Volume 05 Issue 04

OIDA International Journal of Sustainable Development
Open access peer-reviewed journal 

Challenges of Aging and Development: Global Perspectives
Rajesh Kumar Gautam a
a Department of Anthropology, Dr. H.S. Gour University, Sagar, (MP), India.

Volume 05, Issue 04, Pg. 12-30, 2012.

Abstract: Aging is an essential phenomenon among living organism. Rapidly ageing world represents both challenges and opportunities. The available data indicate that longer lifespan became more common recently in human evolution. During early phase of human origin, the   average age of human being was 20-30 years. Currently the average life expectancy of human being for the world is 70 years. In this way, the life expectancy of humans is doubled or tripled. In spite that aging is associated with various morbid conditions; the life expectancy is increasing proportionately to the socio-economic development. Why? And what would be its consequences? The objective of this paper is to understand the process of aging across the nations, to elucidate the trend and extent of life expectancy around the globe and to find out the possible correlates of it using the regression and correlation analysis. The study is based on secondary information collected from Census reports, World fact sheet, Data sheet of population reference bureau (PRB), Human development report, Encyclopaedia Britannica, Wikipaedia and other reliable sources and websites, published and unpublished documents. The data on life expectancy at birth were gathered for 216 countries of the globe. The data on population structure and composition in form of proportion in major age groups 0-14 years, 15-64 years and 65+ years were obtained and young age dependency ratio (YADR), old age dependency ratio (OADR), total dependency ratio (TDR) and index of aging were calculated for the countries. The data on human development index was available for 183 countries. Similarly the data on gender inequality index was available for 143 countries. During upper Paleolithic period the life expectancy of Human being was 33 years, whereas, during 20th century it crossed 65 years. Currently it is 70 years for the world population. In many instances it varied considerably according to class and gender. There is wide variation among the countries around the globe. The lowest was estimated 47.8 years for Sierra Leon whereas highest 83.4 years was estimated for Japan. Further it varies among different groups of nation. It is higher in high-income countries (79.6 years) as compared to middle income countries (68.8 years) and low-income countries (58.4 years). In sub-Saharan Africa it is further lower (53.8 years). In comparison to males, the females have higher life expectancy. The difference varies between 0.1 to 11.9 years in 168 countries. At one end the increased life expectancy is an indicator of better socio-economic condition on the other hand it increasing new challenges with high proportion of aged people. Today more than 7.6 percent of total populations of world are aged (65+ years); in numbers it is 532 million. In some parts of the world, due to increasing life expectancy, the populations of aged individuals are increasing rapidly. The Japan is in top of the list of 183 countries with 22.7% population of 65+ years of age. In the bottom there are United Arab Emirates, Qatar and Sierra Leone respectively with 0.4%, 1.0% and 1.9% of aged population. In 2009, the United Nations estimated that there were 455,000 centenarians worldwide. The United States currently have the greatest number of centenarians of any nation, estimated at 70,490. This corresponds to a national incidence of one centenarian per 4,400 people. Japan has the second-largest number of centenarians, with an estimated 47,756. To understand the process and correlates of aging the correlation and regression analysis computed which indicate that it have strong correlation with population structure and composition, fertility, mortality, migration and indices of development. It is apparent from present analysis that life expectancy is increasing all over the globe, though the magnitude of increment is declining. It means that the population of aged will also increase day by day along with socio-economic development and improvement in health care facilities. The increasing proportion of aged would need special attention and planning at different level so that our old age may be secured, insured and healthy.

Keywords: Aging, Centenarian, Development, Fertility, Migration.

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Alpine Treeline Rise, Climate Change Response and its Effect on Sustainable Development in High Mountains in the Northwestern Indian Himalaya
Pyar Singh a
a Wadia Institute of Himalayan Geology, DehraDun, Uttrakhand State, India.

Volume 05, Issue 04, Pg. 28-41, 2012.

