Volume 01 Issue 10

OIDA International Journal of Sustainable Development
Open access peer-reviewed journal 

Long-Term Care Policy Through The Lens Of Gender Sensitive Perspective: Implications For Family Carers Of Older Adults In Korea
Eun-Kyong Lee a
a Department of Social Welfare, Seoul National University, Seoul, Korea.

Volume 01, Issue 10, Pg. 11-24, 2010

Abstract: Ensuring adequate care provision to older adults has become one of the key policy issues in Korea. However, these policy efforts have been chiefly propelled by drastic population ageing and concern over negative effects on the public expenditure, therefore tend to exclude the voice of the persons directly involved, namely older adults with care needs and their family carers. This lack of attention is in need of in depth discussion, as it is related to developing an effective ELTCI system that fulfills actual needs of older adults and their family carers. Because care provision to older adults is likely to occur in a continuum of care interaction in a family setting, when diagnosing care needs and relevant services needed, families’ views should be included for developing better, effective long-term care provision. As family care is experienced differently by gender, the paper looks closely at Korea’s recent policy attempt at long-term care, i.e., the Elderly Long-Term Care Insurance system, through the lens of gender sensitive perspective; and suggests a fuller picture of long-term care policy can be drawn if family carers’ point of view is also included in the policy development, along with older adults with care needs. The implications for family carers of older adults in Korea are discussed in detail.

Keywords: Family carer, gender sensitive perspective, long-term care policy, older adults.

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How Media Partisanship Aggravates Conflicts Between Human Rights And Social Justice A Study On News Objectivity Of Capital Punishment
Minha Kim a, b , Hyun-Jin Kwon a
a Department of Journalism and Mass Communication, Sungkyunkwan University, Seoul, South Korea

Volume 01, Issue 10, Pg. 25-30, 2010

Abstract: The sharp increase in heinous crime in recent decades in Korea has caused controversy over the issue of abolition of capital punishment. While a significant portion of the public consents to the idea of social justice reinforced by executing the death penalty, its opponents argue for the right to life of criminals. This study examines how the mass media in South Korea cover the issue of the death penalty in light of their fulfillment of news objectivity. Content analyses demonstrate that newspapers have tendency to pursue ostensible balance, compared with television news showing higher levels of factuality and neutrality. Liberal newspapers were found to be more proactive in advocating their perspectives than conservative ones. The study concludes that the media’s fulfillment of ostensible balance does not always lead to reducing social conflicts, and more attention needs to be paid to ‘how’ objectivity should be pursued in covering controversial social issues.

Keywords: Capital Punishment, Media Partisanship, News Objectivity, Human Rights, Social Justice.

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Food Security In The Absence Of A Social Construction Of Fairness Within The International Trading System
Nadia Julianna Bucciarelli a
 a Department of Political Studies, Queen’s University, Canada

Volume 01, Issue 10, Pg. 31-40, 2010

Abstract: This paper discusses the discriminatory practices of the World Trade Organization (WTO) and the implications for food security in developing countries of the global South. It examines the power relations between the North and the South, as well as implications that the structures of the international trade system have in reinforcing certain ideas of the relationship between developed and developing countries.  Particular attention will be given to the agriculture sector, and the implications of neoliberal theory and practice on the food security of low-income countries. Food security is often undermined by the current structures of the international trading regime, and remains a highly contentious area of debate within the current round of trade negotiations.

Keywords: Agricultural development, food security, sub-Saharan Africa, the World Trade Organization

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Power Networks In The Making Of Rich In A Poor Country. Strong Ties, Weak Institutions And The Pattern Of Development In Bangladesh
Masudur Rahman a
 a Faculty of Social Sciences, Bodø University College, Norway

