Volume 01 Issue 09

OIDA International Journal of Sustainable Development
Open access peer-reviewed journal 

The development of epistemological beliefs of undergraduates in colleges of education in jordanian universities
Muin a, Z. Hussin b
a, b Department of Foundation of Education Faculty of Education, University of Malaya,
Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia

Volume 01, Issue 09, Pg.11-20, 2010

Abstract: This study aims at examining the epistemological beliefs of undergraduates in the colleges of Education at Jordanian universities.  It also investigates the presence of significant differences in these beliefs with the changes of level, gender and university. The researcher has modified the Epistemological Beliefs Questionnaire of Schommer, which consists of 66 items divided into five domains: quick learning, certain knowledge, Omniscient authority, innate ability and simple knowledge. The validity of the questionnaire has been substantiated by submitting it to a set of experts. Reliability is ensured by using test-retest method. To answer the questions of the study, means and standard deviations of students` scores on each domain of the questionnaire and on the whole questionnaire were inspected. After that both MANOVA and ANOVA tests were conducted to find out the effects of the independent variables on each domain of the questionnaire and on the whole questionnaire. The results of analysis indicated that: *The epistemological beliefs of the students were half way between naïve and more developed *There were significant differences due in epistemological beliefs to gender and academic level but not due to the university. Concerning gender, there were differences on the first domain (quick learning) in favor of females. On the fourth domain (innate knowledge) the differences were in favor of males. Concerning the academic level there were significant differences on the first domain (Quick learning) and it appeared that 1st, 2nd and 3rd year students were less simplistic than 4th year students and showed clear development. There were also significant differences on the third domain (Omniscient authority) as indicated by the fact that 1st and 2nd year students had more complicated beliefs in the Omniscient authority of knowledge than 3rd and 4th year students. On the whole instrument there were significant differences due to the academic level indicating that 1st and 2nd year students had more epistemological development than 4th year students. There were no significant differences due to gender and university.

Keywords: epistemological beliefs, quick learning, certain knowledge, Omniscient authority, innate ability and simple knowledge.

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Second language learners’ expectation on classroom communication
Bakare  K. Kazeem a, Che N. Hashim b, Oseni A. Rahman c
a ,b,c Department of Educational Administration, International Islamic University Malaysia (IIUM)

Volume 01, Issue 09, Pg. 21-26, 2010

Abstract: Effective classroom teaching is more often than none, aided by effective classroom communication of the teachers or instructors. Teaching behaviors have been studied in various arenas in higher education. Many studies have found that most universities offer a traditional face-to-face communication format to deliver their courses; few offer them in online communication format. Since communication in classroom is mostly oral than written, many students equate being able to learn in classroom to effective communication of the instructor. That is, the appropriate use of the instructional language by the lecturer. This study therefore investigated the perceptions and expectations of students from two faculties in TWINTECH (Faulty of Business and faculty of Music) on classroom communication. This research was conducted using a quantitative research approach, 150 students both local and international participated in the study; the data were gathered via self-administered questionnaire. Principal component analysis (PCA) was used to validate both the questionnaire items and item construct (latent variables). Pearson product moment correlation coefficient was used to examine the relationship between the age of the respondents and the learner’s perception of classroom communication score, independent t-test was used to investigate the differences in students’ perception with regard to their gender.  The findings show that most students in this study have a positive perception towards classroom communication and that those that have a negative perception, it is as a result of their lack of communication ability in the class, and that the better students have a high positive perception towards classroom communication than the weak ones.

Keywords: classroom, communication, student expectation, verbal communication.

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The Influence Of Knowledge Of Consumer Protection And Perception Of Marketing Factors On Consumer Complaint Behaviour: A Study Of Malaysian Consumers
Wenjie Zhao a, Md. Nor Othman b
a, b Department of Marketing, Faculty of Business & Accountancy, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.

