Volume 02 Issue 12

OIDA International Journal of Sustainable Development
Open access peer-reviewed journal

Measuring Factor Productivity of the Banking Sector in Kenya
Ciliaka Millicent W. Gitau a, Seth Omondi Gor b
a ,b Department of Economics, University of Nairobi, Kenya.

Volume 02, Issue 12, Pg. 12-19, 2011.

Abstract: This study examines changes in the productivity of commercial banks in Kenya in the context of liberalization using Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA). We measure the productivity growth and its components from a time series dataset obtained from Central Bank of Kenya publications and National Banking Surveys. DEA method is used to measure Malmquist index of total factor productivity for a sample of 34 banks for the period 1999-2008. A decomposition of Total Factor Productivity (TFP) measure is done to establish the source of changes in factor productivity. The results suggest that TFP deteriorated over the period while Efficiency change (EFFCH) increased as Technical Change (TECH) declined implying that deterioration of TFP was due to either technological innovations or shocks. Given that technology is the main driver of productivity, we recommend that the monetary authorities design practicable protocol as a technological standards requirement.

 Keywords: Productivity, Data Envelopment Analysis, Kenya, Malmquist Index, Competitiveness

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Sustainability and intergenerational equity with varying discount rate: The case of renewable resource
Nik Hashim Nik Mustapha a, Azlina Abd. Aziz b 
a Centre for Socio-Economic Development (CSD) University of Malaysia Terengganu (UMT), Malaysia.
b Department of Economics, Faculty of Management and Economics 
University of Malaysia Terengganu (UMT), Malaysia.

Volume 02, Issue 12, Pg. 19-28, 2011.

Abstract: The relationship between natural resource exploitation and the discount rate in economic theory is well documented. The discount rate is deemed to influence resource utilization such that a higher discount rate will speed up natural resource exploitation in market oriented economy and a lowering rate will act otherwise. This fact is proven mathematically and is known as the Hotelling lemma. Basically an optimal utilization of renewable natural resource is attained when its growth rate per time is equated to the existing discount rate. The current study attempts to establish the fact that discount rate which is used as the discounting factor in dynamic optimization is technically useful for the attainment of production sustainability of a renewable resource. However, it has a far reaching economic and environmental implication in terms of resource distribution pertaining to the equity issue between the present and future generation. The finding seems to suggest that higher discount rate would favor greater exploitation of resource, thus raises the issue of resource sustainability in long run. Using panel data from forestry resource the linear fixed and random effect demand functions were estimated. A simplified dynamic optimization technique was then applied with the objective to investigate the impact of varying discount rate on the renewable forestry resource and thus the distribution of natural resource in the light of intergenerational equity distributional issue. The mathematical objective of intertemporal optimization 

equity issue is to maximize the net social benefit between the economic and environmental benefits and costs. Environmental degradation which tends to increase following intensity of resource exploitation was observed. 

Keywords: discount rate, natural resource use, intergenerational justice, intertemporal optimization and sustainability.

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Spill over of Environmentally Friendly Behaviour Phenomenon: The Mediating Effect of Employee
 Organizational Identification
Nik Ramli Nik Abdul Rashid a, Naja Mohammad b
a,b Faculty of Business Management, Universiti Teknologi Mara, Malaysia.

Volume 02, Issue 12, Pg. 29-43, 2011.

Abstract: Positive spillover has been found in literatures since early 1980s and is still a currently relevant topic for research. These studies have been focussed on work-family situations; where there is a positive transfer of characteristics (affects, skills, values, and behaviour) from one domain (work) to another domain (family/individual). This study focuses on the “spillover of environmentally friendly behaviour” (EFB) – postulating that a person who is positively involved with the implementation process of the Environmental Management System (EMS) at work, will also display similar environmental friendly actions as a member of the general public or at home. Continuously involving oneself with a sense of responsibility and obligation to the EMS activities at workplace has indirectly contributed to them acquiring the relevant attitude and information about the environment.In a need to be consistent with the work-acquired attitude toward the environment, the same display of environmental friendly behaviour is shown to be extended to his non-work domain. This is consistent with the Theory of Cognitive Dissonance, where a person would maintain consistency in behaviour to avoid a sense of dissonance within himself. Another significant contributor to this environment friendly attitude is the organization’s support for this noble cause, reflected in the top management commitment to the EMS.

Using the Hierarchical Multiple Regression analysis (SPSS), this study has also uncovered an organizational related variable as a mediator of the EFB spillover process. Employees that believe the organization is doing a noble effort for the environment through the EMS, feels a sense of pride and has shown stronger identification with the organization. This feeling of identifying oneself with organization acts as an intervening element (mediating variable), and explain in further detail the actual stages of the EFB process.

