Volume 03 Issue 12

OIDA International Journal of Sustainable Development
Open access peer-reviewed journal

Digital Divide and Computer Literacy from Sociological Perspective: A Case Study among Malay Male
and Female Teenagers
Khauthar Ismail a
a School of Distance, University Science of Malaysia, Penang, Malaysia.

Volume 03, Issue 12, Pg. 12-28, 2012.

Abstract: The major objective of this research is to find out the different levels of computer literacy among Malay male and female teenagers. The methods used in this research were survey and field observation. In this research, three independent variables were tested, namely, gender, location and socio-economic factors. The result shows that the two most influential factors are gender and socio-economic. The study proofs that gender variables such as lack of confidence, inferiority complex and gender stereotypes are the factors affecting digital divide among male and female respondents. However, the gender stereotype among respondents is only limited to the level of expertise among genders and not on the treatment in the ICTL class. In addition, gender also contributed to the different levels of computer usage. In fact, the study discovers that location and area of the respondents’ houses do not contribute to the digital divide. However, the location and condition of the cyber café do contribute to the digital divide among the respondents. Meanwhile in the socio-economic variables; the amount of the family’s income and the parents’ educational background do contribute to the different levels of computer literacy. Family’s income is important in measuring the affordability to have a computer and subscribing to the Internet. Meanwhile, parents’ educational level is important in measuring the perception parents’ on the usage of computer. The levels of parents’ education is related to the gender stereotype and inferiority complex among the respondents. 

Keywords: Digital divide, education, technology and teenagers. 

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Review on Issues and Challenges in Islamic Inheritance Distribution in Malaysia
Noraini Noordina, Adibah Shuibb, Mohammad Said Zainol c, 
Mohamed Azam Mohamed Adil d
a, b, c Faculty of  Computer and Mathematical Sciences, Universiti Teknologi Mara, Malaysia
d Centre of Islamic Thoughts and Understanding, Universiti Teknologi Mara, Malaysia

Volume 03, Issue 12, Pg. 27-40, 2012.

Abstract: This paper addresses issues and challenges clients face in claiming rights to Islamic inheritance in Malaysia.  After independence, Muslims witnessed changes in the legal system of Malaysia that affected the administration and distribution of Islamic inheritance.  The administration of Syariah courts is bound by Islamic Laws that were placed in the State List of the Federal Constitution.  Constitutional amendments are called for; they may simplify the processes involved, but not without conflict. The Muslims’ need to abide by Syariah-compliant principles has also not been able to push for the construction of one single complete system that can handle the whole management and distribution process of Islamic inheritance. Over the years, claim processes were very costly and time-consuming. This paper acknowledges that there exists a low awareness among clients of processes and procedures to follow in order to complete a claim submission process, and identifies lack of guidelines to be the main cause of the problem.  This paper is a part of an on-going study that proposes to use a new network flow programming model as an alternative solution to issues and problems associated with the administration and distribution of Islamic inheritance in Malaysia.

Keywords: Constitutional Amendments, Islamic Laws, Network Flow Programming, State List, Syariah– Compliant

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Comparing Economic and Social Indicators towards Sustainable Development in Selangor, Malaysia
Habsah Hashim a, Kamarul Bahrain Shuib b
a, b Faculty of Architecture, Planning and Surveying, Universiti Teknologi Mara (UITM), Shah Alam, Malaysia.

Volume 03, Issue 12, Pg. 40-51, 2012.

Abstract: Besides the natural system, the concept of sustainable development also encompasses the economic and social systems.  In line with this concept, the Selangor State Structure Plan, 2002-2020 stated that the state is very committed towards implementing sustainable development and acknowledged the importance of social improvement.  This is consistent with the Selangor sustainable development philosophy that highlighted the need to balance between economic growth, social wellbeing and environmental conservation.  However, it is a common tendency for state and local authorities to focus more on the physical aspects and economic growth without comparable agenda in the social aspects.    The state of Selangor can certainly be proud of its robust economy and extremely rapid physical development but could the same be said of its social infrastructure and public facilities?  In an attempt to answer the aforementioned question, this paper presented the comparisons of several economic and social development indicators between the state of Selangor and the other states in Malaysia.  Seven indicators for economic development and eight indicators for social development were compared.  The economic development indicators include employment by various sectors, income and socio-economic measures, while the social development indicators include the provision of health, education and public facilities.   The findings from comparing the various indicators show that the states of Selangor and Johor share the third rank, behind the states of Penang and Melaka in the economic development indicators. However, for social development indicators, Selangor ranked the lowest among all the fourteen states.   Findings from the comparisons indicated that the social development in the state was not at par with the rapidly growing economy and the extensive physical development that had taken place.  As such, the state government and local authorities in Selangor should give greater emphasis to social aspects of development in order to achieve the state’s sustainable development agenda.

