Volume 05 Issue 07

OIDA International Journal of Sustainable Development
Open access peer-reviewed journal 

Risk Factors for Indoor Air Pollution in Peri-Urban Areas of Ado Ekiti, Southwest, Nigeria
Oluwakemi B. Akintan a
a School of Geography, Clive Granger Building, University of Nottingham, University Park, United Kingdom.

Volume 05, Issue 07, Pg. 12-17, 2012.

Abstract: The level of indoor air pollution in buildings increases when households rely on biomass fuels for energy needs, thereby making them predisposed to health risks as a result of exposure to wood smoke. To examine households’ risk factors of exposure to wood smoke, 350 homes in peri-urban areas of Ado Ekiti, Southwest, Nigeria, was selected for study. Using the convenience sampling technique, questionnaires were used to collect data on household characteristics, building types and construction materials, as well as on the ventilation and fuel types used by the householders. Majority (seventy eight percent) of the householders live in mud built corrugated iron roof type houses, with eaves and small windows ventilation. The main source of energy type used by ninety six percent of the householders for cooking activities is largely from wood fuel. The study identified poor ventilation and fuel type as the main risk factors contributing to the health problems of householders’ due to exposure to indoor air pollution in the study area, with subsequent short and long term consequences.

Keywords: biomass fuel, indoor air pollution, risk factors, health impacts

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Making Global Cities Sustainable: Urban Rooftop Hydroponics for Diversified Agriculture in Emerging Economies 
Robert W. Taylor a, J. S. Carandang b, C. Alexander c, J. S Calleja d
a Department of Earth & Environmental Studies, Montclair State University, Montclair, New Jersey, USA.
b Department of Biology, De La Salle University, Manila, Philippines.
 c Department of Environmental Management, Montclair State University, Montclair, New Jersey, USA.
d Campus Services (AVCCS), De La Salle University, Manila, Philippines.

Volume 05, Issue 07, Pg. 18-30, 2012.

Abstract: Food security will be a challenge for global cities in emerging economies. Traffic congestion, rising fuel prices, and poor road and logistical infrastructure has produced a problem in transporting agriculture from rural areas to urban markets where people reside and where the food is consumed. Urban roof agriculture is being explored in various global cities as a method to increase food security, enhance environmental awareness and as a key strategy for urban sustainability. This paper discusses the capacity of cities to reduce both their ecological and carbon footprints through utilizing under-used roof space in larger global cities to grow food. Data for quantifiable projections relies on a pilot project to develop a hydroponics installation on Saint Joseph Hall at De La Salle University in Manila, Philippines that grew lettuce which was consumed on-site.^ This project showed that growing lettuce on a rooftop is not only possible but may even be profitable. The methods developed demonstrate the capacity to minimize the ecological and carbon footprints of growing lettuce and micro greens by saving transportation and logistical costs, reducing greenhouse gas emissions, conserving water, and saving energy costs by using solar panels as a power source for pumps and aerators. This project is also particularly relevant for schools and universities, areas of learning, where students have the opportunity to reconnect with nature and the food supply chain.

Keywords: Food Security, Urban Sustainability, Rooftop Hydroponics, Urban Farming, Low-Carbon Cities 

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Human Development Quality and its Problems in Indonesia
Muhammad Zilal Hamzah a, Renny Risqiani b, Eleonora Sofilda c
a Trisakti University and Indonesian Business School, Jakarta, Indonesia.
b, c  Sustainable Development Management Program, Economics Faculty, Trisakti University, Jakarta, Indonesia.

Volume 05, Issue 07, Pg. 30-36, 2012.

Abstract: Human development has been the main theme of the world along with the publication of the Human Development Report first time by the United Nations in 1990. Development orientation shifted from economic development which only focuses on simply revenue growth to be human-oriented development. One of the indicators used to measure the success rate of development of a society is the Human Development Index (HDI). HDI value created by the United Nations for Development Programme in 2010, ranked Indonesia at 108 of 169 countries with a HDI score of 0.600. This score is better than the score in 2009 of 0.593, with a rank at 111. 

