OIDA International Journal of Sustainable Development
Open access peer-reviewed journal
Gender Issues and Environmental Management in Nigeria
Oluronke Omolola Odunjo a , Simon Ayorinde Okanlawon b , Olajoke Abolade c
a,b Department of Architecture, Faculty of Environmental Science,
Ladoke Akintola University of Technology, Ogbomoso, Nigeria.
c Department of Urban and Regional Planning, Faculty of Environmental Science,
Ladoke Akintola University of Technology, Ogbomoso, Nigeria
Volume 08, Issue 01, Pg. 31-39, 2015.
Abstract: The World Health Organization sees gender in terms of women and men roles and responsibilities that are socially determined. In today’s growing global economy, gender issues have increasingly gained significance most especially, as every nation of the world is in a bid to achieve sustainable development. Since the quality of the environment is determined by the users (the different sexes), and women forms a sizeable portion of the population, this study investigates female gender participation in Environmental Management in Nigeria.
Questionnaire and direct field observation are the instruments for data collection and Ibadan Metropolis consisting of five local government areas was purposely selected for the study. In all, a total of eleven Community Based Organizations that engaged in Environmental Management were identified in the area and simple random sampling techniques was used in selecting Landlords association, out of which 981 questionnaires were randomly administered to members.. The data obtained were analyzed with frequency counts, percentages and chi-square to show variation in the participation of women across the different density zones.
The study found out that, Environmental projects undertaken in the area are road construction and maintenance (3.8%), channelization of stream (0.9%), construction of bridge (1.9%), construction of toilets (21.7%),incinerators (2.8%), clearing of footpaths / bushes (4.7%),construction of culvert (34.9%), seminars and workshop (2.8%) and tree planting (26.5%). However, female gender is grossly underrepresented in the association thereby, accounting for 16.0% of the total membership strength. The adduced reasons for this by the female gender include male egocentrism, lack of education and lack of self-confidence. The study concludes by proffering solutions towards balancing gender inequalities in the area and in Nigeria in general.
Keywords: Gender issues, Environment, Women participation, Environmental Management.
African Union and the Prospect of Sustainable Development in the Twenty First Century
Rahila Timothy Dantong
Department of Political Science, Faculty of Social Science,
Plateau State University of Bokkos., Plateau State, Nigeria.
Volume 08, Issue 01, Pg. 40-46, 2015.
Abstract: The AU succeeded the Organization of African Unity (OAU), which was set up in 1963 to secure the decolonization of Africa and the sovereignty of individual nation states, while simultaneously promoting unity and prosperity on the continent. With one of the main goals achieved, a new organization was needed to take Africa forward into the 21st century: a stronger, more efficient and practical body working to create “an integrated, prosperous and peaceful Africa, driven by its own citizens and representing a dynamic force in the global arena”, the world’s perception of Africa was at low ebb. The African renaissance that was promised at the end of decolonisation instead gave birth to a sustained period of ‘afro-pessimism’, following a series of devastating conflicts, endemic corruption and chronic underdevelopment (The Economist Magazine, 2000). Which not only slowed the African development process, but produced new sets of elites who received instructions for development externally? As a result, Africa was brought on her knees to a total state of dependence and as a dependent economy the performance of the African economy is often conditioned by the expansion or decline of external economies. This paper therefore, appraises AU and the prospect of development in Africa within the framework of NEPAD. It further argues the neoliberal orthodoxy that has informed the initiative, providing a critical perspective of its overarching order whilst emphasizing the need for African ownership of the process and product of NEPAD, especially in the context of a newly established African union.
Keywords: NEPAD, AU, OAU, Development and Challenges
Is the Party Really Over? Rethinking the Role of Conflict Transformation Theory in the Political Sphere and Political Representation
Andrew Emmanuel Okem a, Dorcas Ettang b
a,b School of Social Sciences, University of KwaZulu Natal, Durban 4041, Republic of South Africa
Volume 08, Issue 01, Pg. 47-60, 2015.