Keywords:  development indicators, economic growth, social improvement, sustainable development

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Inability to Handle Simple Mathematics among Lower Secondary School Students
A Cause for Worry
Noraini Noordin a, Rohana Dollah b, Rudzah Lebai Talib c
a, b, c Faculty of Computer and Mathematical Sciences, Universiti Teknologi Mara (PERLIS), Malaysia.

Volume 03, Issue 12, Pg. 50-61, 2012.

Abstract: Development of number sense in students at an early age has been the concern of most educators worldwide including Malaysia. The school system produced students who performed on examinations, but are lost when given a problem that is not from a textbook. There is cause to worry because students may not understand enough of numbers to proceed to higher mathematics.  This has already been proven by research works in this area. Development of number sense among students can help to identify the proficient learners. Students who have developed number sense display some defined characteristics, such as a) able to focus more on strategies than a right answer, b) able to think instead of operating with  mathematical rules, and c) able to work at finding his own solution than waiting to be provided with one by the teacher.  Studies on number sense carried out from time to time help teachers and educators  understand the minute details of problems students go through coping with numbers.  This paper presents some of the findings from a study carried out at six schools situated in the northern zone of Malaysia in the effort to discover whether the acquisition of such proficiency existed among the lower secondary school students who have undergone six years of Mathematics at primary schools with respect to some topics under Numbers, Measures, and Shape and Space. 

Keywords: Ability Difference, Estimation, Logit, Mental Computation, Number Sense 

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Land Reforms and Dalits in Andhra Pradesh: A South Indian State
E. Krishna Rao a
a Centre for Study of Social Exclusion and Inclusive Policy, Pondicherry University, R.V.Nagar, 
Kalapet, Puducherry, India.

Volume 03, Issue 12, Pg. 59-72, 2012.

Abstract: Land being a factor of production in all the stages of economy and it also plays a diabolical role in the life of rural people. Being the main source of subsistence, land metamorphoses into a socio-economic reality. In the third world countries, land as a productive asset plays an important role not only in the functioning of rural economies, but also in changing fortunes of families and socio-economic groups.  Since land is the prime source of income in rural India, around 85% of the rural population of India, directly or indirectly, depends on land and its produce. Land is not only prime source of income but also a symbol of social status in rural India. The land distribution pattern in India in agriculture continues to be skewed. This skewed distribution of land in India is intrinsically related to the caste system. A small number of big landlords own a large extent of land while the millions of marginal and small peasants own small extents of land. While the large landowners belong to the so-called upper castes, the cultivators belong to the middle castes and the agricultural workers mostly belong to the weaker sections such as Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes. To reduce inequalities land reforms have been attempted in India soon after the independence. As part of national policy, the government of Andhra Pradesh has also implemented several landreforms. In the case of Andhra Pradesh several land legislations to augment the production and to reduce the inequalities in the distribution of land. But even today, the land is concentrated in the hands of some of the social upper strata, and nearly 89% of Dalits, there who are denied social and economic equality since long time are retain as landless and agricultural labourers. In this context an attempt has been made in this paper to examine Dalits’ access to land in Andhra Pradesh during pre and post independence period. And it also an attempt to assess the impact of land reforms on Dalits land ownership in Andhra Pradesh.

Keywords: Caste, Dalits, Economic equality,  Landreforms, Skewed distribution

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Gender Based Discrimination in Rural Labour Market:
A Study of Two South Indian Villages
E. Krishna Rao a
a Centre for Study of Social Exclusion and Inclusive Policy, Pondicherry University, R.V.Nagar,
Kalapet, Puducherry, India.

Volume 03,Issue 12, Pg. 72-90, 2012.

