Volume 15, Issue 09

OIDA International Journal of Sustainable Development
Open-access peer-reviewed journal 

Evaluating Knowledge Management Capabilities During Crime Scene Processing in the Detective Service

Jacob Tseko Mofokeng 1, Mmabatho Portia Aphane 2
1 Tshwane University of Technology, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Safety and Security Management,  Aubrey Matlakala Street, Soshanguve − K, Soshanguve, 0001, Pretoria, South Africa
2 College of Law, School of Criminal Justice, Department of Police Practice, University of South Africa,
Pretoria, South Africa.

Volume 15, Issue 09, Pg. 11-28, 2022.

Abstract: Knowledge is, arguably, considered to be a prime asset for organisations, especially in the public sector organisations that are considered to be knowledge-intensive organisations. Forensic science departments are part of the public sector, whose primary mission it is to detect and prevent crime. Consequently, knowledge management (KM) is crucial in such a fast-paced environment as forensic science. The aim of this paper is to evaluate the level of knowledge management capabilities (KMCs) during the processing of the crime scene by the South African Police Service (SAPS). Thus, the initial investigative process requires speedy and effective use of knowledge from four main sources: objects and scenes; people; investigators’ own experience; and knowledge-management systems. The management of such knowledge for decision-making during the initial stages of a police investigation of a crime is, essentially, a process of intuitive patternmaking ahead of verification. In this research, the role of forensic science, including the use of forensic photography in the crime scene reconstruction process, was evaluated. This exploratory study was mainly qualitative, with it being based on participative observation and interviews with police officers. Evaluations of complex interventions in the public sector, such as the KMC of public workers, like the CST and general detectives, are frequently undermined by problems identifiable before the effectiveness study stage. Exploratory studies, often termed pilot and feasibility studies, are a key step in assessing the feasibility and value of progressing to an effectiveness study. Such studies can provide vital information to support relatively robust evaluations, thereby reducing the costs and minimising the potential harm of the intervention concerned. This study involved over 1 350 hours of participant observation and 30 interviews, consisting of three focus group discussions, which formed part of a series of interviews conducted with the crime scene technicians (CSTs) and general detectives in Botshabelo, Free State province and Soshanguve in the Gauteng province. The approach applied in this research was not strictly inductive, as it contained some deductive elements. In addition to studying a number of different types of place, the research also included various types of police officers: new recruits; experienced officers; officers with a special interest in a specific kind of criminal activity; officers known by other police officers as either lacking in experience, or as being highly competent performers; and officers known to be of average ability. The purpose and objectives of the research were explained at each focus group discussion, so that informed decisions could be taken on whether to participate in the study or not. The participants were also informed that they could withdraw from the interview process at any stage and that the interviews undertaken would be recorded. However, the authors concerned assured the participants that their inputs would be handled with a high level of confidentiality, and that their input would be treated as of anonymous origin. After the data collection, the recorded interviews were transcribed, with it being printed out, so that the authors can read the transcriptions, from which they could glean the relevant themes and patterns. The authors identified connections within and between the themes concerned, so as to be able to explain the effects of, and the relationships within and between, themes. Consenting participants shared their experiences during semi-structured interviews. Data was obtained using qualitative data collection methods that included a literature study and interviews. Four themes emerged from the study findings of this study, being; (1) awareness of the crime scene and the role of first responders; (2) identification of the appropriate expertise and the problem of ‘extended’ expertise; (3) effective control of crime scenes; (4) challenges confronting the first responder(s) at the crime scene; and (5) factors that rendered evidence found at the crime scene inadmissible in a court. From the findings of this study, the authors hoped to contribute to addressing a practical problem that required answering by the relevant police agencies.

Keywords: Capabilities, crime scene, detective, knowledge, management, processing

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Connectivity Design of Sea Toll Policy in Promoting Special Economic Zones

Pepen Supendi Yusup 1, Muhammad Zilal Hamzah 2, Eleonora Sofilda 3
1,2,3 Public Policy Studies, Faculty of Economics and Business, Trisakti University, Indonesia.