Volume 01, Issue 09, Pg. 27-36, 2010

Abstract: The purpose of this study is to investigate the motivation for seeking redress from the firms and the third party complaint process, especially from the Malaysian consumers’ perspective. About 840 complainers were interviewed in the shopping malls, National Consumer Complaint Centre and the Tribunal for Consumer Claims in Malaysia. The structural equation model is proposed and tested by using multiple indicators of unobserved constructs. The study reveals that the consumer’s complaint intention is predicted by the knowledge of consumer rights and consumer agencies and the importance of the product; complaint action is influenced by the knowledge of consumer rights and consumer agencies, perception on business practices and responsiveness to complaint, and complaint intention. Additionally, the current research found that complaint intention mediated the relationship between the knowledge of consumer rights and consumer agencies, the importance of product and complaint intention.

Keywords: Consumer Complaint Behaviour, Knowledge of Consumer Rights, Third Party Complaint Agency, Structural Equation Model.

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Raj K. Khadka a
a School of Social Work, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, B.C, Canada.

Volume 01, Issue 09, Pg. 37-48, 2010

Abstract: Poverty, caste and gender inequities continue to challenge the creation of economically and socially just societies in Nepal. In such a context, international non-governmental organizations (NGOs) are emerging as important developmental actors in reforming social institutions such as belief systems, attitudes, and traditions, among others. International NGOs are internationally funded organizations that have been working towards building strong and just communities in Nepal since the 1960s. This study explored the International NGOs approaches to institutional reforms in Nepal. This qualitative study was conducted with ten International NGOs operating in Nepal in the areas of gender and caste equity. The data collected from interview, focus group discussions and secondary research were analyzed in terms of emerging themes and for external validity interpreted from human rights and development theories.  The study found that the development emphasis is on the capacity building of women, dalits and their organizations, partnership with local organizations, participatory development and advocacy, social investment, awareness education, and social and economic empowerment. As a result, marginalized groups have been able to unite, organize and advocate for their rights and state accountability.  This also reveals that International NGOs are adopting right based approach to development. This paper will look at how International NGOs are undertaking development policies as a way of reforming social institutions in a Himalayan country ridden by a decade-long conflict.

Keywords: Nepal, Institutional Reforms, International NGOs, Right Based Approach, Development

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Walugembe George a
 a Friends of Wealthy Environment (FOWE) Kampala,Uganda

Volume 01, Issue 09, Pg. 49-61, 2010

Abstract : Uganda is facing an energy crisis. Its population of about 30 million people is increasing at an alarming rate of 3.4% per annum. The ever increasing population without matching financial prosperity is putting excessive strain on energy needs. Biomass (wood) is Uganda’s main source of energy contributing about 92%of the total energy.  The country’s dependence on wood fuel is a source of great concern. Both gazetted and non gazetted forest resources are depleting rapidly due to very high demand for wood. There is a need to improve people’s livelihood and to also explore other alternative energy sources to supplement the present commercial alternatives which are increasingly becoming very expensive and scarce.  The idea of integrating modern pig farming and large scale biogas production will help reduce the gap in energy availability. Its production will reduce pressure on wood fuel, cut green house gas emissions, enhance people’s incomes, increase employment generation, provide enriched manure and supplement the government’s programme of rural electrification. The project will set up a demonstration farm with 7400 pigs giving 40 m3 manure daily and this manure converted to approximately 2400m3 gas. The gas will be used to generate 200kw power and 370 kw heat per day. The farm will keep both porkers for sale and sows for reproduction. Some of the piglets will be distributed to small scale farmers in rural areas who will be expected to rear them whilst the remaining ones kept on the farm to replace the porkers being sold off to slaughter houses. Over 40,000 piglets will be given out to rural farmers per year.  For project economic sustainability, the surplus power (2,568Mwh per year) will be sold off to the public grid and income generated from both this power and the sold off porkers used to run the farm.

Keywords: Energy crisis, Biomass, Alternative energy source, Electricity, Bio-gas

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Paul Osmond a
a Faculty of the Built Environment, University of New South Wales, Sydney, Australia.

