Volume 10 Issue 11

OIDA International Journal of Sustainable Development
Open access peer-reviewed journal 

Building the Framework for Absolute Sustainability
Douglas Nuttall a, Jay Young b
a Jp2g Consultants, 1150 Morrison Drive, Suite 400, Ottawa, Canada

Volume 10, Issue 11, Pg. 11-32, 2017.

Abstract: There is a truism in Engineering that requires that a problem cannot be solved until it has been adequately defined.  Sustainability can be perceived as a Wicked Problem, which suggests that it has not been adequately defined.   Perhaps Sustainability resists definition, but a more optimistic approach would be to try a different way to define it.  In this paper, we advance a means of solving the Sustainability problem from first principals, in a manner that is intended to be universal, objective, sensitive, and repeatable.  It is expected to be applicable for any scale of setting, in any culture, regardless of the resources, skills, and technology that is available.  It is intended to rely on units of Sustainability, rather than indicators, with thresholds derived from the units themselves.

We would measure how long it takes people to meet their needs, how effectively people use their time to meet their needs (e.g. what time-weighted fraction of needs are met), and the consumption of resources and production of wastes, throughout the population of a community.  From these measurements, we can determine the relationships between resource consumption and quality of life.  From the relationships, decisions can be made to maximize quality of life of the community while minimizing negative ecological impacts, and achieve Global Sustainability at a community scale.

Keywords: Human Development, Technological Development, Absolute Sustainability, Time/Resource Curve, Needs

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Policy process analysis of PPP policy improvement for sustainable development: 
The case of Colombian road PPP policy
Shunsaku Komatsuzaki a , Yuki Takada b
a Department of Civil Engineering, The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo, Japan.
b Pacific Consultants Co., Ltd., 3-22 Kanda-Nishikicho, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo, Japan.

Volume 10, Issue 11, Pg. 33-56, 2017.

Abstract: Public-Private Partnerships (hereinafter PPPs) have become a popular approach for sustainable infrastructure development around the world over the past twenty years. A vast number of studies that investigate the critical factors or the best practices for PPPs have emerged from variety of sources including developing country governments, multilateral agencies, consultants, as well as academic field. However, implementation of PPP projects in developing countries is progressing at slower pace and to a lesser extent than expected. One of the major challenges for implementing PPPs would be the obstacles in policy process; for instance, politics hindering an agenda setting for policy improvement. This study thus aims to clarify the process in which the Colombian road PPP policy has been successfully improved and to draw implications on how to promote PPP policy in countries that have not fully developed its PPP policy.

This research identified various driving factors for the road PPP policy development of Colombia through analyzing the policy processes in several periods with information gained by literature reviews and interview surveys. Seven factors were identified that contribute to the development of the Colombian road PPP policy. These are; (i) specification of problems by Multilateral Development bank; (ii) political desire to overcome failure; (iii) integration to the global economic system; (iv) policy learning from other countries experiences; (v) policy learning from domestic past experiences; (vi) smooth takeoff after extensive institutional and legislative reform; and (vii) success of the model project.

Implications of the study relates to; how MDBs could contribute to opening policy window and utilize the opportunity; importance of lesson learning for developing countries’ government agencies and how they could foster accumulation of PPP knowledge and expertise; and the morale-boosting effect of a showcase project and relevant timing of the implementation.

Keywords: agenda-setting, Colombia, multilateral development banks (MDBs), policy process, Public Private Partnership (PPP)

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Influence of Work Environment on Performance in the Public Security Sector with a Focus on the Police in Nairobi Kenya
Susan Were Barasa
 College of Economic and Management Sciences, University of South Africa and 
Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture and Technology
P.O. Box 62000-00200 City Square, Nairobi-Kenya.

Volume 10, Issue 11, Pg. 49-63, 2017.