This study examines the effect of economic growth, income distribution, income per capita, population growth rate, unemployment rate, the number of poor, local government budget allocations for education, local government budget allocations for health, local government budget allocations for the environment, local government budget allocations for housing and public facilities, the implementation of regional autonomy, the implementation of the Law no. 20 of 2003 on National Education System toward human development quality in Indonesia? This study uses panel regression methods and the data cross of 26 (twenty six) provinces in Indonesia as well as the data series from 1993-2009. 

The results showed there were six variables that affect significantly i.e : economic growth, per capita income, population growth, growth in the unemployment, allocation of education fund and dummy of regional autonomy toward human development quality. From the six variables, only per capita income, allocation of government funds spent on education and dummy of regional autonomy are positively related to human development quality, and in the meantime; economic growth, population growth, and growth in the unemployment is negatively related to human development quality. 

Variables income distribution, the number of poor, local government allocation of funds expended for health sector, local government allocation of funds expended for environmental, local government allocation of funds expended for housing and public facilities, as well as dummy Act No.20 of 2003 about the national education system had no significant effect toward human development quality. 

From these results, economic growth cannot always be used as an indicator of the implementation of economic development. Where economic development is also about human development. Although Indonesia’s economy is currently quite high, but have not been able to provide a better welfare for its people. This condition is suspected due to the economic growth is not fully in favor of the people. Also found from the results; the high levels of income inequality among the provinces, the high rate of population growth and high unemployment are causing these variables have a negative impact on the quality of human development.

Allocation of funds used for education have significant effect in improving the quality of human development and has appropriate with the theory. In this case the role of government is needed to give more attention to this education sector, because it has a direct impact on the improvement of quality of life. But the allocation of funds in the health sector has yet to have a significant effect and the resulting coefficients are also contrary to the theory. This can be caused by the health funds are delegated from central to local government has been only to the extent of infrastructure development and facilities improvement. So that the allocation of these funds cannot be directly enjoyed by most of the people, especially people with middle and lower classes. Allocation of funds for the environment and the allocation of funds for housing and public facilities have not significantly influence the quality of human development. This means that the allocation of funds to this sector need to be considered again by the Government; considering to the portion for environmental improvement, building cheap transportation and free road facilities (so that experts such as teachers and health workers able to reach concession areas), serving and maintain clean water and energy (hence rural communities can also enjoy the outcomes of development), is still very minimal. Though the environment and facilities is necessary to make healthy communities and quality of human development has also increased. Furthermore, dummy regional autonomy has positive and significant, have been shown to improve the human development quality due to the implementation of regional autonomy in Indonesia.

Keywords: economic growth, human development index, number of poor, population growth, panel regression methods.

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Mycotoxin Contamination of Food and its Possible Implications on Sustainable Development in Rungwe District, Tanzania
Rose Mboya a, Ayalneh Bogale b
a, b  African Centre for Food Security, College of Agriculture, Engineering and Science, 
University of KwaZulu-Natal, Pietermaritzburg, South Africa.

Volume 05, Issue 07, Pg. 38-47, 2012.

Abstract: The potential for mycotoxin contamination of maize to have negative implications on sustainable development was explored using secondary data, with special attention to a report on mycotoxin contamination of maize in Katumba ward, which revealed the existence of extremely high quantities of aflatoxins (0.4 mg/kg), fumonisins (87.7 mg/kg), ochratoxins (0.7 mg/kg) and T-2 toxins (6.2 mg/kg) in stored maize (Mboya et al., 2012). 

To investigate the heads of farm households’ capacity to understand literature and issues around mycotoxin contamination of food, the same 260 heads of farm households whose maize had been studied for mycotoxin contamination were studied with respect to the number of years that each one of them had spent on obtaining formal education. In addition, the means that the farm households used to control fungi in stored maize were investigated. It was found that 10 % of the farm household heads had no formal education at all, 68.5 % had 1 – 7 years of primary education and 18.8 % had secondary education and only 2.3 % had college education. The mean for the heads of farm households’ years of formal education was 6.57 and standard deviation was 3.08. 

