Volume 16, Issue 05

OIDA International Journal of Sustainable Development
Open-access peer-reviewed journal 

Assessment of Building Collapses in Jos Town, Plateau State Nigeria (2016-2022)

Ketkukah, T.S. 1, Sule, E. 2, Mije F.G. 1, Badamasi, A.1
1 Department of Civil Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University of Jos, Nigeria.
2 Nigeria Building and Road Research Institute (NBRRI), Zonal Office, Jos, Nigeria.

Volume 16, Issue 05, pg 11-18, 2023.

Abstract: Nigeria is a poor nation. Building collapse contributes to poverty level of the citizens even in periods of economic growth. Visits to the collapsed scenes revealed the pathetic conditions of building owners and users. Many have died and properties worth millions of naira lost. The aim of the study is to assess the reason for incessant collapse of buildings in Jos town and proffer solutions to mitigate future occurrences. The study is based on physical assessment of the collapsed buildings by the authors through visits to sites of collapse buildings hours after reports of collapse and secondary data obtained from literature and national dailies. Relevant information were also obtained from building owners and general public during site visits. Five (5) cases of collapsed buildings were reported in Jos within a span of seven (7) years from 2016 to 2022. The building collapses were attributed to the use of poor quality of concrete, compromise of sizes of frame elements and steel reinforcement, non-compliance with design specifications, lack of qualified and appropriate professionals to ensure quality construction, inadequate design and fabrication of structural elements and illegal increase to storey building without redesign of the building. Other causes of buiding collapse in Jos include non-involvement of relevant and qualified professionals. Private developers shun professionals in order to cut costs but this has led to waste of many lives and properties worth millions of naira. Such unqualified professionals take advantage of ignorant clients to extend their areas of service.

Until building regulations are adhered to and the right professional designs, gives approval to the designs, builds, supervises and gives final approval upon construction, building collapse in Jos will continue to be an issue of concern. It is recommended that regulatory bodies should regularly conduct sensitization and campaign through electronic (radio and television) and national dailies (newspapers) about taken proper measures to reduce the incident of building collapse.  They should enforce compliance with approved building plan, use of adequate materials and presence of Structural Engineers in the construction team to ensure frame elements are provided specified in the design. Furthermore, State Houses and National Assembly should promulgate laws that will enhance effective synergy between the state government and professional regulatory bodies like Architects Registration Council of Nigeria (ARCON), Council of Regulation of Engineering in Nigeria (COREN), Council of Registered Builders of Nigeria (CORBON), etc. for effective regulation, domestication of National building code (NNBC) and enforcement of quality assurance and regular supervision.

Keywords: Buildings, Collapse, loss of lives, mitigate, professionals

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Forensic Intelligence: The Effectiveness of the Biometric-based Solution to Combat Mobile Fraud

Mokopane Charles Marakalala
College of Law, School of Criminal Justice
Department of Police Practice, University of South Africa, Preller Street Muckleneuk Ridge, Pretoria, South Africa.

Volume 16, Issue 05, Pg. 19-30, 2023.

Abstract. This paper focuses on the effectiveness of biometric-based solution to combat Mobile Fraud at the South African Risk Information Centre.  SABRIC had the challenges of a successful mobile fraud, cybercriminals could hijack a mobile device and use it to gain access to sensitive personal data and accounts (Anonymous, 2021:np).  The cybercriminals are constantly looting the depths of cyberspace in search of victims to attack. Millions of people worldwide use online banking to do their regular bank-related transactions quickly and conveniently.  This was supported by the SABRIC who regularly highlighted incidents of mobile fraud, corruption, and maladministration in SABRIC resulting in a lack of secure their banking online, they are vulnerable to falling prey to fraud scams such as mobile fraud.

The online banking payment transaction process to discover what vulnerabilities fraudsters exploit via mobile fraud, and then introduce a computer-based security system which has been developed to help combat mobile fraud (Anonymous, 2021:np). The mobile fraud is technically new form of cyber fraud where hackers gain the personal information and does illegal work with persons bank account and credit card numbers.  Similarly, the unethical practices or fraud could be likened to economies which go in cycles, and “as booms turns to bust, frauds emerged as big explosion”.  Mobile fraud in SABRIC, widespread and an increased business risk for government.  Mobile fraud continues to be a persistent and dominant threat facing SABRIC

Keywords: Mobile fraud; cybercrime; biometric-based solution; combat; forensic investigation

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Foucault and Althusser on alternative methods of discipline and positive reinforcement techniques policy: reflections on South African education practice

Victor Justice Pitsoe 1, Pertunia Rebotile Machaisa 2
Department of Educational Leadership and Management,
College of Education, University of South Africa, Preller Street, Muckleneuk Ridge, Pretoria, 0003, South Arica.

Volume 16, Issue 05, Pg. 31-40, 2023.

Abstract: While corporal punishment which is defined as using physical pain to intentionally alter behaviour and it can take many different forms, including, but not limited to, smacking, kicking, pinching, and shoveling remains a reality for some children. This article argues that school discipline and corporal punishment, both as social and power relations constructs, qualify to be through Michel Foucault and Louis Althusser’s works. In our view, they provide tools conceptualizing the politics of growing school discipline issues and the hidden structure of power relations. Drawing from the works of Michel Foucault and Louis Althusser, this article begins by exploring thoughts on the historical perspectives on corporal punishment, reconnoitres the thoughts on discipline, and critiques and reflects on the Alternative methods of discipline and positive reinforcement techniques policy through the lens of Ideological State Apparatus (ISA). Alternative methods of discipline and positive reinforcement techniques policy was developed by the South African department of education, which serves as the guide stands to help instructors identify more beneficial methods of handling punishment in classrooms which according to us, seen as a power relations construct that produces docile bodies and reproduces social inequalities.

The philosophical critical and prescriptive methodologies are used in this paper. Particularly intrigued by the connection between discipline and submissive bodies, Michel Foucault, describes discipline as a genealogical examination of power in his 1995 book Discipline and Punish. Outstandingly, discipline is used throughout all social institutions. Althusser’s explanation of ideology and ISAs offers us a fresh perspective on how to investigate the hidden power dynamics, ideology, and the role of ISAs in alternative forms of punishment and positive reinforcement. Most crucially, it needs to be emphasized that schools are ideological state apparatuses (ISAs) because they are politicized subjects. Similar these ISAs, are never identify as having an ideology. The results of the study provide proof that schools are ideological state apparatuses (ISAs) since they are politicized subjects.  These ISAs as such, never declare themselves to be ideological. For this reason, alternative methods of discipline and positive reinforcement techniques policy fits the lens of an Ideological State Apparatus (ISA). Even though the paper offers a thorough analysis of the literature on ideology, philosophy, and, most importantly, implications and relevance to school discipline, it also emphasizes the importance of society and policy as decision-makers who help keep things stable and give stakeholders’ and schools’ decisions some momentum. The research recommends a fresh way for assessing punishment and school discipline, however it appears that the status quo has not changed due to a lack of interest in innovation and looking into various possibilities that might help with discipline.

Keywords: Alternative methods, corporal punishment, Ideological State Apparatus (ISA), philosophy, school discipline

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