Abstract: The central problem of this study was that, despite the government reform efforts in the security sector, performance has continued to deteriorate with criminal activities increasing every day. Challenges leading to this dismal performance have not been adequately investigated and well understood, hence hindering performance by the security officers who play a critical role in security issues. Yet without security, economic development is impossible. To this end, the study sought to find out the influence of work environment on performance in the public security sector in Nairobi, Kenya.  The main focus was the regular police.  Using stratified sampling and simple random sampling, 150 officers were selected from a total population of 1500. The considerations of the relationships between technical work environment, the human environment and the organizational environment as the independent variables and performance as the dependent variable were sought. The technical environment in this study referred to tools, equipment, technological infrastructure and physical/technological elements of the workplace. The human environment referred to the networks of formal & informal interactions among colleagues, management, reporting lines and existing levels of competences .The organizational environment referred to the immediate tasks and national environment where the police service draws inputs, processes them and provides outputs in the form of services to the general public. The study used a mixed research design approach of exploratory, descriptive and quantitative designs .The questionnaire was used to gather relevant information.  Data was analyzed using both descriptive and inferential statistics including correlation, regression, analysis of variance and beta coefficients. The study established that there is a strong positive influence on performance of the regular police officers attributable to units of positive change in the technical, human and organizational environments. This is significant since for meaningful development to happen there is need for a safe and secure environment. Performance among the police determines the level of security and safety .Safety and security are key antecedents to economic development and prosperity. Economic development is directly linked to reduction of poverty, which in Kenya is of paramount importance. The study recommended that police officers need improvement in the overall work environment in order for them to perform well. The study recommended that the government, policy makers and the international community interested in matters of security and safety should employ specific measures to improve the technical, human and organizational environments for the police force in Nairobi, Kenya. This then will improve performance in the public security sector-a platform for economic development.

Work Environment: Physical and intangible work conditions and surrounding, (Ting, (1997).

Performance: The accomplishment of a given task measured against preset known standards of accuracy, completeness, cost, and speed, (McLaughlin, 2002)

Security: Peaceful and safe environment conducive for human activities, (http://www.dictionary.com) as retrieved on April 12, 2011.

Keywords: Performance, Work environment, Security Sector, Economic development, Kenya

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The Influence of Government Public Policies, Competitive Business Environment and Managerial Competencies on the Digital Business Practices at the Commercial Banks 
In Jakarta, Indonesia
Sihol Situngkir 
Faculty of Economics, Jambi University, Jambi, Indonesia

Volume 10, Issue 11, Pg. 65-77, 2017.

 Abstract: This paper investigates: firstly, brief descriptions and advantages of the digital business practices at the commercial banks in Jakarta; secondly, the influence of government public policies, competitive business environment and managerial competencies on the digital business practices; thirdly, strategic implications of digital business practices. A survey method was used to cover information and gather primary data from a sample of 50 managers at the top ten commercial banks in Jakarta, Indonesia. The findings of this research are temporarily based on the hypotheses that government public policies, business environment and managerial competencies positively and significantly influence on the digital business practices at the commercial banks in Jakarta. This research found that 73.2% of changes in the digital business practices was caused by competitive business environment and managerial competency. While 26.8% of changes in the digital business practices caused by other factors which were not observed in this research. The results obtained from the regression equation model with a predicted model as follows: Ŷ = 10.217 + 0.320 X1 + 0.175X2 + 0.123X3 The predicted results obtained from the regression equation model have proved dependent variables positively and significantly influence on the digital business practices. So, it is a critical time to suggest that the management of the commercial banks in Jakarta needs to pay close attention to redesign or improve policies on the digital business practices by investing more budgets go for digital information and technology applications to anticipate the future better competitive business environment, especially in facing the era of the ASEAN Economic Community at this time.   

 Keywords: Government Public Policies, Competitive Business Environment, Managerial Competencies, Digital Business Practices, Commercial Banks, and ASEAN Economic Community.

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Sustainability of Infrastructural Development Projects By Oil and Gas Multinationals in Niger Delta, Nigeria: The Case Of Water Projects in the OML 58 Communities of Total Exploration and Production Operations
 Ifeanyi Emma Ogueri a, Justina Uzoma Mgbada b , Ifeanyi Ogueri c 
a,  Department of Agricultural Extension, Federal University of Technology, Owerri, Imo State, Nigeria.
b Federal College of Agriculture, Ishiagu, Ebonyi State, Nigeria.
 c Fresh Impact Rural Development Initiative, Woji, Port Harcourt, Rivers State, Nigeria.  

