OIDA International Journal of Sustainable Development
Open access peer-reviewed journal
EXPLORING DIF: COMPARISON OF CTT AND IRT METHODS
Nabeel Abedlazeez a
a Faculty of Education, Department of Educational Psychology and Counseling
University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
Volume 01, Issue 07, Pg. 11-46, 2010
Abstract: Assessment of test bias is important to establish the construct validity of tests. Assessment of differential item functioning (DIF) is an important first step in this process. DIF is present when examinees from different groups have differing probabilities of success on an item, after controlling for overall ability level. The study was conducted to answer the following questions: To what extent do the four methods (i.e. area differential index procedure for the 2- parameter Logistic model, TID, b-difference, and Chi-square) agree or disagree in the identification of DIF? Are there gender differences in mathematical proficiency? What is the content or nature of those items identified as revealing DIF? Achievement test covering the following subjects: Relations and functions, polynomial, Trigonometric functions, and triangles was developed. The test was administered to a sample of 1228 tenth grade students (656 males and 624 females) in Jordan. The study pointed out: (1) the percentage of agreement among the four methods in detecting DIF were from 41% to 85%. The highest agreement was between Chi-square and b-parameter difference methods (85%), whereas the lowest agreement was between Area index and TID methods (41%). The agreement among IRT based methods and CTT based methods were convergent. (3) females showed a statistically significant and consistent advantage over males on items involving Relations and functions, polynomial, Trigonometric functions, whereas men showed a less consistent advantage on items involving triangles, however It was concluded that gender differences in mathematics may well be linked to content.
Keywords: Transformed Item Difficulty, Area index , Chi-square, b-parameter difference
Clean Production of Carbon Nanomaterials to Remove Arsenic from Drinking Water
A.A. Mamun *a, M.A. Yehya a, A.R.S. Mohammed a, M.Z. Alama a, S.A. Muyibi a, F.R. Ma’an a,
I.A. Faris b and I. Azni c
a Bioenvironmental Engineering Research Unit (BERU), Faculty of Engineering, International Islamic University Malaysia (IIUM), Jalan Gombak, 53100 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.
b Department of Mechanical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, International Islamic University Malaysia, Jalan Gombak, 53100 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.
c Department of Chemical & Environmental Engineering, Faculty of Engineering Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 UPM, Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia
Volume 01, Issue 07, Pg. 47-52, 2010
Abstract: Novel carbon nanomaterials (CNM) were synthesized through a chemical vapour deposition (CVD) process to adsorb arsenic (As) from water. Iron (Fe) and Nickel (Ni) catalysts were used to produce two different types of CNM, namely carbon nanotubes (CNT) and carbon nanofibres (CNF). Powdered activated carbon (PAC) was used as a substrate, which played the key role for a less hazardous and clean production of CNM. Various concentrations of As (0.5, 5.0 and 10.0 mg/L) were used to prepare synthetically polluted drinking water, which was used for batch mode adsorption experiments in shake flasks. Adsorption capacities for CNF at respective concentrations were 1.46, 13.78, 27.97 mg/g and 1.86, 18.44 and 19.68 mg/g for CNT. Results showed that the CNT was suitable for low concentration of arsenic while CNF was good for high concentration. Two isotherms were studied for arsenic removal. It was observed that the CNT fitted better for Langmuir model with the correlation coefficient of 0.967, while Freundlich worked better for the CNF exhibiting correlation coefficient of 0.999.
Keywords: Adsorption, CNM, Health Hazard, Toxic Metals.
WORKING CONDITIONS AND CONSEQUENCES OF CHILD LABOUR IN NIGERIA
Yusuff Jelili Amuda a
a International Islamic University, Malaysia
Volume 01, Issue 07, Pg. 53-72, 2010
Abstract: Nigerian children are working under unhealthy condition due to the necessity that pushes them to labour. Therefore, this paper deals with the causes of child labour, the working hours of working children and the minimum child labour wages in Nigeria. The prevalent and prime reason for child labour in Nigeria is the economic poverty that is seriously confronting the majority of Nigerians to some degree. It is the rate of poverty in Nigeria which leads biological parents and guardians to allow their biological children to work in the streets as hawkers, prostitutes and traffickers. This finding seeks to examine the causes of poverty in Nigeria. The question is, are Nigerians created as a poor people or does the climate render them poor? Why have many Nigerians not benefited from their natural resources? The impact of child labour on children will be discussed in the paper while children’s education in Nigeria will be critically studied in the best interests of children. This research further studies how working conditions affect children and the consequences of child labour in Nigeria from the social, economic, ethical, moral, and criminal perspectives. The findings shows that both parents and government contributed to the child labour in Nigeria due to their failure to provide adequate provisions for their children or citizens at large. This paper will explore both qualitative and quantitative methods in the analysis and useful suggestion will be suggested to reduce the rate of child labour and its consequences on Nigerian children as a case study.