Volume 01, Issue 10, Pg. 41-55, 2010

Abstract: In contemporary development studies there is a shift of focus from the state and the market to civil society and interpersonal networks. The claim is that macro institutional success depends on micro institutional foundations. Such a claim is based upon the assumption that informal norms of civil society and networks make people productive. While significance of network relations for economic activities and resource mobilisation is recognized, the positive effects on institutional performance remain conditional. Through a brief review of the dominating approaches to study development and interpretation of the findings of two earlier studies of network influences on economic activities in Bangladesh, this paper argues that positive network effects depend on the pattern of interaction. The interaction pattern recalls the notion of embeddedness, which implies economic activities and goals including access to economic resources and political power are coordinated by networks of relations. Its focus is on various elite networks In Bangladesh. There, like many developing countries, political leaders, top bureaucrats and rich business families have always tended to come together to form power triangles through creation of mutual cooperation and reciprocal dependence. They use their alliances for access to resources and for the exercise of power. They also compete for resources and power, which may take pervasive forms and have negative impacts on institutional performances. This can be viewed as an instance of constraints placed on various state institutions and development as bureaucratic state organisations are hollowed out by elite networks. The concentration of resources and power coincides with a parallel erosion of institutions.

Keywords: Cliques, Coalitions, Competition,  Development; Elite; Embeddedness; Power network

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Environmental Impact Assessment Of Sustainable Development, Using Degradation Model A Case Study Of Horaman Zone, West Iran
Mehdi Fazelbeygi a, Gholamreza Yavari b
a Department of Rural Development, , Science & Research branch, Tehran, Iran
b Department of Agriculture Economic, Payame nor, University, Tehran, Iran

Volume 01, Issue 10, Pg. 57-67, 2010

Abstract: Degradation model is one of the mathematics models that investigates and predicts data for assessing the impact of development. Degradation model  consist Degradation coefficient  per  ecology unit, Total severity of degradation factor of per ecology unit, physiological density (Population in the ratio of arable land) and ecological Vulnerability. In  this  survey,  for  studying  environmental  impact  assessment,  the  first,  domain  of  Horaman  zone  was  divided  into  140 networks, (2×2 cm2  on a topography map 1: 250000) which that per one network was 2500 hectare. Ecological vulnerability was calculated  and  classified  by  slope,  height,  hemisphere,  herbaceous cover  and  settlement  maps.  In  the  next  step,  24  factors  of degradation in Horaman zone were identified and severity all of them calculated by topography map, field researches, advice of experts and participates of native people. Physiological density was estimated via dividing population of networks by splitting population  of networks to arable land per  network. Finally, regarding to table of degradation and Excel  software, degradation coefficient was calculated and analyzed in each network. Degradation coefficient for all networks categorized into 6 classes and 3 sets based on fuzzy set theory. Therefore, all networks were compared together in respect of severity and measure of degradation and whole of the zone was spitted to three areas: A) capability of further development B) need to rebuild and restore and C) need to conservation. Accordingly, 47.1% of study areas prone to further development, 50.6% were need to restore and rebuild and 2.1% of studied areas need to conservation operation.

Keywords: Degradation Model, Ecological Vulnerability, Degradation Factor, Horaman Zone.

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Community Based Participatory Planning As A Renovation Policy
Mostafa Abbaszadegan a
a Department of urban planning and design, School of Architecture and environmental design, Iran University of Science and Technology, Iran

Volume 01, Issue 10, Pg. 69-74, 2010

Abstract: City of Tehran is suffering from vast dilapidated areas which involve both social as well as physical decline.  This problem has been reflected in urban development policies that have been established by government authorities as well as the city counselors and private stakeholders.  To confront with this problem, Tehran municipality has established a principal renovation organization.  During the last decades various policies has been adapted and implemented by this organization.  The paper would review and analyze these policies and the outcome of their implementations. The policies vary from purely physical renovation of the dilapidated areas which does not requires the participation of the local resident in the planning and design process and have relied totally on central decision making and funding. On the hand, participatory planning process was promoted and new approaches have been adopted to benefit from the existing social capital and to build upon the strengths of the residents and their social networks to propose plans and to implement them. Khazaneh is located in southern Tehran, and is the focus of an actual renovation project reported in this paper.  Here a participatory planning approach is adapted and new local councils are established to seek residents’ insights into the local plan and to inform them of the ideas of planners.  This has provided a two-way planning system, which is encompassing both the goals of the central planning system as well as the aims of the local community.

Keywords: Tehran, Dilapidated neighborhoods, Renovation, Participation.

