Volume 15, Issue 02

OIDA International Journal of Sustainable Development
Open-access peer-reviewed journal 

Muslim Friendly Tourism Sustainability Analysis in Indonesia
Athea Sarastiani1, Farida Jasfar2, Muhammad Zilal Hamzah3, Robert Kristaung4

  1 Universitas Trisakti, Jakarta Indonesia.
2 Professor of Service Management Studies, Universitas Trisakti
3 Professor of Public Policy Studies, Universitas Trisakti, Jakarta, Indonesia.
4Robert Kristaung, Universitas Trisakti, Indonesia.

Volume 15, Issue 02, Pg. 11-26, 2022.

Abstract: This study aims to analyze and examine the factors for increasing Muslim tourists coming to Indonesia as a destination for Muslim Friendly Tourism. This study used a quantitative approach; data were collected using a survey of 274 respondents. Respondents were taken from tourists who had visited at least one visit to four leading Muslim Friendly destinations in Indonesia, such as provinces; (i) West Nusa Tenggara; (ii) West Java; (iii) West Sumatera; (iv) Jakarta Capital. Analysis techniques, using a Structured Equation Model, with Smart PLS software as a tool for processing data. This study’s novelty is Obedience Value to Muslim tourists visiting Muslim Friendly Tourist destinations in Indonesia. It turns out that hypotheses are accepted from nine hypotheses and six hypotheses are accepted. The limitation of this study is that the study only discusses the variables of ICT, Obedience Value, Service Quality, Culture Capital, Behavior to visit, and Sustainability of Muslim Friendly Tourism. The study results show several actions that the Indonesian government immediately takes tourism industry executant and tourists to synergistically contribute to creating a decent impression of the sustainability of Muslim Friendly Tourism in Indonesia.

Keywords: Behavior to Visit, Culture Capital, ICT, Obedience Value, Service Quality, Sustainability    of Muslim Friendly Tourism.

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Relationship Analysis Between Unemployment and Poverty in 33 Provinces In Indonesia
Darwin Hasiholan1, Muhammad Zilal Hamzah2, Eleonora Sofilda3, and Dini Hariyanti4

1Tri Bhakti Business School, Bekasi, Indonesia.
2,3Universitas Trisakti, Kyai Tapa Street No. 1 Grogol, West Jakarta, Indonesia.

Volume 15, Issue 02, Pg. 27-36, 2022.

Abstract: Poverty is one of many central issues for every country in the world, especially for developing countries. This study aims to: (i). Analyzing the effect of Wage Rate, GRDP Growth, and Inflation on the Unemployment rate; (ii). Analyzing the effect of Subsidies, GRDP, and the Human Development Index on the Poverty Level; and (iii). Analyze the causality relationship between unemployment and poverty. The method used in this research is a quantitative method with a static panel regression approach. Data were collected from 33 provinces in Indonesia in the period 2012-2018.

The research found that: (i). Wage Rate & GRDP Growth has a negative and significant effect, while inflation does not have a significant effect on the unemployment rate; (ii). The level of subsidies has a negative and significant effect on the Poverty Level, the Human Development Index has a positive and significant effect on the Poverty Level and GRDP has no significant effect on the Poverty Level; (iii). The results of the causality granger test generate proven there is no connection to each other between unemployment with poverty in all provinces. Only in the provinces of Lampung, Riau Islands, Yogyakarta, Banten, and Central Sulawesi, there are connections in one direction which is poverty influences unemployment. As well as results also show there is a connection in one direction that is unemployment influencing poverty in the Provinces of Bangka Belitung, Bali, and East Kalimantan.

When unemployment increases, poverty will increase. To reduce the level of poverty, the unemployment rate must also be lowered. Reducing the poverty rate will be successful if employment can absorb the existing workforce, especially in labor-intensive sectors and spread to every income group, including among the poor and need to improve quality.

Keywords: Unemployment, Poverty, Wages, GRDP, Subsidies, HDI, Panel Data

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Assessment of Microfinance Fraud Cases: A Philippines Study

Ferdinand U. Jikiri 1, Nilo B. Cellon Jr.2, Taib S. Abduraji 3, Anabel M. Amparo 4, Arlyn V. Yagaya 5, Christine N. Toring 6 , Mohshin Habib 7,8

1 Executive Vice President, ASA Philippines Foundation, Inc., Metro Manila, Philippines.
2 Senior Vice President, Luzon 2 Operations, ASA Philippines Foundation, Inc., Metro Manila, Philippines.
3 Senior Vice President, Luzon 1 Operations, ASA Philippines Foundation, Inc., Metro Manila, Philippines.
4 Vice President, HR Department, ASA Philippines Foundation, Inc., Metro Manila, Philippines.
5 Vice President, Education and Scholarship for Clients’ Children, ASA Philippines Foundation, Inc., Metro Manila, Philippines
6 Regional Administrator, Accounts Department, ASA Philippines Foundation, Inc., Metro Manila, Philippines
7 Adjunct Professor, Laurentian University, Canada.
8 Consultant, ASA Philippines Foundation, Inc., Metro Manila, Philippines.

Volume 15, Issue 02, Pg.37-56, 2022.

Abstract: This research provides an in-depth overview of ASA Philippines’ fraud cases. Researchers were able to better understand the factors that influence employees’ inclinations to commit fraud, as well as investigate the numerous fraud patterns discovered and make recommendations to combat them. The study’s findings provide researchers with better strategies and recommendations for preventing fraud in the future.This study was based on Donald Cressey’s Fraud Triangle Theory (1953). This theory is composed of three components: opportunity, pressure, and rationalization. He claims that pressure from ravenous greed, bad habits, and delusions encourages management and employees to commit fraud. When the internal control system creates gaps that the perpetrators are aware of, fraud opportunities arise. Opportunities and motivation are inextricably linked.

Hospitalization of immediate family members, financial support for sibling’s education, and participation in a Ponzi scheme are the most common situations that cause employees to become more financially stressed and eventually commit fraud. Peer pressure can lead to vices, gambling, and a desire for social acceptance. Work pressures encountered by employees include pressure to meet deadlines and pressure to maintain good standing performance. Excessive lifestyles include spending beyond means, and buying items considered wants rather than needs. Weak internal control can lead to fraud in any of the following circumstances: a) supervisors do not conduct monitoring visits; b) inability to identify weak and incapable staff on time; c) difficult geographical location and branch inaccessibility to communication; d) familiarity with colleagues resulting in closeness beyond professionalism, breaking off a chain of command and nepotism; and e) supervisors’ reluctance to implement the cash management protocol.

Top management at MFIs should organize at least semi-annual fraud management training for employees, ensure that all newly hired staff understand fraud policies and procedures, and hold periodic workshops. This raises fraud awareness in institutions while also communicating staff responsibilities for fraud prevention and detection. Every employee must understand that internal measures at their level are their personal responsibility (Sama & Niba, 2016). The researchers also suggested that staff members and clients of microfinance institutions (MFIs) be exposed to a culture of openness and integrity, that clients be made aware of their rights, and that a complaint system be in place.

Keywords: Fraud, fraud triangle theory, microfinance institutions, financial pressure, peer  pressure, excessive lifestyle, weak internal control

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