OIDA International Journal of Sustainable Development
Open access peer-reviewed journal
Reforming Fiscal Policy towards Inclusive Growth in Africa: From Brown Growth to Green Economy
Oyewole Simon Oginni
Thematic Centre of Governance and Regional Integration, Institute of Governance,
Humanities and Social Science, Pan African University, Cameroon.
Volume 09, Issue 05, Pg. 11-29, 2016.
This study examines the state of transition to green economies in Africa. It dissects policy dilemma surrounding fiscal reforms towards green economy. Through empirical and theoretical framework, the study clarifies the ambiguity surrounding the concepts of ‘green growth’ and ‘green economy’, and contextualizes their usage in a manner that addresses Africa’s needs for inclusive growth and sustainable development. Also, a proposed model on the logical complex of fiscal policy reforms on green economy demonstrates that institutional capacity, public perception; entrusted interest and governance are critical variables to address during fiscal policy reforms on green economy in Africa. Findings from the state of transition to a green economy reveal great potentials: in the East Africa, Kenya takes leading role; in the Southern Africa, South Africa and in the West Africa, Ghana. Nevertheless, further finding reveals that the transitions to green economy in Africa are still mainly financed through foreign assistance programmes. African governments and private-enterprises should take leading roles in the funding of green economy projects while complementing with foreign aids and expertise in order to guarantee sustainable policy implementation and inclusive growth for Africans.
Keywords: Brown Growth, Fiscal Policy Reforms, Green Economy, Green Growth, Inclusive Growth, Sustainable Development
Strategy to Improve Small Business Competencies and Capabilities in Global Market Competition
Department of Management, Faculty of Economic Trisakti University, Jakarta, Indonesia
Volume 09, Issue 05, Pg. 30-38, 2016.
Abstract: Globalization is a borderless world with “competition” as a key word. Globalization means opportunities as well as a source of threats. Specific advantages derived from operating in a global market seem to be exploitable only by large organization, unless small business can find the suitable strategy allowing them to cope with global market opportunities without suffering from limited competencies and capabilities. In globalization, there are high market and product competitiveness and also opportunity to grow for small business. Small Businesses should have a specific strategy that are implemented based on the entrepreneurs’ competencies, capabilities and products or service competitiveness strategies in order to compete in the global market. Small businesses in Indonesia suffer from some weaknesses: (1) Internal factors as follows: weak in entrepreneurship spirit; Un-professional employees; low in creative ideas and innovative products; weak in mental sustainability in competitive condition; limited business networking particularly in global market; un-skill and no experiences employee in global market practices; and less capital resources networking. (2) External factors as follows: minimal conducive business environment; shortage in business training for small business actors by government; less government support such as business information center and infra structure for business transportation and communication facilities; limited marketing channel; and limited in global market information. The objective of this article is to provide recommendation in the form of strategy to improve the competencies and capabilities of small business actors (entrepreneurs and employees) in competition strategy in global market competition. Method used in this article is by literature review.
In order to survive and to take advantages of opportunities in the global market, the small business must improve their business competencies, capabilities and product competitiveness as well. (1) Owners and Employees of small business should build the spirit of entrepreneurship and innovation by empowering their capacity building. (2) The entrepreneurs should create relevant and competitive strategies in the market to become a driving force in order to improve their business competencies and capabilities in global market competition. (3) The entrepreneurs should develop a center of alliances strategies for global market. Therefore, by improving the business competencies and capabilities then they will encourage the creation of product or service competitiveness in global market. (4) The role of government with a conducive business environment created by government is considered as supporting factors to encourage the various efforts made by small business employees to improve their competitiveness locally and globally.
Keywords: small business strategy, competencies, capabilities, entrepreneurship, competitiveness strategy, small business.
Cost Planning Model of Urban Infrastructure for Sustainable Cities (Research on Martapura City, Banjar Regency, Kalimantan Selatan Province)
Galuh Tantri Narindra a, Zulkifli Husin b
a,b Department of Economics, Trisakti University, Jakarta, Indonesia.
Volume 09, Issue 05, Pg. 39-58, 2016.
Abstract: The purpose of this research are (1) identify and analyze the factors that affect the cost planning of urban infrastructure in the conceptual phase, considering economic, social and ecological aspects; (2) analyze and construct optimum cost planning model of urban infrastructure towards sustainable cities; and (3) analyze the sustainability of cities through the management of infrastructure, considering economic, social and environment aspects. The methodology in this research is quantitative descriptive method. The model was built by the method of analysis with Operations Research (Linier Programming), Analysis Sensitivity, and Dual Price analysis. Unit cost analysis method adapted to the necessary variables, such as the City Hierarchy analysis, Streeter-Phelps Equation, the Cost of Illness Approach, and Benefit Cost Analysis. The data collected was secondary data and primary data. The results showed (1) the factors that influence the cost of urban infrastructure development are economic infrastructure, social infrastructure and environmental infrastructure, particularly the role of BOD-DO in the rivers. (2) The cost planning model of urban infrastructure for river-based city more efficient 10.79% then conventional model. (3) When urban development budget has been optimized, and considere aspects of sustainability, it is possible other activities budgeted for the reduction of urban environmental pollution and improve public health and income of the community, as a model application of the environmental, social, and economic aspects towards sustainable cities. Theoretical implication of this research is “to achieve sustainable cities, improvement of the city finance capability is an absolute effort, by optimizing the city budget based on the cost planning of urban infrastructure is integrated in urban planning, and consider environmental, social, and economic aspects”. The results showed that the analysis of the availability of adequate urban infrastructure affects the increase of regional economic development. Therefore, the cost planning model of urban infrastructure obtained can be used for the management of urban infrastructure policy, towards sustainable cities. The cost planning model of urban infrastructure are constructed consider the environment aspect through the management of river pollution on the river-based city. In addition, the concept of urban planning based on this study using a comprehensive approach that integrates cost planning, development planning, and spatial planning toward sustainable cities.
