OIDA International Journal of Sustainable Development
Open access peer-reviewed journal
Financial Sector Development Analysis to Support Sustainable Development in Indonesia Period 1998.1 – 2013.4
Dini Hariyanti ª, Juswar Z. Basri b , Muhammad Zilal Hamzahc
a Faculty of Economic, Trisakti University, West Jakarta, Indonesia.
b Accounting Program, Trisakti University, West Jakarta, Indonesia.
c Sustainable Development Management Program, Trisakti University and Indonesian Business School,
West Jakarta, Indonesia
Volume 08, Issue 08, Pg.11-28, 2015.
Abstract: The objective of this research is to analyze the Financial Development and it identifies the various channels through which Financial Development is transmitted to saving, bank lending to manufacture industry, manufacture industry investment, and output manufacturing industry of the economy. Also identifies the effect of Financial Development on output manufacturing industry and influence on the environmental and poverty to support Sustainability Development.
The model of this research is simultaneous equations, the development of research Afangideh (2009) by adding two models; the influence of output for the environment and poverty to fill the gap from previous studies. This research also uses two approach Financial Development indicators; that is the ratio of credit/GDP and the ratio of M2/GDP. Secondary data obtained from BI, BPS, BEI and the World Bank during the period 1998 – 2013, with a method of Generalized Method of Moments (GMM).
From six models of simultaneous equations and one identity models, the results of the models are Financial Development indicators with the approach the ratio credit/GDP is more significant than the ratio M2/GDP. The result showed that gross national saving, investment is the channel of Financial Development that affect to the output manufacturing industry; which is influence to the environment and poverty.
Instrument determining financial development indicator in Indonesia is ratio credit/GDP. Based on existing models, saving and investment are substitute for Financial Development and the effect on real output of the manufacturing industry in Indonesia. Furthermore, the Financial Development through the output level will affect the environment and the poverty in a Sustainable Development.
The results showed that the determining of the financial development sector in Indonesia is ratio Credit/GDP. Savings and investment are substitute for financial development. Savings are important for economic development to transform into productive investments. Control of interest rates as a policy tool needs to be done carefully (Prudent behavior) because of competition the interest rate of financial liberalization. Credit should be directed to the productive sector and not the consumption because Financial Development Sector Indicators and Stock Market Indicators for bank loan didn’t optimal. Economic outlook needs to be improved because of the low interest rate credit is not necessarily addressed by the community to improve the credit demand what if the economic outlook is weak. Stock market indicators needed to encourage investment due to the low use of capital markets for financing investment and limitations intermediation by non-bank financial institutions (eg, hedging and insurance facilities are inadequate). There is the influence causality between output and pollution (environmental). The financial development sector can contribute to the environment by providing incentives for companies to adopt environmentally friendly technique during the production process. So that a sound financial sector can improve the quality of the environment. The high Gini ratio shows that poverty inequality has not improved as a result of deterioration in the quality of economic growth because they have not determined the structural changes in the poverty rate. Finally, the development of the financial sector can be a channel for sustainable development in Indonesia so that the policy taken by the government should pay attention not only on the output but also its impact on the environment and poverty.
Keywords:GMM, Financial Development, Gross National Saving, Investment, Bank lending, Output Manufacturing Industry, Environment, Poverty and Sustainable Development
Improving The Educational_Recreational Capacity Of Cities Through Designing Knowledge-Theme Park
(Case Study: 10 District of Mashad’s municipality in Iran)
Fereshte Ahmadi a, Shirin Toghyani b
a,b Department of Urban Planning ,Faculty of Art and Architecture and Urban planning, Najafabad Branch,
Islamic Azad University, Najafabad, Isfahan, Iran.
Volume 08, Issue 08, Pg. 29-41, 2015.
Abstract: In fact, ‘City’ has the same nature as what comes to the mind as culture. However, by development of cities and unlimited increase of cities, the relation between the human being and the nature has been reduced. Nowadays, the machinery life through the daily increase of cities has made the human being so far away from the nature. That is why breathing in a healthy weather and having rest and fun have become a vital need for the people of the cities. Therefore, as parks are the place of city inhabitants’ rest, to avoid jobs and life’s problems, these people try to use parks. This need has made that place a proper tool for culture making and an indirect education. This resulted into that the experts and relevant officials, through making the parks thematic and also with the education during fun, to improve the knowledge of their people and to be able to attract tourist as well.
