OIDA International Journal of Sustainable Development
Open access peer-reviewed journal
These papers were submitted to the Symposium on Genocide and Reconciliation held at the Marriot Conference centre, Toronto on November 27, 2019, organized by Pearson Global, Canada and special issue Volume 12, Issue 06 was released.
How Canadian Legislators Reacted to Two “Genocides” Claims and Canada’s Claimed Support for Conflict prevention in Sri Lanka
Université de Montreal, and the National Research Council of Canada.
Volume 12, Issue 06, Pg. 11-18, 2019.
In this study, we attempt to make a brief comparative study of the reaction of Canadian legislators to two claims of genocide that have been placed in front of them, namely, (a) the genocide of Canada’s indigenous people, and (b) the genocide claimed by a diaspora group of Tamils residing largely in Ontario that they faced genocide in their own country of Sri Lanka. Diaspora aspects and Tamil claims will be treated more fully as the facts are less familiar to Western readers.
Keywords: Genocide, indigenous people, Sri Lanka Tamils, Diaspora
The remit of conflict-framing for conflict-resolution and peacebuilding: a selected comparison of cases in Nigeria, Rwanda, Sri Lanka and Myanmar
University of Pretoria, South Africa.
Volume 12, Issue 06, Pg. 19-26, 2019.
This paper examines the implications of framing a conflict for the peacebuilding process given the often divergent perspectives the conflicting parties have of the conflict. In this context, the paper focuses on the framing of armed conflicts in Nigeria, Rwanda, Sri Lanka and Myanmar as civil war or genocide and the implication of these framings for conflict resolution, reconciliation and peacebuilding. It mainly discusses what is framed as the “civil war” in Nigeria and “genocide” in Rwanda and uses both to examine armed conflicts in both Sri Lanka and Myanmar. The main argument made is that conflict-framing does have implications for how conflict plays out, its resolution and the post-conflict reconciliation phase, and as such framing an armed conflict as genocide is useful if it is aimed at informing reconciliation not shaming and blaming. Therefore, the need to frame the conflict should not overshadow reconciliation, as findings way to resolve the differences between the warring parties is very important to instituting peace within the society. The paper thus concludes that the aim of framing and understanding the dynamics of a conflict should be geared towards instituting adequate reconciliation that will bring about lasting peace.
Keywords: Framing Conflict, reconciliation, genocide
Theoretical reflections of Tamil ethnic conflicts in Sri Lanka and Rohyngya group in Myanmar
Emeritus, Nord University, Norway.
Abstract: Bangladesh was praised internationally for sheltering the fleeing Rohingyas. But, there was little international involvement in the repatriation process. The roles of its friendly countries, China, India, Russia, Japan, the regional economic and military powers, have been disappointing. The role of China, in particular, is crucial. Bangladesh government lacked diplomatic skills to convince the international community, including its friends, to get them involved in multilateral negotiation and, to create pressure on Myanmar.
One school claims that ethnic and national identities are constituted by common objective pre-existing characteristics, such as language, race, religion etc. These characteristics are shared and constitute the basis of unity of people, and distinguish from other people with different characteristics. Another view perceives ethnicity and nationality as ideologically socially constructed and, politically manipulated by elites for control over resources and privileges. Thus language, religion, and territorial affinity acquire their importance when they are used as a basis for awareness creation and social mobilization. The Tamils in Sri Lanka are an example.
Keywords: Politically manipulated, repatriation, Rohingyas, Tamils.