Volume 09 Issue 07

OIDA International Journal of Sustainable Development
Open access peer-reviewed journal 

Polygamy versus equality rights: Is polyandry a solution?
Nqobizwe Mvelo Ngema
Department of Public Law, University of Zululand, South Africa

Volume 09, Issue 07, Pg. 11-14, 2016.

Abstract: The right to Equality has been accepted as one of the principles of jus cogens since the Second World War and it is protected in numerous international and regional human rights instruments. The Convention on Elimination of all Forms of Discrimination against Woman (CEDAW) is a comprehensive document that serves as the international Bill of Rights for women and it prohibits polygamy. This paper examines whether the most unusual customary practice of polyandry would serve as  a solution in elevating the status of women to be on par with that of man that are polygamists or not. This paper concludes by arguing that polyandry cannot solve the problem of inequalities that are confronted by women because even in polyandrous societies there is male domination that is detrimental to the equality rights of women.

Keywords: Polygamy, Polyandry, discrimination

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Infant Mortality Trends in India: A Review of Health System 
Valmiki Rama Krishna a, Rudrappa Shashidhar b, Devraj Smitha c
a Department of Studies and Research in Political Science, Tumkur University, Tumkur, India.
b Department of Studies & Research in Business Administration, Tumkur University, Tumkur, India.
cDepartment of Political Science, Sri Basaveswara P U College, Sondekoppa Road, Nelamangala,
 Bangalore Rural District, India.

Volume 09, Issue 07, Pg.  15-22, 2016.

Abstract: Assuring public health services is primary duty of every government and as such, the government has taken steps to maintain public health, by opening health centers, hospitals, mobile hospitals, organizing mass awareness camps on health and so on. In this paper we will discuss Infant mortality rate is an excellent indicator of the socio-economic development of a country. India is facing severe problems related to the infant mortality. The statistics revealed that neonatal death rate is the highest in the world (43 per 1000 live births).  A quarter of world’s neonatal deaths (one million) each year take place in India, mostly at home (65.4% of all births and 75.3% of births in rural areas occur at home).  It may be noted that despite the great importance of the subject, no information is available regarding the details of the causes of deaths.  As discussed above, infant mortality is a major health problem and government is more concerned towards solving such health problem by reducing infant mortality rate.  Further, the reasons for infant mortality include socio-cultural beliefs, education of mother, regular health check-up, lack of proper health care facilities, etc.  Further paper will evaluate the child mortality patterns which do vary for the urban and the rural areas. The relation between the female and male mortality rates hold quite strongly in rural areas whereas in the urban areas these are weakly linked. It can be concluded that infant mortality is the result of socio-economic characteristics of mothers and households, demographic characteristics of children, and health-care behaviour of mothers, availability of health care facilities, etc. will be evaluated and concluding remarks and suggestions will be carried out in this paper.  

Keywords: Health, Infant Mortality, Health Problems, Policies, Socio-economic Development

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Differences in State Financial Management Irregularities Before and After Assessment of Anti-Corruption Initiative in The Ministry of “XYZ”
Susi Dwimulyani a, Tri Rahayu Kusumaningtyas b
a,b Accounting Magister Program Faculty of Economic and Business, Trisakti University, Indonesia. 

Volume 09, Issue 07, Pg. 23-32, 2016.

Abstract: In order to realize the implementation of clean and respectable country, the Indonesian government has committed for preventing and eradicating of corruption. According Maheka (2008), the eradication of corruption is a series of measures to prevent and tackle corruption with public participation based on the legislation. Based on these descriptions can be concluded that the eradication of corruption, there are 3 forming elements, namely prevention (anti-corruption/preventive), action (prevention/contra-corruption/repressive), and community participation. In the National Strategy for Preventing and Eradicating of Corruption laid the prevention as the foundation for eradication of corruption in Indonesia. One of the strategies in the prevention of long-term focus is the strengthening of anti-corruption commitments on all elements of government (executive), judicative, and legislative. Anti-corruption initiative as one of commitments in the prevention of corruption has actually been carried out by institutions not only at central government but also at local government. However, the anti-corruption initiatives are generally not run as an integrated system.