Therefore, designing knowledge theme parks in order to improve the education al and amusing capacity of cities is under focus of this paper. The general topic of this research is to provide a proper field for merging education, amusement and building a pleasant, attractive and different atmosphere for the people, tourists and particularly for the kids in form of making knowledge theme park. In this regard, the basic concepts of knowledge, park and its functions, the knowledge park and its aims, the characteristics and the history of establishment are described. Then the national and foreign experience in theme parks and the derived norms and standards for designing them are reviewed. Finally, due to an increase in the number of Iranian and foreign tourists and pilgrims of Mashad city and because of the need in quantitative and qualitative improvement of leisure and tourism atmospheres and also the necessity of revising the process of planning and designing parks, the district 10 of Mashad’s municipality is introduced for the case study; and therefore, the knowledge theme park is designed for this site. The research methodology of this paper is descriptive-analytical and is based on the process of environmental planning and designing.
Iran’s Supreme Leader: “Iran is a cultural and knowledge based global city with Iranian and Islamic, beautiful, resistant, rich and model identity in Islam’s world.”
“We must promote the basic knowledge in a manner that knowing sciences such as physics, chemistry, mathematics and other fields of the basic science become customary and public concerns.”
Keywords: knowledge theme park, city, education, outing, designing.
Challenges to Women’s Entitlement to Land: A Case of the Nyadgori Farm in Zimbabwe
Tsoaledi Daniel Thobejane a, Charity Tariro Murisa b
Institute for Gender and Youth Studies, University of Venda, South Africa.
Volume 08, Issue 08, Pg. 42-48, 2015.
Abstract : Women all over the world continue to face challenges of entitlement to land. The political, economic and social structures are gendered and only working to the advantage of men at the expense of women when it comes to land ownership. The aim of this study was to investigate and identify solutions to the challenges of women’s entitlement to land in Nyadgori farm in Zimbabwe. The study used 11 participants all of whom were women. The study was conducted in Nyadgori farms, situated in Mhondoro, Zimbabwe. A qualitative research method was used to obtain the views of the participants pertaining the challenges that limit their land ownership and their perceptions on what could be done to overcome this challenge. Participants emphasized the need for them to be included in decision making bodies regarding land and the establishment of gender awareness programs on women’s land rights and empowerment.
Keywords: Entitlement, Land Policy, Reforms, Gender Equality
A Geographical Analysis of Water Quality in Kalady Panchayat, Kerala, India
Lancelet.T.S. a , J. Brilla Balsam b
a,b Department of Geography, Sree Sankaracharya, University of Sanskrit, Kalady, Ernakulam, Kerala, India
Volume 08, Issue 08, Pg. 49-60, 2019.
Abstract: The paper entitled ‘A Geographical Analysis of Water Quality in Kalady Panchayat’ is an evaluation of potability of surface and ground water in Kalady panchayat. Water quality is a major issue in this fast growing world. Water quality becomes a problem due to population explosion, socio-economic growth and poor management of natural resources in the 21st century. Surface water namely rivers, ponds, lakes etc have been contaminated at an alarming rate due to the dumping of waste materials in a meaningless way. The paper reveals improper waste disposal system, dumping wastes in public water resources in an unsustainable manner in the study area. Ground water was the major source of drinking water in the early years but now due to over exploitation it is also contaminated and exhausted. In turn, humans are affected by the poor quality of water in the form of health impacts. The paper gives general introduction with water quality and its global, Indian and Kerala scenario and the major reasons for poor quality of water. Since the study is supported by the concept that ‘water quality has a major health impact’, a brief statement about medical geography is also included. Medical geographical aspect is a sub division in the discipline of geography that explains about the influence of local conditions upon the human health. ‘Statement of the problem’ and the ‘significance of the study area’ that are explains about the present problem of investigation in the study area.
Keywords : Ground water, Grid sampling, Health impact factor, Medical geography Eutrophication ,Water quality.
Individual Empowerment – An Eastern Perspective
Department of Psychology, Sree Sankaracharya University of Sanskrit, Kalady, Ernakulam, Kerala, India.
Volume 08, Issue 08, Pg. 61-70, 2015.
Abstract: Confidence and Understanding, Skills in Analysis and Communication, Trust, Caring and Tolerance, Communication and Co-operation and Access to Information are the indicators of empowerment . Individual empowerment is possible through the adaptation of Eastern perspectives which can be found in Gita, Yoga, Ayurveda and Budhism and, which in turn, will help for the development of a peaceful l society .Only a peaceful society can ensure creative and progressive thinking of individuals.,The scriptures like Gita, yoga etc. declare that for establishing peace in society and bringing about progress at all levels, individuals should be empowered..How the individuals could be physically mentally socially and spiritually empowered is the subject of discussion in these scriptures.