It was also found that 73 % of the farm households did not use any means of controlling moulds in stored maize, 26.2 % removed the infected maize kernels from the lot and disposed it in the fields. 0.8 % dehulled the maize whenever they noticed that it was being infected by fungi. It was concluded that such high levels of mycotoxins as those found in maize in Katumba ward have capacity to incapacitate people. In turn this would not only thwart the economic growth, but it would also negate the efforts made on sustainable development in the relevant communities. It was also concluded that the low level of formal education of the heads of farm households could possibly lead to the vulnerability of the farm households as a result of the farm households being insufficiently informed concerning issues around food security, particularly concerning mycotoxin contamination of food. Lastly, it was further concluded that the farm householders did not know how to control the development of fungi in stored maize, and that the practice of dumping fungal infected maize kernels in the fields was detrimental to the environment because it created possibilities for the multiplication of pathogenic fungal species in the fields. It was recommended that simple literature, which is compatible with the level of education of farm householders be made available to them, and that educating ordinary people concerning mycotoxins be prioritized.

Keywords: Education, Food, Health, Mycotoxins, Sustainable development

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Knowledge Transfer Strategies for Development of Cultural Goods and Services based on Sustainable Development Concept in Thailand
Atchara Sriphan a
a Department of Communication, Faculty of Management and Information Sciences, 
Naresuan University, Thailand.

Volume 05, Issue 07, Pg. 48-57, 2012.

Abstract: This research develop knowledge management strategy for applying sustainable development concept in cultural goods and services production in Thailand. Main objective of this research is to set up knowledge transfer strategies for the production of cultural goods and services of entrepreneurs at all the World Cultural Heritage in Thailand using sustainable development concept. Specifically, the research attempts to 1) study the production of cultural goods and services industry, and 2) develop knowledge transfer strategies for the industry. Both quantitative and quality methods were used in this Participatory Action Research (PAR). The findings are as follows: 1) cultural goods and services production in Thailand are still traditional both in term of material usage and production methods. Three dimensions of sustainable development concept including economic dimension, social dimension and environmental dimension hasn’t been actively applied. In fact, 55 percent of cultural goods and services producers in Thailand lack material selection and production process with environmental concerns. 2) critical knowledge (both local and global) based on sustainable development concept are knowledge of selection methods of local ecological materials, and sustainable production methods of cultural goods and services 3) appropriate knowledge transfer strategy for the production of cultural goods and services in Thailand is participatory knowledge transfer among entrepreneurs, workers, public sector personnel, business sector personnel and other important stakeholders. The model for the strategy we found suitable for this industry is APPRECIATE Model (Attraction, Participation, Practical, Relation, Education, Culture, Integration, Activity, Technology, and Environment). Implication of this model can be divided into 4 steps: step1. start the knowledge transfer process by applying attracting and participating procedures; step 2. prepare integrative and practical knowledge to be transferred including cultural and environmental knowledge, using procedures that fit Thai lifestyle.; step 3. apply knowledge transfer process using education, and activity based learning; Step 4. utilize innovative knowledge asset and technology from involving community. However, the most success key factor of 4 step is step 2. prepare integrative and practical knowledge to be transferred including cultural and environmental knowledge, using procedures that fit Thai lifestyle, because the most obstacle of knowledge transfer in Thailand is body of knowledge that not practical knowledge. So knowledge transfer strategy is the key success factor to development of cultural goods and services based on sustainable development concept in Thailand.

Keywords: Knowledge Transfer Strategies, Sustainable Development, Cultural Products and Services, Knowledge Management, Sustainable production

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Barrier and Effective Measures: Access to Formal Education of Sex Workers’ Children in Bangladesh
Masuma Billah a, Alison Subrata Baroi b
a Department of Population Sciences, University of Dhaka, Bangladesh.

Volume 05, Issue 07, Pg. 58-63, 2012.