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Application Of Social Capital In Revitalization Of Dilapidated Neighborhoods The Case Of Saboonpaz-Khaneh In Tehran
Razieh Rezazadeh a
a School of Architecture and urban planning, Iran University of science and Technology, Tehran, Iran

Volume 01, Issue 10, Pg. 75-80, 2010

Abstract: In many cities around the world prosperous neighborhoods of yesterday become dilapidated Inner city neighborhoods of today.  This is due to a process of degradation which creates dissatisfactory living conditions.  This in turn devaluates the property and changes the social structure and commences a cycle of physical dilapidation. For revitalization of such neighborhoods, different approaches have been recommended from total demolition and reconstruction to conservation and even social empowerment.  This paper would review the dilapidation process in a centrally located neighborhood adjacent to Bazzar of Tehran and searches appropriate tackling strategy considering its characteristics which is a representative typology. A detailed and in depth study is conducted in Saboonpaz-khaneh neighborhood in Tehran, to investigate the dilapidation process and find out  appropriate approach to achieve a socio-physically sustainable development solution for revitalization of the neighborhood.   This previously centrally located residential neighborhood close to the old Bazaar and central business district is now housing the lowest class of blue collar workers and also serves as storage space for bazaar as well as accommodating illegal small workshops of the informal economic sector. The organic fabric, inadequacy of infrastructures, and other physical problems have caused continues depopulation and change of land use.  Continuation of this trend would create an inner city ghetto in which only the very poor and deprived population would be residing in.  Despite these, a well conducted survey shows that the neighborhood is benefitting from high level of social capital; however the range of its different indices is different, the reasons of which are discussed in the paper.  Here it seems that social capital could be used in order to stop the dilapidation process and to increase the property value, type of residents and land uses.  Therefore a series of strategies based on the use of present social capital is suggested.

Keywords: Infrastructure, land use, reconstruction, social capital

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The Relevance Of National And International Laws For The Protection Of The Rights Of Women And Children In Ghana: A Critical Look At The Trokosi System In Ghana
Nicholas A. Bastine a
a Osgoode Hall Law School, York University, Canada

Volume 01, Issue 10, Pg. 81-90, 2010

Abstract : This paper demonstrates that the rights of women and children are not being protected effectively in Ghana.  It argues that although Ghana has laws such as the 1992 Constitution, a number of international human rights laws that Ghana had ratified to protect the rights of women and children, and the Criminal Code (Amendment) Act, 1998, trokosi which discriminates against women and children is being practiced in the country. The paper attempts to answer why :(a) Ghanaian women and children continue to be oppressed in spite of Ghana’s robust domestic and international laws that protect them?(b) the government does not enforce the trokosi law ?, and (c)  the 1992 Constitution has not been effective in eliminating violence against  women and children Ghana?  The paper anchors  the trokosi practice in the paradigms of cultural relativism and universalism, and discusses the (i) presence of a strong patriarchal framework and the family structure which favours men over women in Ghana, the  (ii)  the secrecy of traditional religious practices, particularly, the trokosi rituals; (iii) the possible irrelevance of international conventions to Ghana’s cultural and political situation; and (iv) the internal dynamics of Ghanaian politics.  The paper concludes that trokosism persists in Ghana because of the conflict between culture and religious norms on the one hand and positive laws on the other.

Keywords: Gender inequality, religion, human rights, culture, and positive law.

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Common Property Ecological Resources And Village Economies: A Study Of Qualitative Dimensions & Valuation
Gajavelli, V. S a, Rutuja Darode b
a Institute of  Management Technology, Nagpur, India.
b Birla Institute of Technology & Science (BITS), Pilani,-Goa campus, India

Volume 01, Issue 10, Pg. 91-100, 2010

Abstract: The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the common property (CP) institutions and their management systems in the context of rural land and water resources.  In this empirical work an attempt is made to examine the traditional CP institutional arrangements and their role in sustaining the local economies. For the local communities, the neighborhood, and the households, CPRs take on a different significance and complexity. Accordingly this paper attempts to quantify the extent of decline in CPRs in terms of quantity, quality and also the extent of commercialization and its impact on CPRs in the study region. Also the paper discusses the complementarities between private  property resources and common property resources and the relationship between common property and equality, drawing on the results obtained from the study. Unlike the previous micro-level studies, in this study an effort is made to assess the extent of dependence of households in terms of employment and income in both the agrarian and tribal social communities. Besides, the the focus is on the class structure across both land and caste hierarchy as well as the nature and extent of CPR dependence.

Keywords: common property resources, commercialization, institutions, valuation.

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