Social Networking and Access to Jobs in Sub-Saharan Africa: An Inquiry into the ‘Ima Mmadu’ Theorem
Anthony A. Akamobi
Department of Economics, Chukwuemeka Odumegwu Ojukwu University, (Formerly, Anambra State University, Nigeria), Nigeria.
Volume 14, Issue 03, Pg. 11-18, 2021.
Abstract: In Social Networking and Access to Jobs in Sub-Saharan Africa: An Inquiry into the ‘Ima Mmadu’ Theorem, we carried out an inquiry into the allegation that most employees of the public sectors in most Sub-Saharan African (SSA) countries are people who are connected with influential members of society. This means that such employments were neither based on merit nor through regular employment procedures. Consequently, four objectives were set: to identify the factors that significantly impact on the access to public sector jobs; to find out the fraction of public/civil servants who gained their employments due to their connections with influential members of society; to find out the fraction of public/civil servants who actually gained their employment based on merit and finally, to make recommendations based on research findings. The main hypothesis is that access to public sector jobs in most SSA countries does not depend on connections with powerful members of society. A multi-stage random sampling technique, comprising two stages of sampling, was used to obtain the data. The first stage was a pilot stage. 50 public servants from different government departments were given copies of the questionnaire and asked to freely write down how they got their jobs at the first instance. Their responses enabled the determination of the variables to include in a multiple regression analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) model. The second stage involved the distribution of well-structured questionnaire encompassing all the variables obtained at the pilot stage, and administered to 560 public servants from various government departments. The target is to find out how they all had their jobs at the first instance. This produced interesting outcomes. The regression results show that most of the public servants gained employments into different strata of public departments as a result of their connections with some influential members of society. The main recommendation is that leaderships in SSA countries should ensure healthy process of recruitment into their public sectors so as to ensure equity and fairness thereby giving equal opportunities to the entire citizenry.
Keywords: Social networking, public servants, random sampling, questionnaire, recruitment process
Sustainable Development Practice – Development of a Predictive model to forecast the Generation of Municipal Solid Waste in Davangere (Smart City), Karnataka
K. Raju 1, Vijay K. S.2
1,2 Institute of Management Studies, Davangere University, India.
Volume 14, Issue 03, Pg. 19-24, 2021
Abstract: Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) is an outcome of human activities. In a populated country like INDIA, majority of cities facing problems associated with MSW. Migration of people from rural to urban is adding fuel to this problem. The local governing bodies trying hard to manage municipal solid waste. Many of them started treating these waste as resources and trying to convert them into a renewable energy. The management of MSW has considered as a prime activity with importance for the sustainable development of the city. The main objective of this paper is to identify the major influencing variables that affect the generation of solid waste and to develop a predictive model for better management of MSW. The study was undertaken for Davangere in the state of Karnataka, India which is under the scheme of smart city. The sustainable development of a city needs a sustainable approach towards the Solid Waste Management. The suitable predictive model will certainly help city administrative body to adopt best practices. In this research the linear predictive methods were employed to develop the predictive model. The total solid waste generation, total population, households, per capital income, working age population (15-59 years) and literacy rate were considered as the variables for the study. The Correlation and Principal Component Analysis were executed followed by regressing the dependent variable (total solid waste generation) by using principal components. The regression equation was arrived with the =.9134.
Keywords: Solid waste management, environmental, Karnataka, smart city
Weaker Section’s Social Transformation: Exclusion and Inclusive Social Justice in India
Kumara P. B.
Government First Grade College, Hirisave, Channarayapatna Tq. Hassan Dist. Karnataka, India.
Volume 14, Issue 03, Pg. 25-32, 2021.
Abstract: Indian society is characterized by its long age stratification. Stratification emerges from different social values and survives so long the social values are not changed. Each strata can identify by its rigid social and religious practices. Dalits, or Weaker Sections as the ex-untouchables prefer to be called, are a very distinct social group. While belonging to a broad class of have-nots they suffer an additional disability of social oppression. Economically, most of them are still the poorest of poor. There is a need for the dalits movement to emerge as a movement for genuine emancipation and social transformation of weaker sections of the society. Social justice is a fundamental principle of democratic principles engaged in a politics of social transformation, to bring about a fundamental defeat of the brahminical social order. It is a change in the present economist definition of such transformation and strives for its redefinition in social terms. The Dalits movement needs to incorporate all the dimensions of struggle against the national and international establishment, thereby providing a new vanguard of social transformation and in the process broadening and deepening its own socio-cultural terrain towards social justice and redefining the concept of social transformation. In this backdrop the paper will trace the dalits social transformation redefining the social justice in India. Further the paper will discuss a combination of the literature review of social movements and social transformation. Finally the manuscript will define the concept of social justice, dalits social transformation redefining in the context of India.
Keywords: Social Transformation, Social Justice, Dalits, Inclusion and Exclusion