The Corruption Eradication Commission as the agency charged with the prevention of corruption in Indonesia, has an instrument called the Anti-Corruption Initiative Assessment to measure and reward these efforts. Assessment Initiative of Anti-Corruption aims to provide an overview of the efforts of anti-corruption that are being taken by the main unit in the public sector, pushing the main unit to be responsible for the success of efforts to prevent corruption in the unit primarily, and ensure that each of the main unit have the initiative and a strong enough commitment to eradicating corruption within the scope and authority (Directorate of Research and Development of Corruption Eradication Commission, 2009). Anti-Corruption Initiative Assessment consists of eight main elements, namely: 1) Specific Code of Conduct; 2) Transparency in the Management of Human Resources (HR); 3) Transparency of State Officers; 4) Transparency in Procurement; 5) Public Complaint Mechanism; 6) Public Access to obtain Information; 7) Implementation of Suggestion Advice Provided by Corruption Eradication Commission or State Audit Agency or Government Internal Supervisory Apparatus; and 8) Promotion Activity of Anti-Corruption; as well as an element of innovation, namely the Another Anti-Corruption Initiative Adequacy.

In addition to anti-corruption initiatives, the efforts to prevent corruption are also done through supervising the management of state finances. This is in accordance with the instructions of President of the Republic of Indonesia Number 5 Year 2004 on the Acceleration of Corruption Eradication, which confirms the need for the management of state finances optimally efficient and effective in a manner that an orderly correspond the legislation in force with surveillance objective, in order to avoid and prevent possible irregularities in its use.

This study was conducted to compare and obtain empirical evidence of differences in state financial management irregularities before and after the assessment of anti-corruption initiative of the Ministry of XYZ, Indonesian Republic, in 2005 – 2014 periods. The hypothesis was tested that irregularities in the financial management of the state prior to the assessment of anti-corruption initiatives differ significantly than after the assessment of anti-corruption initiatives.

The design of this research is the comparative study. The research variable is assessment of anti-corruption initiatives and irregularities in the management of state finances. The sample in this study using nine of the 10 Echelon Units in the Ministry XYZ conducted an audit by the Inspectorate General of the Ministry of XYZ from 2005 through 2014 periods. The statistical tests performed using Wilcoxon Signed-Ranks Test with significance level used was 0.05.

The output of Wilcoxon Signed-Ranks Test can be descripted as follows: 1) the average value of the state’s financial findings before assessment of anti-corruption initiatives greater than after assessment of anti-corruption initiatives; 2) the difference between the findings of state finances after assessment of anti-corruption initiatives and before assessment of anti-corruption initiatives is negative value, means the value of the state’s financial findings after doing assessment of anti-corruption initiatives smaller than before assessment of anti-corruption initiatives; and 3) irregularities in financial management of state prior to assessment of anti-corruption initiatives significantly different than after assessment of anti-corruption initiatives. This result shows that the assessment of anti-corruption initiatives can lower the country’s financial management irregularities in the Ministry of XYZ.

Keywords: Assessment of anti-corruption initiatives, irregularities in state financial management

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From political marketing to political literacy: 
Beginner voter’s brand new meaning for developing political party’s advertising as socialization media in the election
Reny Triwardani a, Ida Wiendijarti b 
a, b,  Communication Science Department, Universitas Pembangunan Nasional “Veteran” Yogyakarta,
 Jalan Babarsari No.2 Tambakbayan, Depok, Sleman, Yogyakarta 55281, Indonesia.

Volume 09, Issue 07, Pg. 33-40, 2016.

 Abstract: Most political parties use advertising to persuade voters in the election. For that reason, the party’s advertisings focus on how to make the good branding for political party’s image by making political marketing approach. This research aims to develop political advertising as a socialization media as well as to educate beginner voters about political knowledge. Based on the reception analysis to the beginner voters, beginner voters make the different interpretation to the party’s advertising in the election. Using participatory action research, the beginner voters involve to create new forms of party’s advertising based in their interpretation. Due to their involvement on the party’s advertising production, they make it by using political literacy approach for strengthening their own political knowledge. For beginner voters, political advertising could be developed as the creative instrument as campaign forms to increase the understanding of political party. Political advertising also become effective political learning tools to literate the public about politics. 

Keywords: beginner voters, party’s advertising, participatory action research, political literacy, socialization media

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