Keywords: Environment Friendly Behavior, Environmental Management System, Employee Organizational Identification, Spillover behaviour

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Impact of Access to Subsidized Certified Improved Rice Seed on Income: Evidence from Rice farming Households in Nigeria
Bola Amoke Awotide a, Taiwo Timothy Awoyemi b , Aliou Diagne c ,  
Vivian Titilayo Ojehomond
 a,b  Department of Agricultural Economics, University of Ibadan Nigeria. 
  c Program Leader, Innovation, Policy and Impact Assessment Unit, Africa Rice centre, Cotonou, Benin Republic.
 d National Cereal Research Institute (NCRI), Badeggi, Niger State, Nigeria.

Volume 02, Issue 12, Pg. 43-62, 2011.

Abstract: Seed certification enhances seed quality and has the potential to increase rice yield and improve farmers’ income. Rice farmers in Nigeria were granted access to certified improved rice seed at a subsidized rate using the seed voucher system by the Emergency Rice Initiative(2008-2010), formulated by AfricaRice, in response to the global food crisis of 2008, in order to mitigate the adverse effects on poor farmers. The impact of access to the Subsidized Certified Improved Rice seed (SCIRS) on farming households’ income has not been documented. Hence, this study was conducted to fill this gap. The data were collected using a multistage random sampling technique. Osun, Niger and Kano states were selected to represent -upland, lowland and irrigated rice growing systems, respectively. Five major rice-producing Local Government Areas (LGAs) were selected from each state, followed by the selection of three villages from each LGA. In all, 600 rice farmers were selected on the basis of probability proportionate to the population size of rice farmers in the villages, out of which 160 farmers were randomly selected to receive the SCIRS (treatment group) and the rest were not given (control group). Data were collected using a structured questionnaire and analyzed using descriptive statistics, ATE estimation method and the Local Average Treatment Effect (LATE) estimation techniques. The result revealed that average income from rice production and per capita household income increased by18.5% and 2.3% respectively at the end of the intervention in 2010. The result of the LATE showed that access to SCIRS increased income from rice production by N50, 220.55 per cropping season, thereby reducing the farmers’ probability of being poor. Therefore, timely access to seed of good quality can be a route out of the present prevailing rural poverty in Nigeria. It is recommended that seed certification should be intensified.

Keywords: seed certification, rice, staple food security, africa

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Teaching Financial Literacy to Entrepreneurs for Sustainable Development
 Mohsen Rahmandoust a*, Ishak Mad Shah a, Mahshad Norouzi b, Hossein Hakimpoor a,c, Naser Khani a,d
a Faculty of Management and Human Resources Development, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia
b Faculty of Management, Kar Higher Education Institute
c Islamic Azad University, Birjand Branch
d Islamic Azad University, Najafabad Branch

Volume 02, Issue 12, Pg. 61-66, 2011.

Abstract: Current world economy crises could be prevented by increasing public financial literacy. Moreover, entrepreneurs are considered economic engines of each society and the success rate of entrepreneurs could be improved by increasing financial literacy of entrepreneurs. In addition, since entrepreneurial success can significantly lead to sustainable development of each society, entrepreneurial strength is one of the common roles of policy makers. This study briefly reviews the importance of financial literacy and tries to consider some important points of its teaching contents and process. At the end, some suggestions have been presented for further research.

Keywords: Entrepreneurship, Entrepreneurial Success, Entrepreneurial Learning, Financial Literacy, Sustainable Development

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Factors influencing the performance of delivery centers in urban slums of Bangladesh: a qualitative study
Morsheda Banu a, Hashima E Nasreen b 
 a, b  Research and Evaluation Division, BRAC Centre, BRAC, 75 Mohakhali, Dhaka 1212, Bangladesh.

Volume 02, Issue 12, Pg. 67-78, 2011.

Abstract: Averting the devastating majority of maternal mortality, BRAC initiated an intervention named Manoshi in 2007; maternal, neonatal and child health programme for the urban poor of Dhaka city. It established delivery centres (DC) to provide clean and safe delivery services by community health workers (CHW) as well as referring maternal and neonatal complications to equipped hospital. Methods: The study aimed to measure the performance of DCs and explore the factors related to its performance. Data were collected using qualitative methods during December 2009 – January 2010 from six DCs in the slums of Dhaka city. Findings: Findings revealed that the DCs at Magbazar and Kamrangir Char performed ‘well’ due to availability of CHWs, their emotional support and caring attitude, regular antenatal care (ANC) visits, convenient location, cleanliness and free services of the DCs. The DCs at Madertek and Shyampur performed ‘average’ and Ramna and Kotwali DCs performed poor. Poor performance was largely due to lack of CHWs, less motivation, frequent dropout due to low remuneration, and recurrent slum demolition. The reasons for women not attending DCs were fear of being referred to the hospital which might compel them to have a caesarean delivery, lack of comprehensive services at DCs including doctor-assisted normal deliveries, medicines, and emergency case management. Neonatal mortality rate in poor performed DCs found to be high. The respondents recommended that instead of referring women for minor complications, DCs should be competent of providing supervised skilled service package with basic treatment during childbirth, tetanus toxoid during ANC and child immunizations during postnatal care. Conclusions: Given the existing scenario, the programme needs to pay attention to the ‘poor’ performed DCs with developing alternative strategies to enhance collaboration with existing health facilities and emphasizing community mobilization on ANC, safe delivery and strengthen appropriate referral for obstetric and neonatal complications. 