Abstract: Alpine forest treeline is one of the important natural features of high altitude mountain ecosystem that plays a vital role in human well-being by nurturing sustainable livelihood and facilitating development process in the form of natural resource conservation, biological diversity, geo-hydrological cycle, water resources, atmospheric circulation and other eco-system benefits. Treeline is very sensitive to climate change and register the prevailing scenario by its spatial dynamics as a climate marker. Ecologically treeline rise is a direct indication of shrinking snow and glacier regime alongwith the various changes in natural resources and overall climatic set-up of the region which is bound to hit the sustainable development and even the survival of the human being, especially of deprived section of society. 

Himalaya is the youngest and highest mountain chain of the World located in Asian sub-continent and because of its vast water reservoir and unique terrain, it is globally known as Water Tower of Asia and Roof of the World. The main Himalayan range forms an arc of 2,400 km. and serves as a source of some of the world’s major river systems encompassing 18 countries. In spite of being rich in natural resources, climate change impact has become a serious environmental concern in Himalaya, because of profound influence and potential threat on natural resources, ecological cycles, biodiversity and socio-economic affairs in the region. The sustainable productivity in Himalayan region depends on the inter-related ocean-atmosphere and terrestrial system that control the Asian monsoon and winter Westerlies. The estimated weakness and continuing delay in the Asian monsoon / Westerlies is predicted to generate resource crunch, productivity loss, socio-economic constraints and various environmental stresses and ultimately hamper the sustainable development in the region.

Amongst the various rivers emerges from the mighty Himalaya, the alpine treeline region of river Ganga in northwestern Indian Himalayan part, has been selected for the present study. The Ganga basin covers an area of nearly 10, 89370 sq. kms in China, Nepal, India and Bangladesh and its regional importance can be realized by the fact that it is the most heavily populated river basin in the world and provides food, shelter and ecological services to the nearly half of the earth population, i.e., over 747 million people. 

The spatial position of altitudinal treeline has been estimated from 3048 to 4110 m asl with variable rate of treeline rise in various parts of Himalaya but these results are obtained under variable climatic domain, geographic set-up and environment and hence are not comparable at uniform scale and environmental condition. While the present study carried out in Chorabari and Dokriani glacier valleys contains same climatic domain and geo-environmental condition. 

In order to evaluate the change in treeline vis-a-vis climate and its effect on sustainable development in recent past, the spatial existence of altitudinal treeline has been investigated for the period of 1962 to 2009. The past existence of treeline is determined with the help of benchmarked 1962 Survey of India topographic map, relevant floristic records and their at-the-spot validation, while present status is investigated and delineated by detailed ground checks. A UNESCO standard and sampling method-field practice has been adopted during field investigation. It is revealed that in the proximity of glacial snout, treeline shift towards higher altitudes was at the rate of 10.21m/year in Chorabari and 1.70m/year in Dokriani glacier valleys. This treeline dynamics is attributed to the climate change, however sharp difference of 08.51 m in treeline rise rate under similar climatic domain is strongly suggestive of dominance of local site conditions, rather than regional and global climate system. During field investigation it has also been observed that moisture ridden north-facing slopes have encouraged growth of broad leaved Betula utilis, Rhododendron companulatum, Sorbus acuparia species while species such as Taxus baccata, Juniperus squamata, Abies spectabilis flourished on the drier south facing slopes. The treeline advance to the erstwhile snow-ice boundary, replacement of dominant Quercus semicarpifolia by Rhododendron companulatum, Betula utilis and Sorbus acuparia in current treeline are bound to invite ecological implication such as increased carbon sink area but to decreased frozen water resource which consequently will alter carbon sequestration potential, radiative energy balance and hydrological regime in alpine ecosystem.

These observed changes in high altitude ecosystem feature, especially of treeline, are attributed to the climate change which create silent but disparaging effects on sustainability of natural resources, livelihood and eco-systemic services to the people of Himalayan region in general and Ganga basin in particular.