Abstract: The point of departure of this paper is that sustainable development can only occur in a context where peace prevails. This article applies John Lederach’s Conflict Transformation Theory in the political sphere as a tool for representation and ensuring bottom-up, inclusive and locally led political processes. Asides from promoting the reduction of violence, conflict transformation theory also emphasises the need for social justice. In increasing social justice, citizens must have access to political processes and a voice in decisions that affect them. How do these assertions translate in diverse societies with multiple interests and demands? Can the current political party structures adapt and transform to address these needs and demands? This article will focus on the role of political parties in Nigeria and how they can contribute to true representation within the ideals of conflict transformation.
Keywords: Conflict; Election; Political Parties; Violence
African Diaspora and Poverty Alleviation in Africa
Kenneth Nweke a, Vincent Nyewusira b
Department of Political Science, Ignatius Ajuru University of Education,
Rumuolumeni, P.M.B. 5047, Port Harcourt, Nigeria.
Volume 08, Issue 01, Pg. 61-68, 2015.
Abstract: The study assesses the strategic position of African Diaspora in addressing the seemingly intractable problem of poverty in Africa. It is generally believed that the African Diaspora is in a position to positively influence the overall development in Africa considering its sizeable presence in the economic and political power centres in the West. The African Diaspora interventions that hinge on poverty alleviation range from promoting good governance practices, financial remittances, direct investments, voluntary development projects, boosting local economy to entrepreneurship and capacity building. The milestones achieved in these areas as well as the constraints and challenges faced by organizations, foundations and business enterprises established by African Diaspora in the continent are examined. The study adopts Group theory as framework for analysis. This theory is built around the proposition that men and women with shared interests can organize, interact and seek goals which influence or redirect public policies. It is argued that since Africans in Diaspora have formed potent networks in cities where they live in Asia, America, Europe and elsewhere around the globe, such economic and political powers can be effectively leveraged to address the poverty conundrum in Africa.
Keywords: African Diaspora, Development, Poverty, Poverty Alleviation
Law and Sustainable Development
M. Isabel Garrido Gómez
Department of Legal Sciences, University of Alcalá, Spain.
Volume 08, Issue 01, Pg. 69-84, 2015.
Abstract: In this work, I start from the new relationship between the public and private spheres. Legal rules undergo a conversion in anankastic rules and the legal order becomes a system which provides its own legitimacy on the basis of its intrinsically autopoietic nature. In addition, the initial concept of legal relations and their components are transformed into a technical-legal order under the influence of a new technical term.
It can be seen from the above statement that the system of sources for the law has changed and the protection of the sustainable development is new, giving predominance to agreements. The centre of gravity will have passed from the law, as a product of the will of the State, to contracts between private individuals (although those private individuals – or some of those private individuals – are the large multinational companies). This goes hand in hand with an increasing, and relative, loss of sovereignty by States as a derivation of the progress of supranational and transnational law. So, insofar as contracts constitute the typical form of legality regarding globalization in the sphere of sustainable development, law tends to be seen less as the product of a political will, and greater weight is given to a view of the law as a means to obtain certain ends, as a mechanism of social construction.
Keywords: Law, Sustainable development, Human rights, Society, Judges.
The role, relevance and application of International Law in South Africa
Celumusa Delisile Zungu
Black Lawyers Association, Pietermaritzburg, South Africa.
Volume 08, Issue 01, Pg. 85-88, 2015.
Abstract: The constitution of the Republic of South Africa directs the courts to consider international law when interpreting the provision in the bill of rights. The need for the judiciary to consider international law when interpreting rights came into being after a long period of South Africa’s isolation from international arena due to its apartheid laws that were contrary to the human rights provisions. It has been over a decade since the coming into being of the constitution of the Republic of South Africa. This paper highlights, through analysis of the decisions of the constitutional court of South Africa, the role and relevance of international law in South Africa. The article also analyzes, the extent, if any, to which the courts in South Africa may be said to have utilized international law when interpreting the bill of rights. It is also seeks to ascertain if there is a uniformity and consistency in so far as application of international law is concerned in South Africa. Other than case law, the paper also aims at ascertaining the influence of international law in juvenile justice system in South Africa. Case law and relevant legislation is discussed with the view of considering the impact, if any, of international law in advancement of children’s rights in South Africa. Recommendations are made and conclusion is drawn.
