Volume 01 Issue 08

OIDA International Journal of Sustainable Development
Open access peer-reviewed journal 

Caught between two persecutions: the challenges facing African refugees in Africa
Roger-Claude Liwanga a
a  The Carter Center, Atlanta, USA

Volume 01, Issue 08, Pg. 11-20, 2010

Abstract: This paper highlights the challenges experienced by African refugees in their asylum country in Africa. The 1951 UN Convention on Refugees and its 1967 Protocol, as well as the 1969 OAU Refugee Convention define a refugee as a person who is outside his/her country owing to fear of persecution on account of his/her race, religion, nationality, political opinion, or whose life, physical safety or freedom is threatened by political or regional instability. The chronic political instability and interminable civil wars characterizing African countries since the mid 1950s causes heinous damage to both human beings and property alike. The vicious cycle of insecurity leads people to cross borders in order to escape persecution. Sadly, in running away from persecution in their home countries, African refugees sometimes encounter persecution along the way as well as in their asylum countries because their hosts are often facing similar socio-political circumstances. Thus, a dilemma is created for the refugees: the choice between facing persecution back home, or facing persecution abroad.

Keywords: Asylum-seeker, refugee, persecution, xenophobia

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Whistle Blowing Law: A Necessary Tool for Combating Corruption in the Democratic Republic of Congo
Roger-Claude Liwanga a
a The Carter Center, Atlanta, USA

Volume 01, Issue 08, Pg. 21-32, 2010

Abstract: This paper highlights the necessity of passing whistleblowing legislation in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) in order to serve as an effective anti-corruption tool. Corruption being more attractive where the possibility of detection and investigation is minor; therefore the person well-placed to detect or disclose corruption and related offences is this one who works where such misconduct is occurring. Encouraging people to make disclosures about wrongdoing requires the setting up of legal mechanisms to protect those who speak out for public interest because they are frequently exposed to reprisals as a result of their disclosures. Not surprisingly, in the environment where there is no such encouragement and protection, people prefer to stay silent and not to disclose information which might be crucial for public interest. Following the model of legislations in the United States, United Kingdom, South Australia, South Africa, or New Zealand, the DRC should also enact its own version of whistleblowing law in order to end the spectrum of secrecy, and thereby increase its chance of detection of, investigations of, and deterrence of corruption and related offences.

Keywords: Corruption, information, whistleblowing, workplace

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Joy M. Kiiru a
a School of Economics, University of Nairobi, Kenya.

Volume 01, Issue 08, Pg. 33-42, 2010

Abstract: Domestic and international migration has become a strategy for individuals and families in developing countries to cope with poverty and economic crisis. Migrants attempt not only to improve their own livelihoods but also they send a considerable share of their earnings to their families in the region of origin. The main objective of this paper was to measure the impact of remittances on poverty. The other objective was to measure the determinants of remittances. The Kenya Integrated Household Budget Survey data (2005/06) were used for analysis. Econometric models were employed to analyze the data. The results show that remittances have had positive impacts on household consumption. Remittances have also been used to deal with household economic shocks. In particular rural households mentioned price related shocks that affect agricultural production as being significant and that remittances have been used to cushion the impacts from these shocks. Also, the study shows that social networks are very significant determinants of remittances and therefore welfare. Policy should therefore aim at strengthening social networks as a source of social capital. This will help form resilient communities in the face of economic challenges. Other policy implications relate to social protection and the need for deliberate social protection policy that will enable households to deal with economic shocks.

Keywords: Remittances, Poverty, social protection policy

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The Regulatory Implications Of The Right To Water: Small-Scale And Independent Water Providers In Ethiopia And Kenya
Mulugeta M. Ayalew a, Rosalind Malcolm b, Lorna Okotto c, Steve Pedley d, Jonathan Chenoweth c, and Yacob Mulugetta c
a School of Law, University of Surrey, Guildford, Surrey, UK.
b Environmental Regulatory Research Group, University of Surrey, Guilford, Surrey, UK.
c Center for Environmental Strategy, University of Surrey, Guilford, Surrey, UK.
d Medical School, University of Surrey, Guilford, Surrey, UK.