Keywords: Climate marker, Ganga basin, Himalayan region, Sustainable development, Treeline rise,

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Development of a low volume sprayer nozzle for GA3 application: enhancing sustainability of F1 hybrid rice seed production in the Philippines
Ricardo F. Orge a
a Rice Engineering and Mechanization Division, Philippine Rice Research Institute
Maligaya, Science City of Muňoz, Nueva Ecija, Philippines. 

Volume 05, Issue 04, Pg. 41-51, 2012.

Abstract:  In hybrid rice seed production, Gibberellic acid (GA3), a growth hormone, is normally applied to the mother rice plant (A-line) in order to facilitate panicle exertion and increase its chance to receive pollens from the father plant (R-line) thus enhancing seed setting.  At present, the Filipino hybrid rice seed producers are using either the battery-operated ultra low volume (ULV) sprayer or the imported lever-operated knapsack (LOK) sprayer in the application of GA3.  The former is being recommended by agricultural technicians however it is relatively expensive hence not all of the farmers are using it.  The latter, which most of the farmers are using, requires a lot of water to use (300-500 l/ha) hence taking a lot of time and effort in carrying out the operation.  This knapsack sprayer however can be a low-cost alternative for applying GA3 if only provided with a low volume (LV) nozzle.  Unfortunately, no available sprayer nozzles could be found in the market that could satisfy the requirement.   This study was conducted to develop a LV sprayer nozzle in order to provide Filipino hybrid rice seed producers a low cost but efficient alternative device for applying GA3.  The developed LV nozzle was fabricated mostly out from plastic pipe fittings and other commercially available materials.  It could be fitted easily on the lance of farmers’ sprayers.  Field test results showed that the number of tank loads per hectare was reduced from 10-13 in the accompanying nozzle of a farmer’s LOK knapsack sprayer to 2-4 in the developed LV nozzle. This resulted to savings in time and cost of the GA3 

application.  Results of survey conducted after a pilot testing showed that all of the 21 farmer respondents preferred to use the developed nozzle over their existing nozzles.

 Keywords:  Gibberellic Acid;  Hybrid Rice; Knapsack Sprayer; Low Volume Sprayer Nozzle; Rice Seed Production

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The Case for a Policy Framework to Support Productivity Mainstreaming into the Kenyan Economy
Seth Omondi Gor a
a School of Economics, University of Nairobi, Kenya.

Volume 05, Issue 04, Pg. 52-60, 2012.


This study investigates the probable causes of the very low levels of productivity consciousness in both the public and private sectors of the Kenyan economy. It identifies impediments to the realization of a complete and functional productivity mainstreaming into the economy including; lack of integration of productivity into the country’s education and training programmes, weak broad based productivity driven research and development, poor productivity infrastructure and weak productivity governance among others. Consequently we propose possible interventions which we argue do constitute the basic building blocks for a productivity policy framework. In conclusion we argue that success of the proposed interventions depend on the commitment of all stakeholders to effective co-ordination of actions and interventions and to implementation, monitoring and evaluation.

Keywords: Competitiveness, Efficiency, Kenya, Productivity Policy, Skills-Mix, Vision 2030

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Lopsidedness in Solid Waste Management in Nigeria: Obstacle to Sustainable Development
Emma E.O. Chukwuemeka a, Ebele M. Onwuka b, Chiekezie Obianuju Mary c
a Faculty of Management Sciences, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Awka, Nigeria
b, c Department of Business Administration, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Awka, Nigeria

Volume 05, Issue 04, Pg. 62-69, 2012.