Keywords: Judiciary, bill of rights, legislation, international law
The Impact of Customary Law on Children’s Rights in Lesotho
Nqobizwe Mvelo Ngema
Department of Public Law, Faculty of Commerce, Administration & Law, University of Zululand, South Africa.
Volume 08, Issue 01, Pg. 89-95, 2015.
Abstract: Lesotho has a dual legal system, one based on customary law and the other on the received law. This appears clearly from the Constitution that ring-fenced customary law from any constitutional scrutiny. A customary practice may continue even if it discriminates against women and children. As a result of this, various human rights of children are violated. Firstly, if parents are married in terms of customary law and separated, the custody is granted to the father and the mother merely having the right to visit. Secondly, female children are excluded from property inheritance. Lastly, marital power of a husband still continues under customary law and therefore females are still treated as perpetual minors. The latter infringement of rights is not in the best interest of children and conflict with Lesotho’s international obligations. Lesotho is a signatory of numerous international and regional human rights instruments and it is suggested that it has to accelerate the incorporation of human rights instruments into domestic law in order to safeguard the best interest of children.
Keywords: best interest of children, equality rights, marital power & property inheritance
Marital Rape Exemption in Kenya: Some Lessons from International Law
Nqobizwe Mvelo Ngema
Department of Public Law, Faculty of Commerce, Administration & Law, University of Zululand, South Africa.
Volume 08, Issue 01, Pg. 96-104, 2015.
Abstract: There is no doubt that, despite arguments supporting marital rape exemption, it is necessary to abolish marital rape exemption in our modern society which is characterized by many sexually transmitted infectious diseases such as HIV/AIDS. As Kenyan society is based on the principle of equality between men and woman, marital rape with impunity has no place. Kenya has to take some steps aimed at ending a conflict between the Sexual Offenses Act and the HIV and AIDS Prevention and Control Act in order to achieve its goals of equality and freedom from discrimination. International law has shed some light on the subject by indicating that marital rape constitutes violence against women and that Kenya should follow suit and criminalize it. However, it must be noted that the criminalization of marital rape will not provide a complete solution to the problem but only a partial solution. The root of the problem is most likely situated in poverty and the social context. Further research and public education is thus necessary into the key factors relating to the behavior of marital rape.
Keywords: marital rape, gender Equality and health rights
Civic Education As A Strategy For Combating Insurgency In North-Eastern Nigeria
Mustapha Hussein Danjuma a, Zakariyya Muhammad Sarki b
a, b Department of Sociology, Federal University Dutse, Jigawa State, Nigeria
Volume 08, Issue 01, Pg. 105-106, 2015.
Abstract: Today insurgency is considered as one of the major security challenges threatening the corporate existence of Nigerian state. A lot of resources both human and material running into millions of Naira are being destroyed due to the activities of the insurgents, most especially in the North-eastern part of the country. The problem has made significant number of children orphans and many women widows, while thousands of people are displaced as refugees in neighboring Cameroon and Niger republic. Unnecessary attacks on places of worship, suicide bombing, destruction of properties and attacks on security personnel and their stations are common. In other words, the problem has negatively affected the political and socio-economic arrangements of the nation. It has been argued that social and economic injustice, poor religious and moral education are the major causes of the insurgency in the country. In line with the aforementioned, this paper argues that civic education becomes imperative as a strategy to address the problem, because the latter entails inculcation of patriotism and love for national unity and spirit of togetherness in the citizens; as well as making people to be aware of the society’s norms and values through value reorientation.
Keywords: civic education, insurgency, security challenges, security efforts, value reorientation