Volume 01, Issue 09, Pg. 63-74, 2010

Abstract: Hemispherical (fisheye) photography is a convenient indirect method for estimating leaf area index (LAI) a key indicator of vegetation primary production which offers a useful insight into a range of ecosystem services. Fisheye imagery is frequently used to establish the sky view factor or proportion of sky visible from street level, a major determinant of urban microclimate. Analysis of fisheye images also enables calculation of the fractal dimension of surrounding urban surfaces and skylines, which is associated with visual diversity and enables comparison of the character of different urban places. In this case study, hemispherical images taken with a digital camera from the centres of a sample of open spaces in a university campus in Sydney, Australia were analysed using public domain software. The resulting LAI, SVF and fractal dimension data were combined to assess the comparative environmental performance and physical ambience of the relevant areas of the campus. This exploratory research suggests that fisheye photography utilising minimal and inexpensive equipment can support a “fast and frugal” comparative environmental evaluation of urban places, and potentially inform the design of more sustainable places. Such an approach may have particular relevance to rapidly urbanising developing countries where resource-intensive methods can be problematic, especially in the context of climate change mitigation and adaptation.

Keywords: Fractal dimension, hemispherical photography, leaf area index, sky view factor

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Water Related Problems Of Central Asia: Challenges For Sustainable Development In The Era Of Global Warming
Kuldip Singh a
a Department of Political Science, Guru Nanak Dev University, Amritsar, India.

Volume 01, Issue 09, Pg. 75-80, 2010

Abstract: As the effects of global warming become severe the worries of the Central Asian countries are likely to increase. Global warming would result in excess rain or in its shortage. Either way it carries the danger of catastrophic consequences. The shrinking of glaciers in the mountain ranges would seriously hamper the water supplies, as in addition to rain, glaciers are important source of water. In such a likely scenario, the conflict between the upper stream and lower stream states is likely to accentuate which may have serious implications for the geo- politics of the already volatile region of Central Asia.

Keywords: Central Asia, Climate change, Industrialization, sustainable development

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The Discourse Of Women Santri (Students In Islamic Boarding School) About Politics In East Java – Indonesia
Siti Kholifah a
a Brawijaya University, Indonesia

Volume 01, Issue 09, Pg. 81-88, 2010

Abstract: In the concept of gender theology, gender inequality is attributable to divine creation; all belongs to God. Pesantren (Islamic boarding school) is an educational institution with Islamic religion as a specific academic course, still assumed to have a biased concept of gender.  Hence, the aim of the research investigates the discourse of women santri about politics. Secondly, this research examines santri’s perception about women in politics as a description the processes of political learning in Islamic boarding school. By using Foucault’s and feminist theory, the study has been done at pesantren in Jombang, East Java, Indonesia. This research has been conducted as qualitative study, using phenomenology approach.  The data collection has been conducted observation and in-depth interview. The results of research are: firstly, there are many varieties of women santri’s discourse and response about politics. Some of women santri state that politics is horrible, repressive, violence and still influenced by masculine domination. However some of santri stress that politics are the rules of games that depend on the political actors. The differences about politics discourse are influenced by knowledge, experience and social setting of participant, political reality in Indonesia, social construction, patriarchal culture, and hegemony of religion that have interpreting misogyny religion texts. Secondly, woman’s participation in politics sphere is considered as woman’s right and choice to develop equal opportunity in public area. According to Woman santri, the dominant obstacles faced by woman when they develop career in politics area are family and how to balance their roles in public and domestic. Besides, another problems woman in politics are religion, culture (patriarchy), law and woman herself can be barrier for women as political. Finally, woman movement in pesantren can be categorized as apologetic, reformative and transformative.

Keywords: Gender theology, discourse and politics.

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Decentralized Governance And Empowerment Of Women – A Case Study Of India
Rachana Kaushal a
a Department of Political Science, Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh, India.

Volume 01, Issue 09, Pg. 89-92, 2010

Abstract: Women constitute half of the population. In any democratic process, the marginalized participation of women reflects negatively. Yet women are politically marginalized world over. Whatever may be the reasons for this, there is a need to make special provisions to include women in the democratic governance at different levels. India has taken the initiative to make a special provision for the reservation for women at the grassroot local self-government institutions (known as PRIs). How this policy has fared is the subject of this paper. The paper is divided into two parts. The first part covers the theoretical aspects of the 73rd Amendment Act and the second part discusses the impact of this amendment act on the status of women, their role in governance and the consequent socio-economic, political empowerment.