Abstract: The problem of solid waste management has become a debilitating factor towards socio-economic development of Nigeria. The study therefore was carried out to evaluate the chains of problems militating against solid waste management in Nigeria with particular stress on Enugu State. The study adopted survey research method. Data collected through questionnaire were analyzed and hypotheses tested using Z-test statistical measure. The scientific investigation revealed among other things that resources normally voted by Government year by year to manage solid waste is always very meager. There is no environmental education at all as was observed during the field investigation. Furthermore, some of the waste management staff were poorly trained and no plan in the future to give them further training or to improve already acquired skill. Based on the findings, some of the major recommendations are that solid waste management should be provided with a separate head in the budget for the purpose of adequate revenue allocation, implementation and monitoring. The participation of the local communities in solid waste management should be encouraged. Environmental education should be intensified by both the state and local government. Also primary, secondary and tertiary schools curricula should inculcate detailed topics on solid waste management.

Keywords:  Education, Environment, Development, Management, Waste

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Terrorist Activities and Economic Development in Nigeria: An Early Warning Signal
Patrick L. Akpan a, Ebele Mary Onwuka b, Chinedu Onyeizugbe c
a Department of Business Administration, Faculty of Management Sciences,
Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Awka, Nigeria.
b, c Department of Business Administration, Faculty of Management Sciences,
Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Awka, Nigeria.

Volume 05, Issue 04, Pg. 70-80, 2012.

Abstract: This paper examines the implications of terrorist activities on economic development in Nigeria. The series of challenges associated with terrorism, revolution, different forms of strike actions, conflicts, pre-medicated application or threats of violence against religious groups, by the Boko Haram Sects, politically motivated and other expressions of violence following the emergence of democracy in recent time are singled out as having the most deleterious effect on the Nigerian economy. The paper examines empirically, the relationship between economic development and terrorist activities using Nigeria data. A four-step analytical methodology which captures five equations is adopted. The result reveals that the number of bomb attacks/strikes and other forms of violence, number of man hours lost, number of workers involved, number of Nigerians and foreigners killed and the extent of infrastructural destruction vis-a-vis business relation cost increased tremendously. The output lost in terms of growth in per capita real GDP is considerably on an astronomical magnitude. It is established that terrorist activities have significant negative effect on National development in Nigeria. As a preventive strategy therefore, this paper advocates that efforts should be made to reduce terrorist activities by government through appropriate sanction and machinery put in place towards demarcation of the country to four different political states on the basis of ecology of nations. A negation of this, the paper argues, is a danger signal to a collapse of democracy and a severe religious/ethnic war.  

Keywords: Conflict, Economic, Development, Terrorism, Violence 

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Investigating Officers` Perceptions of Adult Educators within the South African Police Service Detective Academy
Jacob T. Mofokeng a
a Department of Safety and Security Management, Faculty of Humanities, 
Tshwane University of Technology, Soshanguve South Campus, Pretoria, South Africa.

Volume 05, Issue 04, Pg. 80-88, 2012.

Abstract: The purpose of this article was to explore investigating officers` views of police instructors` competencies, attitude and preferred classroom techniques employed within the South African Police Service (SAPS) Detective Academy, as well as the teaching and learning techniques detectives felt would enhance their learning. For simplicity, the term “investigating officer” or “detective” will be used interchangeably in this article.  The research population for this research consisted of 20 005 Police Act Personnel (detectives) and a stratified sample of 1 920 members was identified to respond to, inter alia, police instructors teaching styles, competencies, attitude and student preferred learning styles.  The sample realisation was 1 198, or 62,4% of the original sample. The respondents were deployed at community service centres (police stations) in the nine Provinces of South Africa, including Head Office in Gauteng Province. The stratified random sampling technique was used and the population at the stations was divided into male/female and non-commissioned officers (NCOs) and commissioned officers (COs), as the strata. NCOs are those members with the rank of Constable up to Inspector. COs are those members with the rank of Captain up to Senior Superintendent. Directors were excluded from the study because their limited numbers would compromise their anonymity. 