Abstract: This paper explores the barriers to formal education of sex workers’ children in Bangladesh and intended to discover the effective measures accordingly. The study investigated the socio economic profile of the sex workers who are mother with children of school going age and interlinked this profile with the barriers to access in formal education of their children. This is a mixed method study; 100 randomly selected mothers who are sex worker are interviewed for quantitative section and for qualitative part three (3) focus group dissuasions (FDG) with the mother and three (3) FGD with the children of school going age also two (2) in-depth interview with the school teachers are arranged where 68 respondents participated in discussion from different groups. Result shows that children of sex workers’ has a limited access to formal education; those who rarely get chance to be admitted by roaming enormous humiliation from every sphere of the admission and lesson learning process, are also ended up as dropout after a short period of time. A massive ignorance and reluctance is also found from the education provider’s end. Mother’s of the children; most of the cases who are the only parent and sole decision maker for their children’s education are illiterate or merely educated to take a prompt and dynamic decision for their children’s future. The continuous ignorance, discrimination and denial from the education provider and the relevant stakeholders discourage mothers to be exposed or claim education for their children. Financial crisis also sometime play a vital role for discontinuation. Moreover mothers need to struggle for coping up with the discipline and rules-regulation of the institute like formal schools. The identified barriers are countable but enormous effort is needed to resolve those barriers. As the barriers developed from societal aspect, societal remedy is needed foremost. Mass awareness is the pre requisite to change the mindset of the people living in the society. Target oriented focused program should be undertaken by the government as well the NGOs working in the field of education to aware mothers of the children and provider’s of the educational facilities. To resolve the barriers a holistic approach is required with the association of each stakeholders involved in the formal education process of children. It also should be kept in mind that the desired result will not be achieved over night and a patience effort demand to resolve the barrier and to conquer the ultimate achievement.

Keywords: Formal education, Barrier, Measure, Sex Worker

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A Comparison of Agricultural Cooperatives in Japan and Thailand: A Case Study of the Watjun and Tawangpa Agricultural Cooperative and JA Aichi
Ratchanee Mukhjang a 
a Department of Economics,  Faculty of Management and Information Sciences,  Naresuan University, Thailand.

Volume 05, Issue 07, Pg. 64-69, 2012.

Abstract: The primary objective of development is  to enhance the quality of live but the preceding development process with the use of the striking technological revolutions and the modernization of extraction industries  have not result in well-being of people everywhere. Sustainable  development  is the main desirable for  the world’s nation.  Cooperatives could  form a particularly significant   mechanism  for the development of the marginalized sections of the society  since they have strong ties to local communities. 

There are a lot of research reports related to agricultural cooperatives in Thailand and Japan but there  are very few studies that compare the performance of the agricultural cooperatives in these two countries especially for case studies. Moreover, this research project went into the field work in Aichi prefecture in Japan. As a descriptive survey research, data collection was done during April, 2008 to June,2011. In addition, the observation units for quantitative data are annual reports of these cooperatives. The qualitative data are obtained  from indebt interview with mangers, board members and government involved. Furthermore, secondary data  were used. This comparative study analyzed from the institutional economic perspectives, so the framework starts with the independent variables called institutional factors namely top down orientation, the structure of the board, the government policies, spirit of cooperation.  Results of the study show that only the first factor, the top-down policy is alike while the others are different.  JA- Aichihigashi run along different lines to Tawangpha and Watchan agricultural cooperatives. By comparison, the performances of the two agricultural cooperatives in Thailand are less than those in Japan. Cash deposit is the most important business for them. Tawangpa agricultural cooperative  in particular create a network with a private company, support a woman group , use a radio station to make a closer relationship with their members. Moreover, the managers  was selected to join the international training  program.   Apart from sale and purchase,  the JA do the interesting business and services including banking , insurance – the highest value business, training, funeral , marriage  counseling , farm guidance – it is  unique. About the significant financial ratio that represent the capital strength, asset quality,  earning   and liquidity are 1.83,1.4, 3.96 and 0.987 respectively for Tawangpa agricultural cooperative. As for Watjun agricultural cooperative, those ratios  are 0.79, 1.47, 1.37  and 1.49 respectively.  Apart from that, the ratios for JA Aichihigashi are 0.91, 0.18, 17.57 and 1.05 respectively. What this study has suggested are  that the agricultural cooperatives in Thailand should provide more activities for members – from  the cradle to the grave like in Japan.  For example, they should  More important, they should apply  the principles of  the  philosophy  –  Sufficiency Economy,    bestowed by His Majesty the King.

Keywords: Agricultural cooperative, financial analysis, Fscal year, Institutional factors, Sufficiency Economy

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Green Tourism for Sustainable Regional Development in East Coast Economic Region (Ecer), Malaysia
Md. Anowar Hossain Bhuiyan a, Chamhuri Siwar b,  Shaharuddin Mohamad Ismail c , Khairul Naim Adham d
a, b, c, dInstitute for Environment and Development (LESTARI), 
Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia (UKM), Bangi, Selangor, Malaysia. 

Volume 05, Issue 07, Pg. 70-80, 2012.

