Microenterprise Development in Sub-Saharan Africa: Issues, Constraints, Challenges and implications for Sustainable Economic Development
Anthony A. Akamobi 1
1Chukwuemeka Odumegwu Ojukwu University, (Formerly: Anambra State University), Nigeria.
Volume 13, Issue 01, Pg. 11-26, 2020.
Abstract: In this study, three objectives were set: to identify the factors inhibiting the growth and development of microenterprises among SSA countries; to evaluate the level of institutional support for microenterprises currently; and to explore the implications of an underdeveloped microenterprise category for most SSA countries vis-à-vis the aspirations of sustainable economic development. Primary data were generated through multistage sampling technique, involving two sampling stages. Two sets of questionnaires were distributed through trained field officers. The first stage was the pilot stage. It involved the distribution of unstructured questionnaire to 50 microentrepreneurs. This was a ‘fill-in’ questionnaire. The respondents were asked to fill-in their responses to the questions as they appealed to them and to the best of their ability, in their own words. These responses were then used to develop the main questionnaire which was used at the second stage of the sampling. This was distributed to 2000 microentrepreneurs. The data generated were carefully analyzed. The objective of identifying the factors affecting microenterprises development was realized using the multivariate discriminant analysis, MDA. Out of the 9 variables analyzed, 8 were identified as significantly affecting microenterprise development. These factors include the lack of modern equipment, government policies, and the lack of finance/capital. The two other objectives were achieved using a combination of secondary materials from other researchers and materials from the survey. It was clear that there were more than enough support institutions but they were not accessible to microentrepreneurs due to some forms of information asymmetries or ignorance. It was also explained that a neglect of microenterprises and their roles in the economy will further push countries of Sub-Saharan Africa further away from their aspirations of sustainable economic development. The recommendation is that SSA countries should see the development of microenterprises as matter of priority or face the consequences of neglect.
Keywords: Development, Sustainable Development, Microenterprises, Microentrepreneurs, Questionnaire.
Sustainability: A Critical Challenge for the Extractive Industry
Ogechi Okoro 1
1 Centre for Business and Enterprise, Waikato Institute of Technology, Hamilton, New Zealand.
Volume 13, Issue 01, Pg. 27-34, 2020.
Abstract: Sustainability has been resonating within the business community and academia. Indeed, it has progressed from being an ideology to a technique that adds to the triple bottom line of companies. Given that the new contract is driven by global competition, several companies are striving to take advantage of the current narrative in their drive toward innovation. Most importantly, the expansion of the corporate social responsibility (CSR) frontier is driving the discourse on sustainability, thus, leaving a business with limited options. Therefore, sustainability is no longer optional especially for industries, whose activities directly affect people and the planet. Arguably, the more directly a company’s activities affect people, the more likely it comes into direct contact with society. The implication is that they run the risk of being confronted by members of society especially rights groups, activists, and lately young people. This paper aims to demonstrate the author’s curiosity to investigate the extractive industry’s approach to sustainability in its operations. It also examines the extant practices of the extractive industry, which have direct links to sustainability. The paper reviews the existing literature relating to sustainability and production in the selected industry. Essentially, it discusses the level of acceptance of sustainability in the extractive industry, particularly in the less-developed world. This has exposed gaps, which will require policy overhaul and reorientation. Findings demonstrate a correlation between institutional environment and sustainability consciousness. Recommendations focus on social, economic, political, and technological perspectives. These factors have been found to influence the level of adoption of sustainability by companies. This paper serves as a precursor to a proposed qualitative research project, which will adopt a comparative approach to review the sustainability practices of two companies, based in New Zealand and Nigeria. The author’s main goal is to publish a working document from the proposed research.
Keywords: CSR, Extractive Industry, Exploration & Production, Sustainability.
Green Justice and the Application of Polluter- Pays Principle: A Study of India’s National Green Tribunal
1Campus Law Centre, University of Delhi, Delhi, India.
Volume 13, Issue 01, Pg. 35-46, 2020.
Abstract: The Green Tribunal of India has been applying Polluter -Pays Principle in innumerable cases with the result that PPP has emerged as a powerful legal instrument to restore the damaged environment and compensate the pollution-victims. For instance, recently, in March, 2019, the Green Tribunal has imposed a fine of, as much as Rs. 500 crore ( 5 billion) on Volkswagen for creating air pollution and hiding it by adopting a “cheat device” in its diesel vehicles in India. The Green Tribunal has been valiantly applying the Polluter-Pays Principle not only to big corporate giants, but also to Pollution Control Boards as well as the Government, and has earned the reputation of staunch protector of wholesome environment giving a new dimension to the environmental jurisprudence in India. The paper identifies and discusses various methods adopted by Green Tribunal to implement Polluter-Pays Principle. The substance of Polluter-Pays Principle, in any jurisdiction, needs to answer four questions: i)what does pollutionconsistsof? ii)Whocan be called‘polluters’? iii) To whom polluters should make the payment? iv)How much the pollutersshould pay?While analysing various judgments and orders of the Green Tribunal of India, this paper endeavours to find answers to the above questions. Given the fact that India is a fast developing economy and is likely to have many developmental projects, the paper argues for the broader and stricter application of the Polluter-Pays Principle by the Green Tribunal of India. At the same time, it suggests that, to maintain its hard earned credibility, the Green Tribunal needs to evolve or adapt a principle of law contributing to a normative framework for computation of compensation.
Keywords: The Polluter-Pays Principle, OECD, Green Tribunal, Restoration of Environment, Compensation, Civil Penalty