The researcher viewed the sample to be representative of those SAPS and other members stationed at police stations in the nine Provinces where the research was conducted. Their perceptions would represent a fair reflection of factors affecting performance of general detectives at station level. Based on the research population, the researcher viewed the sample to be representative of those SAPS and other members stationed at police stations in the nine Provinces where the research was conducted. Eighteen (18) fieldworkers were trained and distributed the questionnaire in the provinces.

The arguments and findings set out in this article demonstrate that SAPS instructors preferred the use of   andragogy over pedagogy. The responses analysed also revealed that instructors taught detectives through methods similar to those employed in teaching children.  As a consequence, based on the findings, it seems as if to a certain extent, the SAPS instructors have not yet transformed their teaching methods to adapt with the demands placed by dynamics moved with the times as they still foster an environment where the focus of training is yet to be aligned with 21st century best practices. The results also show detectives felt they learn best with instructors who were hands on problem solving, open minded and more experienced. It is envisaged that this research will go a long way in assisting SAPS and other law enforcement agencies to implement best practices that would focus on methods that improve adult learning within SAPS Detective Academy. 

Keywords: Adult, classroom, detective, perception, instructors

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An Empirical Analysis on the Performance of South African Police Service Detective Service
Jacob T. Mofokeng a
a Department of Safety and Security Management, Faculty of Humanities, 
Tshwane University of Technology, Soshanguve South Campus, Pretoria, South Africa.

Volume 05, Issue 04, Pg. 90-96, 2012.

Abstract: This paper reflects the judicial views regarding the performance of general detectives at station level in South Africa. Until recent years, the perceived performance of South African Police Service (SAPS) detectives received a lot of critics from journalistic reports due to perceived unmanaged workload and withdrawal of cases in courts. However, there is little empirical research on how does the judicial system views the performance of SAPS detectives. 

Recognizing this, focus groups interviews were conducted with the Head: Quality Assurance Officers, Senior Presiding Officers, Presiding Officers, Senior Prosecutors and Prosecutors to draw upon respondents’ attitudes, feelings, beliefs, experiences and reactions in a way they perceive detectives` performance. For the purpose of this research, three focus group interviews were conducted in Gauteng province (Pretoria, East Rand and Johannesburg Central), Limpopo province (Lebowakgomo) and Kwazulu-Natal (Newcastle). Since the three provinces supra are typical of the different kinds of regions in South Africa, these three provinces were selected as units of analysis for the purpose of this research project. Selected areas within the Gauteng province serve businesses and individuals from a middle class environment, whilst Lebowakgomo and Newcastle serve communities who seem to have progressed less from an economical perspective. The possible limitations for this research are firstly, a concern with the approach used for the purpose of this research was that it relied heavily on respondents’ ability to accurately remember what happened the last time they presided either over cases or when detectives were cross-examined in court. A further limitation was that respondents’ views could not be generalised as the views of all judicial officers within the entire Criminal Justice System in South Africa. However, the views by the focus groups provided useful insight as to why detectives are seen as not to be performing well at station level. 

The analyses were conducted by pursuing a three-tier strategy that was aimed at drawing upon respondents’ attitudes, feelings, beliefs, experiences and reactions regarding their perceptions of detectives’ performance. The first approach in this strategy was to canvas judicial officials` views regarding the overall quality of investigations into alleged cases of fraud. The second approach was to provide an in-depth analysis of what respondents identified and described as obstacles hindering and inhibiting detectives’ performance in relation to their day-to-day activities. Thirdly, the approach was an in-depth analysis of what respondents proposed as strategies to address and enhance the capacity of general detectives at station level.  

The arguments and findings set out in this paper demonstrate that the Judicial System regards SAPS detectives as inadequately trained thus affecting negatively on the performance the greater Criminal Justice System (CJS). Firstly, although these findings cannot be generalised as the views of all judicial officers within the entire CJS in South Africa, the views of the focus groups provided useful insight as to why detectives seem not to be performing well at police station level. Secondly, the findings of this research might possibly generate interest among other researchers to explore and conduct studies on a larger sample population in South Africa. 