Abstract: Rapid growth of tourism industry is negatively affected mother nature as record shows that this industry contributes 5% of global greenhouse gases (GHGs) emission. In realizing this worrying fact, Green Tourism has gained its popularity as one of the measures to address the issue. Moreover, Green Tourism practices will lead to positives growth of tourism industry. In general, Green Tourism has significant orientation with local culture and natural environment, involves efficient use of energy and water, improves waste generation systems, and creates employment opportunity. Available evidence also shows that Green Tourism contributes towards sustainable regional development. In the context of Malaysia, tourism industry plays an important role for vibrant economic progress as it is the second largest foreign exchange earning sector. For this reason, the Malaysian Government has given special attention in establishing Green Tourism concepts in peculiar to the East Coast Economic Region (ECER) which consists of three states and one district  namely Kelantan, Terengganu, Pahang and District of Mersing in Johor. The region is well-known for its rich natural assets such as – un-spoilt beaches, serene, coral-ringed islands as well as lush rainforests, cool clean rivers, recreational forest and calming highlands. All of these assets could be preserved by implementing Green Tourism practices. The aim of this study is to explore the potential of Green Tourism in the ECER. The study attempts to analyze the considerable issues and strategies in Green Tourism development in the region. The data for analysis in this study is perceived from the secondary sources. Based on the analysis, there are a number of potentialities remain in this region for Green Tourism development which includes suitable tourism resources and activities, forest and protected areas, economic driver, growth of tourism sector, poverty reduction, appropriate tourism stakeholders and limited natural disadvantages. However, there are also some challenges to be tackled such as carbon emission, water consumption, waste management, less of biological diversity and management of cultural heritage. Identifying green tourism assets, ensuring sustainability, effective marketing, community participation and prevent negative environmental impact could be suitable strategies in order to deal with those challenges. Malaysian government indeed can implement appropriate policies, regulations and guidelines to boost Green Tourism development in the ECER. Strong cooperation between Federal and State authorities are needed in facilitating such efforts. Besides that, capacity building program to train human resources and local people that involve in Green Tourism should be also taken into consideration to support its implementation. 

Keywords: ECER, Environment, Green Tourism, Malaysia, Regional Development

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Codification Framework of Planning and Design New Towns in Iran to Achieve Sustainable Urban Areas
Case Study: Baharestan, Iran
Zeinab Talebi Rizi a
a Department of Urban Planning, Faculty of Art, Architecture and Urban Planning, Islamic Azad University, Najafabad Branch, Moallem Blvd, Najanabad, Isfahan, Iran.

Volume 05, Issue 07, Pg. 80-86, 2012.

Abstract: Inception of urban planning in Iran has coincided to Modern movement and strongly has been affected by its concepts until now. The policy of establishing new town is one of most important concept in last five decades. It seems that this policy in Iran is in close relationship with the goals of establishing new towns in some other countries, especially in Britain. 

Building new towns has considered in two main sectors: pre_ revolution (1979) and post_ revolution (1979). The main objectives and methods in these sections are different. Before the revolution new towns were constructed based on political, security aims or in regard to operation of huge oil reserves and oil affiliated industries. After the revolution the objectives of building new towns turned out to be the control of population in large cities, decentralization of large cities, absorption overflow of population and house supplication for low-income people. However new urban developments have been allocated with a definite distance from main cities or even connected to them (many gardens and fertile farmlands have been destroyed due to development of such towns).

 The survey indicates that most of new towns have merely succeeded to attract less population as they planned. The new towns have generally failed to achieve the 10 year envisaged goals and have converted into housing warehouses. At present, 17 new towns have been able to attract only 320,548 persons. These statistics introduce these towns as undesirable places. The most important problems in these towns are as follow:

(a) Uniform house and public space pattern (b) Social and cultural conflicts (contradictions) (c) Lack commercial, administrative and health services (d) Poor quality of construction, architecture and urban design (e) Inefficient public transportation (f) High energy consumption (g) Lack of social interactions  (h) Absence of sense of place (i) Poor relationship between human, built environment and natural environment  (j) Car-based life (k) Lack of social capital ( l) Poor pedestrian facilities Natural environment demolish (j)  More deterioration of inner city (in connected new towns)

All of these detected problems can be called generally “unsustainability” that causes loss of quality of life. Lack of vision for integrating different social, cultural and economic dimensions of urban life in a sustainable framework by planners, designers and urban management is one of the main reasons of this problem. Iran population will reach 130 million in 2021. It’s estimated that about 74 percent of total population will live in urban areas that time, that is, Iran’s urban population is estimated to increase about 96 million. So the country will need about twice land level of all existing cities to settle the additional 70 population in the next years (between 1986 – 2021). Regarding to this, establishing new towns is necessity of urban planning and urban design in Iran. 

