OIDA International Journal of Sustainable Development
Open access peer-reviewed journal
Socio-Economic Factors Influencing Smallholder Farmers Agricultural Infrastructure Availability, Accessibility and Satisfaction: A Case on North West Province in South Africa
Mazibuko N.V.E 1, Antwi M.A 2
1 Department of Agriculture and Animal Health, University of South Africa and National Agricultural Marketing Council, South Africa.
2 Department of Agriculture and Animal Health, University of South Africa, Florida, South Africa.
Volume 12, Issue 05, Pg. 11-26, 2019.
The study investigated the socio-economic factors contributing to smallholder farmers’ availability, accessibility and satisfaction of agricultural infrastructure. Using cross-sectional data from the North West Province of South Africa. One hundred and fifty smallholder farmers were selected using stratified sampling to group the farmers to those had agricultural infrastructure and to those that did not have the agricultural infrastructure. The data were coded, captured and analyzed using STATA 14.0, the methods used to analyze the data were descriptive analyses and Tobit Regression Models. The results of the Tobit Regression Model showed, among other factors influencing the availability of agricultural infrastructure, the following variables played a critical role; household members’ assistance in farming enterprise; farm ownership; farm acquisition; farmer Occupation; member of farmer organizations; sources of labour and farming experience and agricultural production inputs. In terms of agricultural infrastructure accessibility, the following variables played a critical role; engage in non-farming activities; contact to extension services; farm ownership; farmer occupation; member of farmer organizations; sources of labour; farming experience and land tenure. In terms of satisfaction with agricultural infrastructure, among other factors influencing satisfaction with agricultural infrastructure, the following variables played a critical role; organization for extension services; household members’ assistance in farming enterprise; farmer receives government agricultural support; farm ownership; member of farmer organisations; farmer age; education level; marital status and gender. The results from the analysis were used to close the gap of knowledge on the impact of agricultural infrastructure, availability, accessibility and satisfaction on the productivity and agricultural income of smallholder farmers in the North West Province.
Keywords: Agricultural infrastructure, availability, accessibility, satisfaction, agricultural income, agricultural production.
Insights on Entrepreneurial Failure: An empirical investigation of Ireland and Mexico
Francisco Navarrete-Báez 1, Rebecca Purcell 2
1 Department of Research, University of Atemajac Valley. Guadalajara, México. 45050.Corresponding author:
2 Department of Mathematics and Computer Studies, Mary Immaculate College, Limerick, Ireland.
Volume 12, Issue 05, Pg. 43-60, 2019.
This study aims to deepen the understanding of entrepreneurial failure. Data from the General Entrepreneurship Monitor is used to determine the rates of entrepreneurial failure in Ireland and Mexico over the period 2011 to 2015. Ireland and Mexico provide rich contexts for the study of entrepreneurial failure. In 2011, Ireland and Mexico had similar rates of entrepreneurial failure, at 2.8% and 3.1% respectively. By 2015, the rate of entrepreneurial failure in Mexico had increased to 4.9%, a comparatively high rate, while in Ireland entrepreneurial failure had decreased to 2.1%. To date, studies on entrepreneurial failure focus on poor financial performance as the primary driver of entrepreneurial failure. Few studies look beyond poor financial performance, to examine other factors in the entrepreneurial environment that may determine entrepreneurial failure. In this study, descriptive and inferential statistical analyses are used to examine the impact of macro-level framework condition variables, and micro-level behaviour and attitudinal variables from the Irish and Mexican entrepreneurial environment on entrepreneurial failure. The findings from this investigation support the extrapolation of insights on entrepreneurial failure. The authors, determine that in particular, the availability of entrepreneurial finance, targeted support for entrepreneurial firms in the business services sector, with the potential to create innovative and export-oriented outputs, and policy aimed at reducing the bureaucratic burden on entrepreneurship, are important elements in an entrepreneurial system which seeks to support entrepreneurial survival, and limit failure.
Keywords: entrepreneurial exit, entrepreneurial failure, IGlobal Entrepreneurship Monitor (GEM), reland, Mexico
A Synthesis Report Analyzing Menstrual Hygiene Management Within a Humanitarian Crisis
Zoha Anjum 1, Panthea Pouramin 2 Talia Glickman 3, Nidhi Nagabhatla 4
1 Department of Health Research Methods, Evidence and Impact, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada.
2 United Nations University, Institute of Water, Environment and Health, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada.
3 United Nations University, Institute of Water, Environment and Health, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada.
4 United Nations University, Institute of Water, Environment and Health, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada and School of Geography and Earth Science, McMaster University, Hamilton, ON, Canada.
The United Nations Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs (UN-OCHA) releases Humanitarian Response Plans (HRPs) annually to share their approach in tackling the “assessed and expressed needs” of a country related to a humanitarian crisis. Dimensions such as logistics, health- and/or safety-related responses are highlighted in the HRPs; however, gender-sensitive aspects, such as women’s health, are often overlooked. One key aspect that is relatively under-reflected in the HRPs is Menstrual Hygiene Management (MHM), which is the ability to manage menstruation safely and confidently. This aspect is also central to achieving gender-related Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), especially SDG 5, which focuses on women’s health and the related socio-economic and psychosocial outcomes. Negative consequences of poor MHM practices may include reproductive tract infections and skin irritation, as well as stress and diminished dignity. In the presence of a crisis, such consequences are further aggravated due to geographical displacement. Currently, the HRPs lack a universal policy around the provision of MHM in a humanitarian context. This synthesis aims to identify the gaps within the HRPs published by UN-OCHA during the years 2016-2018 and explores the extent of the distribution of dignity kits in a humanitarian crisis.
The UN-OCHA HRP documents published between 2016 and 2018 were retrieved from the UN-OCHA Humanitarian Response database. A search strategy for MHM-related products including dignity kits as well as other kits that may or may not contain MHM-related products (i.e., water, sanitation & hygiene (WaSH) kits; non-food items (NFI) kits) was employed. Notably, in 2016, 31% of HRPs from African countries and 40% of HRPs from Asian countries explicitly mentioned dignity kits. In 2017, we found that only 33% of HRPs from African and 100% of HRPs from Asian countries mentioned dignity kits whereas, in 2018, it was 50% of HRPs from African and 67% of HRPs from Asian countries. There was also a temporal and spatial variation in the number of countries that mentioned MHM-related terms including dignity kits. Overall, only a few countries have adopted dignity kits to address women’s unique needs in a humanitarian context, others intend to address this topic through WASH and/or NFI kits, and some do not address MHM at all. The lack of universal policy surrounding the implementation of MHM in a crisis has implications not only for women’s health and dignity but also for a country’s progress towards the related SDG targets.
Keywords: Dignity Kits, Menstrual Hygiene Management, Sustainable Development Goals, Women’s Health