Volume 15, Issue 09, Pg. 29-48

Abstract: The transportation sector has an important role in supporting all mobility activities around the world. From passenger mobility to goods mobility, all of them need this sector. To obtain appropriate mobility; affordable according to distance, time and cost, specifically this sector is also divided into 3 (three) main sectors, namely the sea transportation sector, air transportation, and land transportation. Especially in the marine transportation sector, this has been proven by almost 90% of trade around the world is currently carried out by sea.

The objectives of this study are: (i). To study and analyze and formulate the connectivity design of sea toll policies to be able to provide a strategic contribution to developing the region, especially increasing economic competitiveness between regions and strengthening economic resilience for quality growth; and (ii). To review, analyze, and formulate a sea toll policy connectivity design that can support special economic zones.

This research uses a qualitative approach and uses the NVivo program for policy analysis because it can analyze qualitative data efficiently and effectively (Bandur, 2019).  The data is sourced from primary data through Focus Group Discussion (FGD) on informants (Regulators, SEZ, Associations, and Operators) and secondary data sources taken from reports of the Ministry of Transportation and Special Economic Zones. The object of this study is 15 Special Economic Zones (SEZ).

Based on the results of the FGD research processed with the NVivo program, it shows that infrastructure problems are the main problem in the design of the connectivity of the Sea Toll Policy. Generally found (in formulating toll connectivity designs that can support SEZ) are the design of sea toll policy connectivity and Sea Toll Problems.

The conclusions of the results of this study are (1) The largest contribution in the entire hierarchy so that sea tolls can provide a strategic contribution in developing the region, especially increasing economic competitiveness between regions, as well as strengthening economic resilience for quality growth is infrastructure. The combination of informants in the word cloud process shows that infrastructure is the most frequently emerging word and is the main problem that must be solved to create a connectivity design to be created. (2) To obtain the design of sea toll policy connectivity needed to support special economic zones, it must pay attention to several notes from the results of the discussions, namely Local Government Involvement, Inter-Ministerial, and Institutional Engagement, Stacking Field Rehabilitation, Private Involvement, and Ministry of Trade Regulations.

The implications for these findings are that successively for the connectivity design hierarchy is required; the involvement of Local Governments, involvement between Ministries and Institutions, involvement of the Private Sector, and Regulation of the Ministry of Trade. Meanwhile, the hierarchy of sea toll problems is successively needed: Infrastructure development, solving port problems, accelerating development, rehabilitating stacking fields, reducing the length of loading and unloading activities, and the readiness of the Port Master Plan.

Recommendations of policies that can be taken as a benefit of research on the Design of Sea Toll Policies in Supporting Special Economic Zones, especially with the inequality of the characteristics of the flow of goods with a small return load occupancy is something that needs attention related to the differences in the characteristics of goods shipped from the western region of Indonesia (finished goods) with from the eastern region of Indonesia (raw goods) which have a small return load. In addition, there is a relationship between “Equitable Development” and “Economic Equality”, which is related to the creation of economic equality supported through equitable development, therefore there needs to be further research on the support of land transport infrastructure to the interior (inland access) and to the airport and airport infrastructure as a unified connectivity system that supports the sea toll program. In addition, in order for the government, especially the  Ministry of Transportation, to carry out several policies, including (1) Sea toll ships stopping at ports around which there are SEZ, (2) Types, sizes of ships, and ship arrival schedules must be regular and regular and can adjust to the type of goods belonging to the SEZ being transported, (3) Increase in the number of routes (in 2021 only 30  route), (4) For sea toll freight transport ships that differ in characteristics from other goods, the route can be changed to a flexible route, it can be from the sending port directly to the destination port (port to port) or stopover at the port where there is a SEZ around the port, (5) To take advantage of container space (subsidy from theRectorate Jenderal  Sea Transportation) which is empty can be filled by the SEZ organizer at the port traversed by the sea toll ship, (6) Along with the increase in cargo transported by sea toll ships, it is necessary to increase human resources both in quality and quantity who already have competence in the field of logistics obtained through Education and Training institutions

Keywords: Methode Qualitative, Nvivo, Sea Toll Design, Special Economic Zone

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