The main purpose of this paper is codification principles for new town planning and design by applying sustainability doctrines, trends and approaches. The results of survey will be presented as strategies, policies, methods and techniques that include all stages of urban planning, urban design and architecture process in different scales, from allocation new towns to architectural style or construction. The results also regard to different urban dimensions: functional, physical, social, economic and cultural dimension to create holistic sustainable urban areas in new towns. The results are also useful in regenerating inner cities. 

In this context, there are valuable cases among Iranian new towns. Baharestan, a new town near Isfahan is selected for survey. It is planned, designed and built after the revolution. According to papers aim, Isfahan unique historical urban characters and natural context of this city confirm this selection. 

Keywords: New towns of Iran; Sustainability; Sustainable urban design; Sustainable urban planning.

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The Impact of Training and Development on Performance of Officers of Select Public Sector Banks for Sustainable Human Development: A Study
K. Pramod Gonchkar a,
a Commerce and Management , Govt. R. C. College, Palace Road, Bangalore, Karnataka, India.

Volume 05, Issue 07, Pg. 88-98, 2012.

Abstract: This paper is based on an empirical (Survey) study covers only the public sector banks (PSB’s) operating in Bangalore, India and their officers regarding the impact of training and development   of officers on their performance. It also explains that training and development has impact on employee’s skills, knowledge, attitudes and behavior, job performance, productivity which means the officers feel to work for the benefit of the bank if they find training and development to be for their benefit. If the subjects of the training and development were pertinent to the officer’s job interest, they find the training and development to be more interesting, innovative and work towards the benefit of the organization. The officers want to the training to be more specific towards their jobs so that they can utilize that on their jobs. 

Training in public sector banks is traditional in approach and normally concentrates on the improvement of operative skills, interpersonal skills, decision-making skills, or a combination of these yes, wonder of wonders, any mention of customer or customer service is absent. No wonder when one enters into a public sector bank this is what one gets to see, the employees with their heads bent down are busy with their work. The customer seems to be an intrusion to them and their institution. Nationalisation; has invariably given them an aura of a government organisation. The staff here is assured of a permanent job with benefits, and there is no incentive for customer care or high performance.

Periodically, the impact of training and development programmes on the trainee’s needs to be appraised so correction, if needed, can be incorporated along the way so that every rupee spent on the programmes will have been spent productively, Hence this study “the training and development on the performance of officers of select public sector banks in Bangalore” has been taken up.  

The survey method has been used for this study. Data required for the research was collected from both primary and secondary sources. Primary data was collected from PSBs and PSB officers by administering Interview Schedules. In addition, the researcher interacted extensively with the top managements of the respondent PSBs in general to elicit their views and comments on the topic under study.

Secondary data was collected from the web sites of the ministry of finance of the government of India, the Reserve Bank of India and the respondent PSBs themselves. In addition, inputs were gathered from the financial press.

The random sampling technique has been applied since every PSB stands an equal and independent chance of being selected. Further, the population being homogeneous, a simple random sampling will give a representative sample. The probability sampling method has been selected because the survey intends to generalise the findings based on the sample survey to the population.

Interview Schedules were administered to seven PSB respondents and 700 PSB officer respondents. The feedback received was used to fine-tune the Schedules. Duly completed Schedules received from the first four PSB respondents and the first 400 PSB officer respondents were selected for the study.

Interview Schedules were drafted and administered to the two categories respondents for collection of primary data. The questions in the Schedules were open-ended and close-ended as well in view of the nature of the topic the study covers. 

The collected primary data was processed manually. Statistical tools like averages were used to analyse and interpret the data, duly supplemented by graphical and tabular representation. Appropriate interpretations were added to the tabulated and charted data. Chi-squared tests were conducted to test the hypotheses.

Keywords: Banks, Officers, Performance, Productivity, Training and Development

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