Keywords: Competency, fraud, performance, strategy, supervisor

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An Appraisal of the Small and Medium Scale Enterprises on Poverty Alleviation in Southwestern State of Osun In Nigeria
Fayomi Ikeoluwapo Omolara a,
a Department of Public Administration, Faculty of Administration. Obafemi Awolowo University. Ile Ife, Nigeria.

Volume 05, Issue 04, Pg. 98-106, 2012.

Abstract: This study is an appraisal of the performance of small and medium scale enterprises (SMEs) on poverty alleviation in Osun State of Nigeria. The broad aim of the study is to examine the impact of the small and medium scale enterprises on poverty alleviation. The other objectives of the study will also be to determine if there exists a relationship between poverty alleviation and SMEs and identify factors in hindering the performance and development of SMEs in Osun state in particular and Nigeria in general.

It is an empirical study which made use of both primary and secondary sources of data collection. Questionnaires were administered on 150 randomly selected SMEs through balloting in the 30 Local Government Areas (LGAs) and the area office of Osun state. The respondents include SMEs operators as small shop owners, pure and bottled water, bread making factories, hairdressing, fashion designing shops, business centre. Literatures on the subject area were copiously sourced from relevant books, journals and government publications.

The study found out that the SMEs were making impact on alleviating the level of poverty in the state in spite of the non-cooperative attitude and excessive paper works of formal banks. The various sources of funds by the SMEs operators were Microfinance banks, Loans from friends and family, personal loans and contributions. The respondents remarked that the agency created by government such as Small and Medium Enterprises Development Agency of Nigeria (SMEDAN) has been unable to impact on SMEs development in Osun state due to the ineptitude in service delivery and corruption which has eaten deep into the fabric of Nigeria system.

The study suggested that if the SMEs sector is given all the necessary assistance such as seed money, loanable funds and training programmes, Poverty which is due to lack of access to income earning opportunities and lack of capacity to take advantage of the opportunities, that is threatening global prosperity in general and national economic growth and development in particular would be taken care off.

It concluded that SMEDAN was unable to achieve the vision for which it was established such as establishing a structured and efficient micro, small and medium enterprises sector that will enhance sustainable economic development of Nigeria in general. However inspite of the failure of this government agency the SMEs had been able to impact on the poverty level in the state.  

Keywords: Appraisal, Economic Development, Impact, Poverty alleviation, Small and Medium scale Enterprises.

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The Patterns of Consumption Expenditure in Rural Households of Western Odisha of India: An Engel Ratio Analysis
Narayan Sethi a , Hemanta Kumar Pradhan b
a,b Department of Humanities and Social Sciences, National Institute of Technology (NIT), 
Rourkela, Odisha, India

Volume 08, Issue 04, Pg. 107-131, 2012.

Abstract:  The present paper analyses the pattern of consumption expenditure of rural households to show the frequent changes in both food and non-food consumption expenditure due to the changes in income and occupation of the people. Consumption expenditure is increasing due to increase in urbanisation, breaking up of the traditional joint family system, desire for quality food, lack of time which translates into an increased need for convenience. Increasing number of working women, rise in the per-capita income in forcible situations of other dominants, changing lifestyles and increasing level of affluence of the surroundings with lack of saving attitude and appropriate awareness brought a significant changes in the expenditure patterns among the rural communities. The paper defines the income elasticity of expenditure as proxy for income elasticity of quantity demanded for selected food and non-food commodities among different income and occupation class in Western Odisha through an Engel ratio analysis. To examine the impact, the actual distribution of monthly per capita incomes and other selected characteristics of different income classes have been taken into consideration. With this background in this paper an attempt has been made (i) to examine the impact of income and occupation on consumption expenditure among the rural population and (ii) to analyse the factors influencing the rural consumption pattern.

Keywords: Consumption Expenditure, MPCE, Engel Ratio, Rural Household, Western Odisha

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