Keywords: Constitutional, Governance, empowerment, women

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A Sustainable Development Technique: Data Warehouse Of Water Quality To Assess And Monitor The Water Pollution In Peripheral Rivers Of Dhaka, The Capital City Of Bangladesh
Mohammad Nasim Akhtar a,b, Mohammad Mamunur Rashid a, , Cyril Y. Kolybanov a
a Department of Information Technology, Moscow State Academy of Fine Chemical Technology,
Moscow, Russia

Volume 01, Issue 09, Pg. 93-98, 2010

Abstract: With the industrial development the environment is polluting severely. So this issue becomes the burning question of Bangladesh and it should be solved as Sustainable Development aspect. In Bangladesh, the capital city Dhaka is the nerve center of all activities.  The present population of the city is around 12 million and its growth rate is about 3%. The city is nearly surrounded by a circular river system, which includes Turag, Buriganga, Dhaleswari, Balu, Lakhya and Tongi Khal.The surface water along these peripheral rivers is known to be highly polluted due to municipal and industrial untreated wastewaters that are discharged. At present moment, Dhaka Water Supply and Sewerage Authority (DWASA) is highly dependent on ground water for the water supply in the city. As a result the average ground water depletion in most area in the city reportedly around 1-3 m/year. The present rate of depletion is alarming because it can potentially cause environmental hazards such as land subsidence prolonged water logging, alteration in vegetation etc. So, more research work should be done on surface water to make it usable. In this paper the water quality data of peripheral rivers of Dhaka city of different researchers of different time periods have been collected, extracted and then stored in a data warehouse. Data warehouse is a subject-oriented, integrated, time-variant and non-volatile collection of data designed to facilitate time-series analysis, trend forecasting and decision making. This procedure brings water quality data in a common platform which gives researchers or related organizations the opportunity of processing data quickly to know the past, present and future trend of water pollution in peripheral rivers of Dhaka city. It also gives the chance of comparing the data from various researchers. Water quality data include physicochemical parameters such as DO (dissolved oxygen), BOD (biochemical oxygen demand), COD (chemical oxygen demand) and TDS (total dissolved solids) as well as concentrations of various chemical pollutants (acid ions, metal ions, ammonia etc).

 Keywords: Data warehouse, Peripheral River, Surface and Ground Water, Water Pollution

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Community Led Total Sanitation And Empowerment: The Case Of Dorze Hyzo Community, SNNP Region Of Ethiopia (A Phenomenological Study)
Yenenesh Gebresilase a
a VITA, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

Volume 01, Issue 09, Pg. 99-108, 2010

Abstract: This paper explores phenomena of Community Led Total Sanitation (CLTS) with the aim of understanding the CLTS movement and the contribution it has had on empowering the Dorze Hyzo community. This paper contributes by arguing that community empowerment takes place when the community challenges the social norms and culture, to effectively improve their well being. Using phenomenological approach eight participants were purposely selected and interviewed.  The finding revealed that the participants have common understanding about CLTS in that they mentioned it is community-led initiative in which the community undertake its own appraisal and analysis of open defecation situation and resolve to stop it. It also targets the whole community and spreads naturally. Participants also witnessed CLTS is an approach that facilitates a process of community empowerment. It is the strategy for triggering their desire for change, and an opportunity for leadership position, transparent decision making and lesson learning. They also demonstrated feelings of joy, ownership and dignity following celebration of open defecation free with no external support. The aforementioned findings indicate careful selection of CLTS sites and trained external facilitator who guides the process using the full set of CLTS tools are favorable factors behind these achievements. To improve the effectiveness of CLTS, the findings also suggest the need for integrating CLTS into political agendas and national policies, designing comprehensive advocacy session to ensure the support from local political leaders and nongovernmental organization, improving water access, as well as promoting regular monitoring of progresses, which will pave the way to scale up, greater ownership and sustainability.

Keywords: Community Led Total Sanitation, Community Participation, Development, and Empowerment.

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