Keywords: Ayurveda; Buddhism; Gita; Yoga,
Insurgence: A Threat to Fundamental Human Rights in Nigeria
Joshua O. Nweke
Department of Sociology/Anthropology
Faculty of Social Sciences and Humanities, Ebonyi State University, Abakaliki, Nigeria.
Volume 08, Issue 08, Pg. 71-80, 2015.
Abstract: In 10th December 1948, the United Nations Organization adopted the bill on human rights by resolution 217a (111). By this act, the Universal Declaration of Human Rights was established. This placed Human Rights on a global agenda which certified its universality. This spurred regional bodies like Europe and America to declare convention for the protection of human rights and fundamental freedom in 1950 and 1969 respectively. Other nation states took a queue from Europe and America in adopting the universal human rights declaration. This paper is anchored on Marxist state theory. In Africa, the chatter on human rights was adopted in 1981 and came into force in 1986. In 1979, Nigeria signed it into law and it became part of the constitution of the Federal Republic of Nigeria. By the provisions of the constitution of Nigeria, all her citizens have rights to life, right to own properties, right to fair hearing, freedom of speech, freedom of religion, freedom of association, freedom of movements and so forth. These rights are not to be infringed upon by any individual, government, association or organization. In Nigeria, these rights have been infringed upon through the activities of insurgence. Many lives have been lost. Properties worth billions of USD have been lost due to the activities of Boko Haram insurgence especially in the North Eastern Nigeria. This has created a big security threat in Nigeria. The internal security of her citizens is in jeopardy. The citizens live in fear. At every moment, nobody can predict the next security threat. This paper underscores the extent of abuse of fundamental human rights and its implications to national development. This is a theoretical paper. It explores measures that could be employed to address the security situation in Nigeria especially as it affects fundamental human rights abuse. The paper recommends the use of political will power and peace building as alternatives to insurgence in Nigeria.
Keywords: Boko Haram, Fundamental Rights, Insecurity, Threat
Achieving Food Security: Policy Lessons from the Philippines
Shienna Marie G. Esteban
De La Salle University, College of Liberal Arts, Department of Political Science, Manila, Philippines
Volume 08, Issue 08, Pg. 81-97, 2015.
Abstract: The global food system is beset by challenges and threats. With the global population rapidly increasing, changing global landscape, and environmental risks that endanger agriculture, food security is now a huge concern. It has now become a major challenge to attain and maintain food security at a time of economic uncertainties and high commodity prices. In the Philippines, the challenge of achieving food security has long been recognized by the government, together with domestic agricultural productivity. In line with this, the current administration’s goal is to achieve food security and food self-sufficiency by 2016. Through the Department of Agriculture, Food Staples Sufficiency Program (FSSP) 2011 – 2016 was launched with an aim to achieve self-sufficiency in food staples towards ensuring food security. The main target of FSSP is to achieve domestic requirement by 2013. Towards 2013, FSSP aims to strengthen resilience against the impact of climate change to increase production of food staples. Aside from FSSP, the Philippine government had implemented various policies directed towards self-sufficiency and food security after the 2007-2008 global food price crisis. With these policies, the paper tries to look at the current food security situation of the Philippines with respect to the goal of achieving food security. Moreover, the paper reviews the performance of Philippine agriculture vis-à-vis its economy. An analysis of the policies introduced during the post-global food crisis is also provided with their objectives, strengths, and weaknesses. Furthermore, the paper also tries to look how the Philippine agriculture vis-à-vis its fellow ASEAN countries, especially now that the region is gearing towards integration. Through a review of related literature and secondary data from DA, DBM, BAS – CountrySTAT, PSA, NSCB, PIDS, IRRI, UN-FAO, and World Bank among others, the study revealed that Philippines is still far from being food secure and resilient to climate change due to implementation gaps and lack of coordination among relevant government agencies. Thus, the goal of FSSP does not appear to be feasible. Moreover, results showed that food security has rapidly weakened by the government’s rice importation. Results also revealed that the volatility of weather in the country and high cost of agricultural inputs alleviate the production of food supply. Given the current situation, the upcoming ASEAN Integration will not bode well for Philippine agriculture. Filipino farmers are not yet ready for a regional trade as their domestic market is still fragile. Furthermore, although Philippines has a high potential, it still has no comparative advantage when compared to its neighbors such as Thailand and Vietnam. The paper concludes that for the Philippines to be successful in pursuing food security, it should undergo institutional reforms and improve infrastructure and technology to increase production.
Keywords: ASEAN Integration; climate change; food security; institutional reform; Philippine agriculture