Keywords: Childbirth; delivery centre; factors; performance

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Energy Crisis and Sustainable Development in Africa: Perspectives of Some Nigerians on Awareness, Causes and Way Forward
Emmanuel E. Achor a
a Department of Curriculum and Teaching, Benue State University, Makurdi, Nigeria.

Volume 02, Issue 12, Pg. 75-88, 2011.

Abstract: Focusing on some Nigerians’ extent of awareness, possible causes and the way forward on energy crisis, this paper examined the status of energy crisis in Africa and its strong link to development in the Continent using Nigeria (the so called giant of Africa) as a case study. Four hundred and forty nine (N = 449) post graduate students from Benue State University and University of Agriculture all in Makurdi (representing 33 out of 36 States in Nigeria) responded to “Perception of Energy Crisis in Nigeria Questionnaire (PECNQ) developed and validated by the researcher. The instrument which has a reliability coefficient of 0.79 using Cronbach Alpha was used to collect data which were analysed using frequency, means, standard deviation and rank order. The results show among others that even the educated are only aware to a little extent on the extent of energy crisis in Nigeria; most people are not conscious of the contributions of the society through poor maintenance culture and waste to the crisis. However, corruption, conscientization and illiteracy ranked highest among factors that lead to energy crisis. On the other hand, a change in attitude to life was considered the most important step towards elimination of energy crisis followed by the need for mass literacy campaign, education of the generally poor rural populace and drastic reduction in population through birth control and tax on extra number of children above the maximum allowed.

Keywords: Energy, energy crises, Nigeria, Africa, development

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Questioning the Priority: A Suffering Artisan or a Living Being with a Dying Soul?
Shuchita  Sharmin a
a Department of Development Studies, University of Dhaka, Bangladesh.

Volume 02, Issue 12, Pg. 88-93, 2011.

Abstract: In the rural disaster prone locations of Bangladesh, peoples’ lives and livelihoods are vulnerable to many different factors. The poor in those contexts survive in their precarious state by employing a variety of livelihood or survival strategies. In the present globalized era, different non-governmental organizations (NGOs) are also found to intervene with the aim to improve the lives and livelihoods of these people for a sustainable livelihood. In spite of their aims for ‘development’, there are many reported incidents that show how different NGO interventions turn out to be ‘development disasters’. In this context, the present study used a ‘Sustainable Livelihoods Approach’ as the analytical framework as it offers an opportunity to reveal an all round view of the circumstances of the poor. It used case study method. Analyzing a single specific case, the study showed how the artisan’s skill of making special items with bamboo chip is used as a means for mass large scale production for livelihood due to NGO intervention. The major findings of the study focus to the field level reality that the studied NGO intervention aimed to promote sustainable livelihoods was destroying craftsmanship and the traditional culture. The study raises question about the priority for the artisan whether sufferings due to poverty but maintenance of the craftsmanship or sustainable livelihoods but dying soul and creative mind. This case specific study draws attention to the broader context where the poor become the victims of NGO interventions.  

Keywords: Handicraft; Interventions; Marginalized, Mass production, Sustainable livelihoods.

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Industry and Agriculture: A Sustainable India Barddhaman District Model
Er. Sayantan Sarkar a
a National Institute of Construction Management and Research, Pune, India

Volume 02, Issue 12, Pg. 93-104, 2011.

Abstract: For the first time in history, our generation has the opportunity to end extreme poverty in the world’s most developing nations. Mr. P Chidambaram, the honorable Home minister of India once said that, India would have a better economy if it only comprised of Western and Southern India. Ahmedabad, Bangalore, Surat and Pune are few of the examples of India’s urbanization. Eastern India (West Bengal, Bihar, Assam and Orissa) contributes 30% of agricultural and mining support to our nation. Inspite of fertile lands and ore mines, these parts are considered under-developed parts of India. Lack of Governance and citizen participation has blessed them with this curse. My research is not only to develop a whole new city, but also to build sustainable rural areas surrounding the city. 

Barddhaman district of West Bengal is having the advantage of both industrial and agricultural development. I want a development of a new city, without destroying the agricultural lands. The last three year of India’s growth has seen the death of many farmers. Cities are built, but on the verge of the acquisition of cultivated lands. Those farmers are left without livelihood. My research is to have urbanization in terms of both industrial cities and agricultural townships. 

We need to build new cities to support the GDP growth, stop migration to already developed cities and help transforming the surrounding villages to sustainable towns. If we try investing in the rural sector (Eastern India), depending on their base activity of revenue generation, and help them to transform into towns, can expect a far economically developed nation. This topic is about how tomorrow’s wealth will be created, and introduction of “Third World Job”, the unnoticed work we do, without pay.

Keywords: Agri-Business, Economic Base, Education, Citizen Participation.

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