Volume 10, Issue 11, Pg. 77-91, 2017.

Abstract: Total Exploration and Production Nigeria Limited (TEPNG) is in the business of Exploration and Production of hydrocarbons in Nigeria. These oil and gas activities are carried out in her host Communities. TEPNG had always demonstrated her corporate social responsibility citizenship to communities in her operational domain and beyond. This strategy earned TEPNG the number one position among oil and gas multinationals in Nigeria that had cherish good relationship with her stakeholders. Multinational developmental responsibilities are driven by Memorandum of Understanding (MoU) and Corporate Social Responsibilities (CSR). The former operates on documented framework as working document while the latter is voluntary at the discretion of the operator.  TEPNG had expended huge sum of money in the OML 58 Communities to establish and maintain infrastructure to enhance improved standard of living of stakeholders.  The water projects in 16 communities attest to this claim. Surprisingly, there had been agitations for upward review of water maintenance contracts. This scenario had bedeviled TEPNG in the midst of increasing insecurity as a result of militancy activities. The youths had pitched tent against each cult group, a situation that had affected Multinational Oil and Gas activities in the OML 58. The crisis notwithstanding, the holders of maintenance contracts had continued to request for contract review. It appeared as information mis-match; hence it became imperative to assess the functionality of 16No water projects at Obagi, Obukegi / Ibewa / Akabta, Obigbor, Ede, Ogbogu, Erema, Obite, Akabuka, Oboburu, Ohali-Elu, Amah, Egita, Obiozimini, Idu, Itu – Ogba and Obiyebe. The objectives of the study were to; Determine Functionality, Effectiveness, SUSTAINABILITY and to justify Value for Money on OML 58 water projects. The study was also to identify the underlying critical success factors or otherwise that affected such infrastructural development project.

Methodology adopted considered volatility of the areas in terms of killings, kidnappings, armed robbery, rape and extortion regardless the presence of military personnel. Thus data was collected through questionnaire, personal interviews, personal observations, photography, security gap analysis, mapping / timing and informants. The respondents were women (mostly involved in the use of water for domestic activities), Youths (agitators for employment or ghost workers), chiefs / elders and the contractor maintenance staff. A total of 210 questionnaires were distributed out of which 160 (76%) were retrieved. Results emerged from descriptive statistical tools used in the analysis. Presentation was in frequency, percentage, pie chart, histogram and pictorials. Likert – type scale was used to quantify degree of Sustainability of OML58 communities’ water projects.

Results revealed awareness and acceptability of the project by respondents, though desired purpose had not been met due to irregular supply. Inconsistent power supply as occasioned by vandalization or stolen composite generating sets were identified as major reason. Non maintenance of the water projects was eloquent regardless payments made to indigenous local contractors. This scenario triggered wastages and flooding because the contractors took an average of 14 days to attend to identified faults. When functional, access was never an issue as 72% of respondents had access to water 7 times a week. Sustainability of water projects in the OML 58 became problematic as the project increased high dependency on TEPNG. A total of 60% justified value for money on the projects but there was zero return on investment (ROI). It was recommended that an alternate source of potable water through Mono pump in strategic locations of the communities was ideal to reduce constant vandalizations and stealing in water facilities. Maintenance contract of each water project should be awarded to Community Development Committee (CDC) of each community since they live within the project vicinity and could be reached in the case of faults. This was identified as employment creation opportunity that has potentials of transforming youths and discourages militancy and cultism. There was need to start utility payment on all water projects so that they could be self sustaining.  

Conclusively, the project was adjudged partially functional, not effective and not sustainable. Utility payment would justify Value for money while re-awarding contract would require capacity building as change process to usher safe working environment for Total Exploration and Production operations in the OML 58.

Keywords: Increased high dependency, Militancy and Cultism, Mono pump, wastages and flooding, Water Project maintenance contract.

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