Volume 01, Issue 08, Pg. 43-64, 2010

Abstract: Small-scale and independent water providers serve up to fifty percent of the population in urban centers in many of the developing and less developed countries. However, they remain largely unrecognized and unregulated. This article argues, based on the public interest theory and two case studies of the price and quality of water by small-scale providers, that there is a compelling case for regulation of small-scale water provision. The human right to water imposes an obligation on states to regulate small-scale water supply market. It also means that governments should avoid regulation which does not have support in public interest theory and empirical facts as this might constitute violation of the right to water.

Keywords: Small-scale water providers; price and safety regulation; duty to regulate; and human right to water

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Remmy Shiundu Barasa a
a St.Augustine University Mtwara Campus, Tanzania

Volume 01, Issue 08, Pg. 65-70, 2010

Abstract: Poetry about man’s relationship with nature is a common literary tradition especially among societies that did not experience slavery and colonial subjugation such as Europe. For Africa, these twin most humiliating human experiences have almost eternally influenced the literary productions from the region with many writers in narrative genres, plays and verse interrogating the encounter and aftermaths of Prospero and Caliban. In most of these writings, nature seems to take a peripheral position by both writers and critics. The writers fail to exhibit consistence of engaging nature in their poems which indicates they only use it for the narrow reason of backdrop while the critics fail to demand or point out that the poems are insensitive to nature. Consequently, there is a literary paucity of analyses in the area of the space of nature in Tanzania’s poetry. Yet, there’s need to shift literary attention from mere documentation of history to appreciating and protecting the environment. Environmental matters in literature in Tanzania and Africa should be engaged as beyond the post-colonial. Human impact on the environment continues to attract varied discourses from a number of disciplines with human beings depicted as major threats to their own environment. The purpose of this paper is to interrogate the symbolic messages as seen through the lens of particular images and symbols drawn from the writers’ natural environment in two poetry anthologies from Tanzania namely; Summons edited by Richard Mabala and Selected Poems edited by Tanzania Institute of Education. I, through close textual reading, examine how particular poems incite against nature or how they exalt it in their use of particular images, symbols and diction. We seek to elevate the experiences of poets and critics in dealing with nature, the need to create consciousness among writers and critics on the importance of nature as subtly and overtly revealed in the analysis of the identified poems. We aim to showcase the magnificence of the natural environment as man’s principal partner and push for new frontiers of evaluating African literature.

Keywords: poverty, natural environment, anthologies, poems

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The Extent, If Any, To Which Socio Economic Rights Are Enforced In South Africa: Lessons From The Judgments Of The Constitutional Court
Zungu Celumusa a
a Black Lawyers Association, Pietermaritzburg Branch, South Africa

Volume 01, Issue 08, Pg. 71-76, 2010

Abstract : Socio economic rights are enshrined in the constitution of the Republic of South Africa, the position that never existed prior to 1994 and it was even debatable if these rights were justiciable. The coming into operation of the constitution brought challenge to South African courts as the judiciary was tasked with enforcing social and economic rights whilst at the same time there is a question as to whether the courts, and not the government can be in a best position to decide on how best the resources of the state may be distributed. This paper evaluates the extent to which the Constitutional Court in South Africa has, for the past 15 years enforced the constitutionally guaranteed socio economic rights. The challenges towards realization of the rights as well as the approach that has been followed by the Constitutional Court in dealing with the issue of realization of constitutionally guaranteed socio-economic rights will be highlighted. A special attention will be placed on a question regarding the extent, if any, to which the court’s approach has been effective in the realization and enforcement of social and economic rights. An alternative view as well as some recommendations on how best can the courts protect and enforce socio economic rights will be highlighted.

