OIDA International Journal of Sustainable Development
Open access peer-reviewed journal
Developing a Sustainable Funding Frame-Work to Support the Road Transport Sub-Sector in Kenya What Role for Public-Private Partnership?
Seth Omondi Gor a and Ciliaka Millicent Wanjiru Gitau b
aUniversity of Nairobi, Kenya
Volume 01, Issue 06, Pg. 11-18, 2010
Abstract: Road transport sub-sector accounts for 90% of passenger and freight surface transport in Kenya. The latest available reports on road network condition show that it is characterized by very poor pavement surfaces of all types. This condition is largely attributable to inadequacy in funding for road development, rehabilitation and maintenance. A much bigger problem however, is the lack of a proper or comprehensive funding framework to support the sub-sector. Until very recently, the roads sub-sector was owned, managed and financed by the government, with the public-sector often implementing much of the works. The role of the private sector was for a long time restricted to implementing contracts to the designs and standards established by the government. Overtime, the private sector has continued to play an increasing role in the delivery of services and in the basic management. Financing arrangements, though shared have however, remained largely within the public sector. This paper develops the building blocks for a sustainable funding framework and suggests a raft of road financing options for the country. More importantly, it proposes a new model for the sector, which widens and deepens the involvement of the private sector through a partnership framework with the public sector. It also discusses some of the possible elements in such a partnership.
Keywords: Concession, Kenya, Public Private Partnership, Roads
Religious expression in Indonesia a sociological study of ahmadiyya movement
A State Islamic University Syarif Hidayatullah Jakarta, Indonesia.
Volume 01, Issue 06, Pg. 19-32, 2010
Abstract: The study attempts to investigate the various issues related to the phenomenon of religious expression in contemporary Indonesian society with particular focus on the study of the Ahmadiyya movement and its impact on the society. Ahmadiyya movement is considered against Islamic beliefs especially due to its teaching that its founder, Mirza Ghulam Ahmad is a Prophet and the Tadzkirah is a holy book next to the Qur’ān. The study discusses complex interplay between Indonesian ‘Ulamā Council (MUI) with its fatwā on the prohibition of Ahmadiyya sect, its proponent, the Radical Conservative Islamist group (RCI) and its opponent the Liberal Islamist group (LIG). RCI groups have pushed for imposition of Sharī’ah to solve Indonesia’s multi-dimensional problems. On the other hand, liberal Islamic groups are promoting a liberal-inclusive approach to Islam in society. This situation has put the government in a dilemma as to the most appropriate move to take in dealing with the matter. Moreover, soon after the issuance of the fatwā, a series of attacks on the compounds, buildings and properties of Ahmadiyya centres have taken place. The attacks seemed to suggest to the ordinary people that the fatwā is crucial and timely and they are responsible to implement it. In this context, it is pertinent to investigate in greater detail the central issue in question i.e. the teaching of Ahmadiyya itself, how do its followers understand Islam, how was the “meaning” of Islam developed by the Ahmadiyya founder and his disciples and what are the local socio-cultural factors that might have further influenced their understanding and practice of Islam. In addition, the study also looks at how such an understanding is seen by the above ‘authorities’ and ‘powers’ within the context of Indonesian socio-cultural milieu as well as the implications of such religious understanding and practice on people. This study adopts a qualitative research approach involving both fieldwork and library research. For the former, it uses mainly interview and participant observation as tools for generating primary data from the research site. The study revealed that there are several factors that seem to have influenced the respondents’ decision to join the movement and their understanding of Islam. Among all factors, one element appears to be the most outstanding, that is, some respondents came from families with religious Islamic background and orientation. Their meaning of Islam also seems to be influenced mainly by their own experiences. It is found that there are similar patterns of experience among the respondents which have shaped their meaning of Islam. The study ends with some suggestions and recommendations in its concluding chapter.
Keywords: Ahmadiyya, expression, Islam, meaning
Perception of Environmental Degradation and Family Size A Comparative Study on Married Man and Women in (Indigenous People), Bangladesh
Shah Md. Atiqul Haq a ,Tom Vanwing a, Luc Hens a, A H M Belayeth Hussain b , Md. Akhtaruzzaman b Tanzina Chowdhury b , Mohammed Anwar Hossainb
a Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Belgium b Shah Jalal University of Science and Technology, Bangladesh
Volume 01, Issue 06, Pg. 33-42, 2010
Abstract: In the study we try to understand and compare how the married man and women in the indigenous community (Khasia people), Bangladesh perceive the relation between family size and environmental degradation. The findings of the study show that people who think their local environment such as land productivity, water level and biodiversity are declining are more concerned about the family size and contraceptive use. Children in poor areas or forested areas are involved to collect fuel wood and water. Most the parents in the study area perceive an additional child as a helping hand in domestic works or fuel woods and water collection. The factors involved having additional children and subsequently negative effects on environment are low level of education, lack of employment opportunities and alternative sources of income and cultural belief. Socio-economic development of indigenous communities through education of women, participation to reproductive decision and access to contraception, and improvement of environment such as proper sanitation, clean drinking water, and environmental awareness should be considered to change the perception to a larger family size and excessive use natural resources.