Abstract: Women in rural India are involved in myriad activities, ranging from crop production to the management of household resources. It is also important to keep in mind the fact that women also spend a substantial part of their time in the management of live stock, poultry etc. According to 2001 census report about 72 percent of the entire female working force was engaged in agricultural operations in India. Thus it amply justifies that the women contributes more to the Indian agriculture than male, even though, since long time they were not given equal wages as compared to the men. It is often argued that since women do less labourious work than men they received lower wages than men. But the wage discrimination of women exists even for similar type of work performed by men and women. 

Labour wage differences between men and women are not a new issue for debate but it is surprising at even after several efforts made by the government to remove this evil from the agrarian society, it still prevails extensively. The wage discrimination on the basis of gender in Indian agriculture is live issue for the discussion. Moreover, it is very important in the context of vehement changes in Indian economic and social structure. The women literacy levels and their organizational unity have been significantly climbing up one hand, and the state and central governments have been enacting the laws for their welfare and development on the other hand. But the inequality is persisting remarkably in the agricultural sector. Thus an assessment is needed to checkout weather these laws are being provided economic justice to the women in our Indian agricultural sector, particularly at village level. With this background in this paper an attempt has been made (i) to examine the prevailing labour market organizational structure at micro level (ii) to study the rural wage market structure and wage rates for different operations and (iii) to explore the importance of women in agriculture and their discrimination in rural wage market.

Keywords: Discrimination, Employment, Labour Market, Gender, Wages

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An Alternative View of Integrated Sustainable Development through a Time-Spatial Lens  
Per Assmo a, Elin Wihlborg b
a, b Department of Management and Engineering, Linköping University, Sweden.

Volume 03, Issue 12, Pg. 88-98, 2012.

Abstract: The conventional monetary market oriented economic view of development is the dominant approach of development, despite its shortcomings and inability to include social and environmental aspects into long term processes of change. Essential values are often concealed or even excluded in conventional monetary analyses, which are fundamental for integrated sustainable livelihoods. 

Using a time-spatial perspective, building on Hägerstrand’s time-geography, this article aims to elaborate upon an alternative conceptual development approach. The time-spatial model open for an alternative constructive approach to analyze and physically anchoring socio-economic and ecological processes extended over time. Such a view thereby contrasts and reaches beyond the conventional monetary market growth strategy.

Combining the conceptual discussion with empirical illustrations from rural livelihoods in Sweden, the article highlight new alternative political-economic analytical tools and strategies to achieve sustainable sound integrated socio-, economic-, and ecological development processes. 

Keywords: criticism, development, theory, time-geography

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The Strategic Planning of Post Disaster Reconstruction
(A Case Study of Banda Aceh’s Reconstruction)
Aulia Sofyan a
a Aceh Provincial Government, Jl. Syech Muda, Wali E-19 Banda Aceh, Indonesia

Volume 02, Issue 12, Pg. 98-107, 2012.

Abstract: This paper investigates the reconstruction of Banda Aceh after the disastrous earthquake and tsunami of December, 2004. It fits the investigation within a framework derived from the literature on disaster studies and disaster recovery. The fundamental issue addressed in the paper is the delays apparent in the reconstruction process even though a new government agency (BRR, or the Aceh and Nias Reconstruction and Rehabilitation Agency) was created to expedite reconstruction. The questions that underpin the research are concerned with the factors that hinder and support effective and speedy reconstruction.

The study used a number of research approaches, including interviews with 50 members of the community, with public figures, with representatives of donor organizations and NGOs from abroad and with national, provincial and local government officials.  The interviews were supported by data from focus group discussions, as well as official reports and documents and the wider literature. The author was also able to use participant observation to support and guide the other research methodologies.  The author was able to work closely with BRR in discussing in the field problems and obstacles that faced the implementation of BRR programs.  The field work for the study was carried out in two six-month periods in 2005 and 2006. 

The research showed the approach needed for an effective reconstruction program in Aceh should enhance communication among stakeholders, build stronger coordination mechanisms amongst these stakeholders, build an effective bureaucracy working within an effective governance system, improve community involvement in the recovery process, strengthen the local government capacity and increase the level of practical and effective commitment   from donors and NGOs.  These are all aspects that have been listed in the literature as components of effective reconstruction after natural disasters. In general, the thesis research supports these conclusions. An issue that was of special significance in Banda Aceh was the impact of the level of international sympathy and support. Although this is a feature of many international disaster responses the reconstruction in Banda Aceh showed how critical is the actual level of delivery of assistance compared to the level of promises of assistance.