Keywords: Economic, Cheap Labor, Crime, Hazardous
The Integrated Modeled Theory on understanding and preventing the incidence of child abuse in South Africa
P. Mbecke a , M. I. Jahed
a University of the Witwatersrand, South Africa.
Volume 01, Issue 07, Pg. 73-88, 2010
Abstract: This paper is based on an in-progress PhD thesis themed: “Modeling the Differential Incidence of Child Abuse, Neglect and Exploitation in Poor Households in South Africa”. The thesis argues that the gaps and shortcomings in the prevention of child abuse are, to a large extent, the consequence of the unclear understanding of the factors contributing to the incidence of child abuse. Similarly, the ineffectiveness of interventions against child abuse is the result of the over-estimation of economic factors over other contributing factors. The aim of the thesis is three-fold. Firstly, to review theories explaining crime causation in general and child abuse in particular. Secondly to develop the Integrated Modeled Theory as a model that facilitates the understanding the incidence of child abuse. Thirdly, to suggest the IMT as a tool that assists decision-making processes for prevention of and intervention against child abuse. The paper focuses on economic, social and cultural factors and emphasizes on their importance in the incidence of child abuse in one hand, and the care, protection and well-being of children in the other hand.
Keywords: Bayesian Networks, child abuse, child abuse prevention, contributing factors, Integrated Modeled Theory, intervention against child abuse.
A FRAMEWORK FOR MONITORING SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT: A CORE SET OF RURAL DEVELOPMENT INDICATORS TO ASSIST THE ASSESSMENT OF DEVELOPING SUSTAINABLE RURAL MINING COMMUNITIES
Napoleon Y.D. Kurantin a
a Ghana Institute of Management and Public Administration (GIMPA)
Graduate School of Governance, Leadership and Public Management (SGL&PM), Ghana.
Volume 01, Issue 07, Pg. 89-98, 2010
Abstract: The demise of central planning as the determining feature of national development and therefore, rural development in Less Developed Countries (LDCs), has precipitated a shift in the concepts for measuring success in this new era. The apparent victory of economic liberalism over central planning as the way to development has generated the need for a broader and an in-depth exploration of economic restructuring involving: technological change, transformation of land-use patterns, the division and allocation of labour resources. It’s clear that a new approach offering an in-depth and a holistic assessment of the process of sustainable development is needed. This paper aims to explore, and examine the development of a core set of indicators for monitoring progress during the process of implementing neo-liberal economic reforms as a vehicle or strategy in the development of sustainable rural mining communities LDCs. Recent development initiatives in sub- Saharan Africa, for example have been based on laissez-faire economic theory and not on ideas of central planning which have predominated until recently. Any radical change in approach to development is bound to produce both positive and negative effects on process and outcome. As a result, and for the purpose of this paper, attempt is made at developing an assessment framework with particular reference to rural mining communities, which will propose a set of indicators for the purpose of assessing this new approach to sustainable development.
Keywords: Assessment framework; Economic liberalism; Rural economic development; Sustainable rural mining communities; Transformation of land-use pattern.
DETERMINANTS OF RURAL TO URBAN MIGRATION AND ENVIRONMENTAL PROBLEMS
G.P. Shivashankara a and Siddegowda b
a Department of Environmental Engineering, b Research Scholar PES College of Engineering, India
Volume 01, Issue 07, Pg. 99-106, 2010
Abstract: This paper explores the factors contributing to the migration process in India. 4560 randomly selected migrants and their families were interviewed at destination using closed and open-ended questionnaires. The resulting data provided descriptive and analytical statistics. Logistic Regression analysis shows that migration is influenced by both “push” and “pull” factors, such as employment problems, extreme poverty, natural disasters and wage rate and higher income probability, better facilities, joining relatives /families. A factor analysis showed similar determinants. Reducing disparities between rural and urban areas should receive urgent attention to stabilize the migration process in India. The study also reveals that migrant households live in unhygienic water and air pollution especially at community levels. The results show the importance of behavioral risk factors in re-enforcing deficiencies in environmental services to determine diarrhea / dysentery morbidity, malaria, jaundice and respiratory diseases. The study established that relation between income, household environment and health. It analysis the living conditions, health and quality of life of poor migrants. It is evident from the study that slum dwellers are deprived on account of each and every environmental and social parameter. More efforts should be made to understand the dynamics of poor urban environments including health effects of exposures linked with poor household environments in slums of Bangalore metropolitan city.
Keywords: Poverty, Push Pull factors, Migration, Diseases, Regression analysis