Keywords: Constitutional Court, socio economic rights, democratic legitimacy and constitution

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Islam Mohammed Rafiqul a
a Graduate School of Integrated Arts and Science, Hiroshima University, Japan,

Volume 01, Issue 08, Pg. 77-84, 2010

Abstract: Women’s empowerment has been pointed out as an indispensable condition to reduce poverty in developing countries of the world. Also, it has been closely related to democratization of those countries, in providing women with rights and opportunities equal to those which men have enjoyed so far. Despite its significance, the issue cannot be said to be solved easily, because there are many factors that prevent its progress. In this regard, this paper aims to consider the multi-layered actuality of the issue of women’s empowerment in Bangladesh, especially for sustainable development. For this purpose, it examines the present situation, with women’s empowerment in Bangladesh, assesses the factors that influence the situation, and comments on the strategies and tactics necessary to help women in Bangladesh become empowered. Through the above analysis, the paper clarifies the structure and tasks, as a whole, in the issue of women’s empowerment in contemporary Bangladesh.

Keywords: Bangladesh, Women, Development, Education, Empowerment, Political Initiative.

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Emma Ifeanyi Ogueri a, Ike Nwachukwu b, Ray Unamma c
a Niger Delta University, Wilberforce Island, Yenagoa, Bayelsa State, Nigeria and former Head,         Sustainable Community Development, Major Pipeline projects of The Shell Petroleum Development Company Nigeria Limited
bCollege of Agricultural Extension and Rural Sociology,
Michael Okpara University of Agriculture, Umudike, Umuahia, Abia State, Nigeria
c College of  Agricultural Extension and Rural Sociology,
Michael Okpara University of Agriculture, Umudike, Umuahia, Abia State, Nigeria

Volume 01, Issue 08, Pg. 85-98, 2010

Abstract: Niger Delta region hosts major Oil and Gas operations in Nigeria. Niger Delta was recently declared dangerous region because of criminalities, kidnappings, killings and human right issues. Niger Delta communities violently stood against oil and gas operations after accusation of long term neglect and underdevelopment. Oil companies became target by heavily armed militants. World energy supply had been grossly affected. It therefore became imperative to evaluate sustainable rural development contributions of Multinational oil and gas corporations in the Niger Delta. Main objective was identification of critical success factors of sustainability. Analysis, results and recommendations are contained in this paper as contributions to sustainable world energy availability strategy. The survey was exploratory. Sampling strategy was combination of probability, purposive and clustering. Data collection was through questionnaire, interview, focused group discussion and reviewed literature. Analytical tool was multiple regression analysis. Results revealed core sustainability indices as Acceptability, Functionality, Operability and Durability of interventions through discovery of participation model of RACI.  Additional results showed carriers of development information, inbuilt operations and maintenance philosophy, completion of projects, quality of life, stakeholders’ engagement method and method of programme execution were significant to sustainability at 5%. The research developed a new model called “Spider model of rural development” where methods of selecting interventions and capacity development through Employment were significant at 1%. Environmental unfriendliness and ill- focused programmes had negative relationship. Recommendations included rural development policy for Niger Delta region based on Spider model, broad based MOU, intensified stakeholders’ engagement, participatory approach of RACI model, gender as policy mandate for oil and gas multinationals, deliberate economic empowerment and Joint venture partners’ periodic meetings on Niger Delta development issues.

Keywords: Participation model of RACI (Responsibility, Accountability, Consultations and Information), Sustainability model of AFOD (Acceptability, Functionality, Operability and Durability), Spider model of development, Sustainability of global energy availability and price.

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K.Wasike a
 a School of Hospitality and Tourism, Kenyatta University Nairobi, Kenya.

Volume 01, Issue 08, Pg. 99-104, 2010

Abstract: The perennial clean water shortage in Kenya calls not only for the review of the country’s review of its policies on the ecosystem and water towers, but also for the re-examination of the sanitation theories and practice of the country’s hospitality industry. The Hospitality industry has a role to play to maintain standards and at the same time influence the country’s policies with a view to safeguard the ecosystem and water towers. The requirement for hygiene and sanitation is core to any hospitality industry world over. Any lapses in the theory and practice will always witness hundreds of thousands of people suffer from food poisoning, water borne infections and other health threats to both staff and guests at the hospitality industries.This paper examines the space of hygiene and sanitation theory and practices in Kenya’s hospitality industry and the larger national water shortage challenges, such as the impacts of tribal politics on the water towers.

Keywords: Hygiene and Sanitation Theory and Practice, Implications of Severe Water Shortage to Hospitality

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