The general recovery process faced obstacles that arose from the presence and absence of factors that can aid reconstruction: lack of communication among stakeholders, lack of coordination among stakeholders, ineffective bureaucracy, lack of community participation, lack of human resources, and unfulfilled promises to the communities.However, the case study showed that factors that strongly support the rehabilitation and reconstruction in Aceh are the strong budgetary commitment by central government, strong financial support from donors and NGOs and the powerful mandate of BRR to aid the reconstruction. A special circumstance that applied in Banda Aceh was the ceasefire agreements in the preceding civil strife and the agreement of both sides to assist in the reconstruction.

Keywords: Reconstruction, Post-Disaster, Recovery, Planning, Disaster Management

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A Proposal for Prototype Package of Green Affordable Home: Using Fast Track Wall System
Muhd Zaimi Abd Majid a, Hasannudin Bin Lamit b, Ali Keyvanfar c , 
Arezou Shafaghat d 
a, c, d Construction Research Alliance, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia (UTM), Skudai, Johor, 81310, Malaysia,  
b Sustainable Research Alliance (SUTRA), Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, Skudai, Johor, 81310, Malaysia,

Volume 03, Issue 12, Pg. 108-119, 2012.

Abstract: Adopting from CIDB annual report, Malaysian housing demands is 4% per year (280,000 establishments per year equals to nearly 2,800 projects); it is while, the figure only is highlighting first-time house buyer’s statistics. Furthermore, understanding population growth statistics provides us to expect even more housing demand in near future. Considering previewed statements, dynamic increasing demands for residential building construction enforce us to enhance the main project measurement including project’s “time”, “cost” and “quality” while there is construction elimination in use of “human resource”, and “machineries”. Based on that, there is some initiative to go through industrial building system methods proposed by CIDB highlighted in strategic plan. More than that also, it is important to aid building construction to decrease its environmental defects. These environmental defects can be understood based under “construction based defects” (it includes construction, expansions and renovation of the building)”. Recently, there is enrichment of construction in managing cost, time and quality, using Fast-Track Wall (FTW). Regarding the previewed statements, this study is to consider FTW as the case for green affordable housing.  Thus the aim of this study is to develop a prototype green affordable home which can be applied in Malaysia considering humid region environments. Therefore, the study is proposed to conduct research in three research teams. First research team tasks to investigate green materials in the FTW- affordable home. Second research team tasks to investigate green energy requirement in the FTW-affordable home. And, third research team tasks to investigate green social requirement in the FTW-affordable home. Relatively, each team will follow the research objective including methodology in three research phases. The phases include; Phase I (Preliminary Investigation), Phase II (Desk and laboratory study), Phase III (Full-scale test study). Significance of this study are; the development of “Green” affordable home suite to the “local” requirement of the “humid region”, as a “sustainable” construction solution (fast, environmental friendly, cost efficient and productive). In fact, final product would enhance the construction of affordable housing in Malaysia a sustainable manner.

Keywords: Fast-Track Wall System, First-Time House Buyer, Green Affordable Housing, Sustainable Construction

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Approach of Measuring and Studying Women Empowerment
Mst. Tasqurun Nessaa
a Department of Economics, Universiti Utara Malaysia, UUM Sintok, Kedah Darul Aman, Malaysia.

Volume 03, Issue 12, Pg. 117-127, 2012.

Abstract: The empowerment of women is one of the vital issues of development. United Nations millennium development goal No. 3 is promote gender equality and women empowerment. In this study I will discuss the concept of women empowerment, the process of women empowerment and the measurement of women empowerment. In this paper I will explain the measurement scale of women empowerment which had been used in different literature reviews. To measure the women empowerment, I referred various dimensions. A number of items are arranged under each of dimensions. In this paper I will synthesize and list the most commonly used measurement scales of women empowerment, drawing from the frameworks developed by various authors. My review revealed a number of essential strengths in the existing effort on women’s empowerment that provides the groundwork for further evolution on measurement. 

Keywords: MFI, NGO, women empowerment, women empowerment dimension and women empowerment                     measure scale/index. 

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