Keywords: Gender preference, Environmental factors, Family size, Indigenous people, Perception, Socio-economic development
Urban Earthquake Management Challenges in Bangladesh A Case Study
Shuchita Sharmin a & Shashanka Saadi b
a, b University of Dhaka, Bangladesh.
Volume 01, Issue 06, Pg. 43-48, 2010
Abstract: These In spite of the increasing urban earthquake risk and almost no comprehensive approach to deal with the risks in Bangladesh, there are practically very few attempts to look into the disaster risk and vulnerability beyond the narrow view of approaches seeking mere technical input oriented solutions. With this understanding through literature review, the present study aimed at identifying the existing challenges in urban earthquake disaster management taking a case of community based earthquake disaster management initiative which was a part of a one-year pilot project on “Establishing Partnership for Disaster Preparedness” undertaken by ActionAid Bangladesh. Earthquake prone four wards at the urban context of Chittagong district constituted the study area. To identify the challenges the study captured a multidisciplinary perspective using qualitative techniques of data collection that included key informant interviews, focus group discussions, and case study analyses. The project aimed to establish a collective effort for reducing risk and vulnerability of these earthquake prone communities through developing partnership among the communities and NGOs, Civil Society Organisations, Business Groups and the Government to improve the level of disaster preparedness of most vulnerable families, schools, and hospitals. The study revealed the following major challenges on the way to successful earthquake management in an urban context:
- minimising/overcoming gaps in urban planning to reduce the increasing risks
- effectively utilizing educational institutes to reduce the impacts of the urban risks
- establishing functional linkages with all different stakeholders;
- Strengthening the capacity of all the stakeholders along with mainstreaming of risk reduction activity
- Ensuring more effective resource allocation and
- Making risk reduction an integral part of all relevant areas of concern
- Ensuring regular updated training/orientation programmes at the implementation level to enhance knowledge and raise awareness on vulnerability and management process.
Urban contexts are unique in different ways and all the findings led to the realization that disaster discourses need to be contextualized for urban earthquake risk management and responses.
Keywords: Community partnership, earthquake management, vulnerability.
Memorization as a learning style: a balance approach to academic Excellence
Muhammed Yusuf a
a Universiti Kebangsaan, Malaysia
Volume 01, Issue 06, Pg. 49-58, 2010
Abstract: The concentration of this study is upon ‘memorization’ as a learning style, using qualitative research methodology. The research practice did not ignore the students themselves as being the key members of any learning organizations, neither the Islamic perspective as a religion and culture of learning that has adopted the ‘memorization approach to obtain knowledge for centuries, nor the Western point of view that contributes much to the ‘memory and memorization field. Indeed, this included the research findings of Asian research about Chinese students’ memorization and their academic achievement. Within this combination-designed scope, it is assumed that better understanding of memorization will be provided for educators and students as well. The research addresses the following Questions: 1) to what extent the students use memorization as a learning style? 2) What are the students’ reasons for using memorization? 3) What aspects do they memorize? 4) How do they memorize? The findings of this research indicated that memorization is related to the research participants’ academic achievements. Further, it considered as an effective tool for brain empowerment, illustration enhancement, and oration feature. Indeed, it is believed that memorization itself is not a tragic or bad practice, and the beauty of memorization appears when the memorizer tries to understand what he had memorized. The traditional Islamic scholars such as Imam Shafi also believed that knowledge is not that which we keep in our house, note book, power point, lap top, rather, our knowledge is that which we are able to keep in the heart and always accessible:“
Keywords: Memorization, learning style, balance approach academic achievement
THE IMPACT OF CHANGING AGRARIAN POLICIES ON VILLAGE LIFE IN SOUTHWESTERN IRAN NEED TO MAKE PEASANT SOCIETY SUSTAINABLE
Islamic Azad University, Shushtar Branch, Shushtar, Iran
Volume 01, Issue 06, Pg. 59-66, 2010
Abstract: This paper which is based on a long term(1972-2009) field observations and studies in rural Dezful, Southwestern Iran, maintains that prior to the nation-wide Land Reform Program of the 1960s, around 65 percent of the total population of 25 million lived in some 60000 villages.Rural inhabitants were mostly engaged in family farming. This peasant agricultural system was not always economically efficient, but it was more ecologically sustainable, as compared to the current situation. The fast growing population (70 million in 2009 with 70 percent urban) and increasing food demand, led to the policies favoring large-scale and non-peasant farming systems. Furthermore, lack of adequate supporting services for small-scale semi-subsistence farming, coupled with continuous draught in recent years damaged the village life and peasant family livelihood. Subsequently, these meant more village evacuation, marginalization and additional national economical and social problems and increased the need for food import. Thus there is a need for new policies to overcome the situation to prevent village disintegration, rural poverty and able men to leave agricultural sector. The researcher believes that capability of the peasant farmers could be materialized by provision of genuine village family oriented financial, technical and Extension services in line with sustainable development. The new policies should stress introduction of draught resistance farming pattern, restricted water use management, establishment of suitable food processing industries in rural areas, encouraging non-farm occupations (handicraft), on farm selling of agricultural products, and promoting rural eco-tourism. All these should receive priorities in planning the national economic and social policies. It is vital to support and encourage those endogenous elements which could stimulate the peasantry to adopt improve farming ideas and practices, leading to a more productive farming which could co-exist and even compete with other agricultural systems.