Keywords: cost planning, urban infrastructures, river, sustainable cities
Benefits and Costs Analysis of Micro Hydro Electric Power Generation of Enim Watershed Tanjung Tiga
for Sustainable Development
Y. Andriani a,b , T.Y.M. Zagloel c, R.H. Koestoer d
a Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, University of Sriwijaya,
Palembang, Sumatera Selatan, Indonesia.
b Student of Indonesia University Postgraduate
c,d University of Indonesia, Jakarta, Indonesia.
Volume 09, Issue 05, Pg. 59-62, 2016.
Abstract: The electricity demand of the population in Indonesia continues to increase over time, in line with the population growth. Currently, Indonesia highly demands on electrical energy which is mainly derived from fossil resources, while the availability of fossil endowment declines continuously. In 2009, the electricity demand in Indonesia exceeded the electricity supply, so the deficit is 15.22%. It is necessary to find alternative energy sources to meet the demand. Water is one of the alternative resources. If it is discerned from the potential of existing water resources, the availability of water resources in Indonesia is relatively abundant in the area, both located in upper and in the coastal watershed of cities. Mostly those located in the upper watersheds are not easily rechargeable by the electrical energy supported by State Electricity Company. Electrical energy can be supplied from the existing water resources in the watershed by using technology. Existing technology is used to build a source of electrical energy through micro hydro electric power generation that converts the water flow energy into electrical energy. Tanjung Tiga village is a village in the sub district of Semende Darat Ulu, Muara Enim Regency, South Sumatra Province, Indonesia. This village is one of the villages in Indonesia that has not been affordable electricity from the State Electricity Company. The flowing of Enim river is a part of Musi sub wathershed. In the past, people used kerosene of fossil for lighting. In 2003, people consumed electricity for television, computer other devices that used electrical energy. The villagers of Tanjung Tiga currently consume energy in the sources derived from micro hydro electric power generation, with a power of 200 watts per house. The economic value of water used for micro hidro electric power needs to be calculated, so that people understand how important protecting water resources to maintain sustainability with its economic value. Calculation of economic value is done in an effort to increase investment in the protection of natural water resources and as a basis for a policy. The policy can be used as the basis for ecological or environmental service payments on water resources and to optimally manage environmental condition. This paper aim to desk assess the value of micro hydro electric power generation respect to utilizing for a living in the areas. The paper encountered several questions: (i) How much the benefit and cost of water taken if the water used for electrical energy through micro hydro electric power generation, (ii) How long the micro hydro electric power generation can still be used to electricity demand of communities of Tanjung Tiga so that water resources in the village is still able to meet the demands of communities in the future. It is necessary to re-count on economic valuation of available water resources in Tanjung Tiga by using benefits and costs analyses. The results can cover the duration of micro hydro electric power and when it maintained properly, the people would use it longer.
Keywords: electricity demands, electricity supply, the village of Tanjung Tiga, micro hydro electric power generation, benefits and costs analysis
Sustainability of Forest Park as Space Break: A case study of Arroceros Forest Park in Congested City of Manila
Arlen Angelada Ancheta a, Zosimo Ocampo Membrebe Jr.b,
Alain Jomarie Guillen Santos c, John Christian Cabasal Valeroso d,
Charday Vizmanos Batac e
a,c,d,e Graduate School, University of Santo Tomas, España, Manila.
b Graduate School, University of Santo Tomas & Philippine Normal University, España, Manila.
Volume 09, Issue 05, Pg. 63-86, 2016.
Abstract: The study illustrates how urban forest parks as scarce resources in congested Manila could be sustainable to enhance the social values of a stressful urban life. Urban forest is considered as woodland located in or near urban area that entails transformed forest vegetation and provides green spaces to the communities (Zhang et al., 2007). It is widely regarded as a chain of trees where services are considered non-consumptive use value that includes clean air, serene and calmness environment, as well as sports and recreational activities.
The Arroceros Forest Park (AFP) is one of the urban forests in congested Manila. It is a 2.2-hectare green space that contains different varieties of trees, plants and birds. Considered as the “last lung” of the city of Manila (Roces, 2015), it is located along the riverside of Pasig River, only few urbanites are aware of.
The objective of the study is to present the ecological values of AFP as space break to promote urban sustainability of Manila. This study is anchored on the concept of willingness to pay (WTP) that tries to determine its bequest value using total economic value as framework. According to literature, willingness to pay is being used to elicit the values put people on green spaces as Hadker et al. (1996) used a similar approach in the case of Borivli National Park in Bombay, which shares the same characteristics as that of AFP, in terms of location in an overly crowded metropolis, faced with the challenges of severe degradation and neglect.
The study used mixed methods combining key informant interviews and field observations as well as survey in gathering qualitative data and quantifiable values placed on the forest park.
Results show that the AFP is maintained by a non-government organization with limited funding and volunteers. Selected respondents are not fully aware on the role of the forest park. There is no city ordinance to protect the forest park, but there are environmentally aware institutions, student organizations, advocacy groups and civil societies that are willing to protect the forest park from deterioration. In conclusion, due to limited awareness on the ecological value of AFP, it became susceptible to vandalism, waste disposal and proliferation of informal settlers.
Keywords: Arroceros Forest Park, space breaks, total economic value, willingness to pay