grade in business mathematics courses.  Although it has been the general perception that females had higher probabilities of obtaining higher grades but it was not true when high school marks were taken into consideration.

Keywords: Business Mathematics, Grades, Ordinal Regression, Predictors

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Modeling Sediment Transport in Vaal-Harts Irrigation Scheme South Africa Using Polymaths 6.1
Olumuyiwa I. Ojoa, Fred O. A. Otienob and George M. Ochienga
aTshwane University of Technology, South Africa.
bDurban University of Technology, South Africa.

Volume 01, Issue 02, Pg. 49-54, 2010

Abstract: One of the major negative environmental impacts of large scale irrigation schemes is the problem of sediment transport. This greatly influences the sustainability of an irrigation system. The resultant erosion and deposition not only increase maintenance costs, but may result in an inequitable and inadequate distribution of irrigation water. Understanding the behaviour and transport of sediment allows efficient planning and reliable water delivery schedules, and ensures the controlled deposition of sediments, making maintenance activities more manageable. In this study, sediment transport in Vaal-harts irrigation canals was investigated in 2009 to estimate the quantity that leaves the cultivation area. The irrigation scheme situated in between the Vaal and Harts River Basin is about 36,000 ha in area. There is intensive cultivation in the area. The sediment concentrations, discharge and turbidity were monitored. Regression of sediment load on discharge was carried out using Polymaths 6.1. It was discovered that the average values of sediment concentration were 0.81 mg/l (July-September) and 0.95 mg/l (October – December).

Keywords: Discharge, Irrigation Canal, Pollution, Sediment, Turbidity

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Irrigation Canal Simulation Models and its Application to Large Scale Irrigation Schemes in South Africa A Review
aGeorge M. Ochieng, Olumuyiwa I. Ojoa and Fred. O. A. Otienob
aTshwane University of Technology, South Africa.
bDurban University of Technology, South Africa.

Volume 01, Issue 02, Pg. 55-60, 2010

Abstract: Irrigation Canal Simulation Model (ICSM) is a management and diagnostic tool in water management of open canal irrigation schemes. It is being adopted for efficient water management in large irrigation schemes in developed countries. The basic components of ICSMs and their development were reviewed with the focus of presenting their principles and procedures. The key issues on how to simulate water flow in irrigation canal and the prevailing conditions that can allow such issues to be studied and quantified were analysed and linked with the requirements and practical uses of the ICSMs. The applicability of such tool to the South Africa irrigation schemes was also assessed. The need for the experts to be drawn from research institutions like Dept. of  Water & Environment, Council for Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR), Agricultural Research Council (ARC) and Universities to initiate the process of developing a friendly ICSM was suggested, as this will help in the management of the schemes judging from the enormous cost investments. The cost effectiveness in terms of time, energy, human and materials resources savings are among the advantages for their adoption.

Keywords: Hydraulic modelling. Irrigation Canal, Simulation Models

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Can you try this model?
Introducing an instructional leadership model for teacher performance evaluation
Nasser Salim Al-ghanabousia
aUniversity of Malaya,  Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.

Volume 01, Issue 02, Pg. 61-76, 2010

Abstract: The school principal’s role as an instructional leader has sustained to revolutionize since the last four decades. The understanding of the complexity and ambiguity of the role has developed and the focus shifted from management and supervision to instructional leadership. This study, however, was undertaken to uncover perceptions of Omani principals have concerning their view and practice of teacher performance evaluation and challenges that affect teacher performance evaluation in Oman. This study aims to explore the school principals’ practices in carrying out the performance evaluation of teachers in selected Omani schools. Data reported in this study were gathered from three schools located in Southeast region in the Sultanate of Oman. Selection of participants is critical in qualitative research; therefore, the researcher used purposeful sampling to identify the three instructional leaders whose total experience was not less than 3 years in the same school that involved in school performance evaluation system. The sample was selected from those schools where a school level doorkeeper accepts to take place in the study. Semi-structure interview approach is used as the prime source of data, direct observations and document analysis. Interviews were recorded and transcribed literally and translated from Arabic to English. Transcripts were iteratively read and coded, then analyzed using the constant-comparative method. Codes were grouped into 8 units: (a) the conception of teacher’s performance evaluation, (b) goal setting process, (c) monitoring teacher performance, (d) feedback on teacher’s performance, (e) professional development, (f) Favored teachers (g) the principal’s motivation (h) summative evaluation. Once unitized and coded, explanation were then entered into the database for analysis. The study, however, came up with implications for practice and theory. Recommendations were taken directly from participants and the researcher added his recommendations based on the research findings and the need to improve teacher performance evaluation in Oman school.

Keywords: Instructional leadership, performance evaluation, professional development, teacher performance evaluation

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Increasing landlessness and its impact on food
Mehruna Islam Chowdhurya & Mohammed Abdul Batenb
aCentre for Policy Dialogue, Dhaka, Bangladesh.
bUnnayan Onneshan, Dhaka, Bangladesh.

Volume 01, Issue 02, Pg. 77-84, 2010

Abstract: Physical and economic access to food ensures an active and healthy life. For attaining food security, access to adequate and nutritious food is required. Access to productive resources, such as land is regarded crucial for attaining food security, through increasing access to sufficient food. In Bangladesh, food insecurity remains a reality for millions, including farmers and landless labourers. Due to increasing population, unjust market intervention, poor governance, medium and small farmers are losing their productive land and becoming landless gradually. Moreover, climate induced hazards, such as recurring floods, cyclones, riverbank erosion are also contributing to the increasing landlessness. The current study has been taken to explore the link between landlessness and food security in rural Bangladesh. The study reveals that even though 75 percent food production comes from the rural areas, however due to landlessness and some associated factors, the small and marginal farmers in the rural areas are still deprived from their access to food. Landlessness of the farmers leads to their insufficient purchasing power to buy adequate nutritious food for their families. The farmers are faced with food insecurity, which has impacts on the livelihood of the farmers in various dimensions. Finally the study reveals the view of the small and marginal landless farmers on substantive actions necessary to achieve their food security.

Keywords: Bangladesh, Farmers, Food security, Landlessness

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The process of causal attribution of poverty
Preliminary results of a survey in Italy
Norciaa, A. Castellania and A. Rissottoa
aInstitute of Cognitive Sciences and Technologies, National Research Council, Italy.

Volume 01, Issue 02, Pg. 85-97, 2010

Abstract: This study analyses the attributions of causality for poverty and wealth in order to better understand people’s viewpoint. According to literature, we can detect three main attributions, depending on the return of the condition of poverty (or wealth) to individual, structural and mixed factors. The data we analyzed refer to a 2008 research which has been carried out on 2000 participants in Italy. A Principal Component Analysis has allowed the identification of three components relating to external, internal and fatalistic attributions of the phenomena of poverty and wealth. Following analysis have showed significant relations between attributions and factors like economic status (real or perceived), sex, education level, political orientation and media use.

Keywords: attributions about stratification, poverty beliefs, poverty explanations, social perception, wealth beliefs

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