Keywords: peasant family farming system, Southwester Iran, sustainable rural and agricultural development, village life
Living Sexualities And Not Talking ‘Straight’: Understanding Non-Heterosexual Women’s Sexuality In Urban Middle Class Bangladesh
Shuchi Karim a
a Institute of Social Studies (ISS), Erasmus University Rotterdam, Hague, Netherlands.
Volume 01, Issue 06, Pg. 67-78, 2010
Abstract: The paper aims to explore and understand how individual non-heterosexual women live, challenge or ‘counter’ heteronormativity, especially in terms of ‘sexual identity formation’, in urban middle class Bangladesh through their personal narratives. It inquires how women, of this particular class, in their lives define, assert and practice their own sexuality and sexual identity- which includes constant process of negotiation, bargain, manipulation, conciliation, and strategies.
Keywords: sexuality, heteronormativity, gender, identity
Recent Developments In Philippine Labor Market Governance: Shifting Methods From Command To Collaboration?
Jonathan P. Sale a and Arlene C. Bool b
a School of Labor and Industrial Relations, University of the Philippines (UP SOLAIR),
Diliman, Quezon City Philippines.
b Informatics Philippines, Informatics International College, ICITE Building, Orchard Road,
Eastwood City Cyberpark, Quezon City, Philippines
Volume 01, Issue 06, Pg. 79-88, 2010
Abstract: The International Labor Organization (ILO) defines labor market governance as the institutions, authority structures, means of collaboration, policies, norms, laws, regulations, machinery and processes that influence the demand for and supply of labor in an economy, encompassing labor regulation, industrial relations and labor administration. Collective bargaining and labor dispute prevention and settlement are among the elements. Significantly, the ILO Declaration on Social Justice for a Fair Globalization, adopted in 2008, calls for developing new partnerships with non-state entities and economic actors, like multinational enterprises and trade unions operating at the global level. Under the Philippine Constitution, all workers have the right to self-organization, collective bargaining and negotiation, peaceful concerted activities including strikes, humane work conditions, a living wage, security of tenure and participation in decision and policy making. Speedy disposition of cases is required and voluntary modes in settling disputes are preferred. And the State regulates the relations between workers and employers, recognizing the right of labor to a just share in the fruits of production and the right of enterprise to reasonable returns on investments, expansion and growth. Notably, the Labor Standards Enforcement Framework (LSEF) was set up in 2004 to foster a culture of voluntary compliance with labor standards. Are the modes of realizing governance outcomes shifting from command (centralized control) to collaboration (shared creation), as one scholar noted? Are hierarchy and authority giving way to forms of networking, coordination, cooperation or collaboration? This paper explores recent developments in labor market governance in the Philippines. Relying on extant literature and using aggregate empirical data up to 2009, the paper identifies and describes indicators of labor market governance in the country, explains the relationship, i.e., correlation, if any, among the indicators and, based thereon, determines if there is a trend towards collaborative governance in the labor market.
Keyword: Collaborative governance, governance methods, industrial relations, labor regulation and administration, Philippine labor market governance.
HARMONIZATION OF CIVIL AND ISLAMIC LAW ON CHILD LABOUR
Yusuff Jelili Amuda a
a International Islamic University, Malaysia
Volume 01, Issue 06, Pg. 89-102, 2010
Abstract: This paper examines harmonization between Islamic Law , Civil Law, and United Nations Conventions on child labour elimination. Many contemporary Muslim jurists strongly maintain their position that civil laws or common laws are un-Islamic while the majority of man-made law advocates consider Islamic fiqh unsuitable for the contemporary life of Muslims and new issues in the world. The harmonization of Islamic Law rulings, UN Convention and civil law on contemporary issues where there is no textual evidence, opinion of classical jurists, or fatawa might help in these circumstances. Certain strict limitations and principles laid down by Muslim jurists are maintained and followed. For instance, if the law or conventions on the elimination of child labour are in line with the Qur’an and Hadith as well not contravening the principles of the Shari‘ah, then the provisions are permissible. So, any United Nations conventions or Common law on the elimination of child labour or child rights in the affected Muslim countries that oppose or contrary to the Islamic law principles are to be strictly disallowed and discarded or otherwise should be amended and implemented. This findings will apply both qualitative and quantitative methods in the analysis while suggestion would be made in the best interest of child.
Keywords: Key words: Child, Fiqh, Harmonization, UN Convention.