OIDA International Journal of Sustainable Development
Open access peer-reviewed journal
Religiosity and Self Efficacy as factors that affect Happiness Level among Students in State Islamic University Jakarta
Faculty of Psychology, State Islamic University of Jakarta, Indonesia.
Volume 12 Issue 04, pg. 11-22, 2019.
Abstract: In Indonesia, currently, we can conclude that more people have tendency to feel unhappy in their everyday life. Poverty was widespread, the weak economy and the lowest level of monthly income, high unemployment and terrorism were factors that interfere the community lately. There are so many factors that can affects happiness, one of them is the Religiosity. Religiosity was perceived to have contribution in people’s happiness, since religiosity could affect patterned thinking and its behavior in daily life. Jane (2006) also declares that trust to religion has a great influence to the long term of happiness. In addition, other factors that might also affect the level of happiness are the influence of environmental or social support received by each individual and also self efficacy. The purpose of this study is to measure the effect of Religiosity, Self Efficacy and Demographic Factors in predicting Happiness Levels among students State Islamic University Jakarta, Indonesia. This study recruited 70 participants to answers questionnaires. The available data was analyzed using statistical approach in order to see the factors that might have bigger contribution to the happiness level among students so the treatment can be more appropriate and effective. As a result of this study that most of the students feels moderately happy, have low self esteem and have moderate level of religiosity. Furthermore, the statistical analysis also showed that Religiosity and Self Efficacy simultaneously bring significant impact to the student’s happiness
Keywords: Religiosity, Happiness, Self Efficacy, Demographic Factors
Economic Evaluation of Laser Land Levelling Technology in Punjab (India) A step towards sustainable development
Lavleen Kaur Sandhu a, Simranjit Singh b, Randeep Kaur c , Bhuinder Singh d
a,b,c,d Khalsa College, Amritsar,Punjab, India.
Volume 12 Issue 04, pg.23-32, 2019
Abstract: Declining water table and degrading soil health are the major concerns for the current growth rate and sustainability of Indian agriculture. Agriculture in Punjab has a heavy requirement of water for irrigation purposes. The dominance of rice and wheat monoculture in cropping pattern of Punjab over the years has led to over exploitation of ground water, resulting in rapid decline of water table in the entire state (except south western part). So the present study was undertaken to study the impact of laser land leveling on resource use and returns from paddy crop. Multistage purposive cum random sampling was used for the selection of the study area.Further two blocks from district Amritsar were selected at second stage for the study purpose. At third stage two villages from each block were randomly selected..At the final stage 100 farmers were selected for the study purpose. In order to undertake the impact assessment task of this technology ,an equal number of adopters and non –adopters were selected from the same vicinity.
In all operations the time consumed was more in non-adopters category than in adopters category. It clearly shows the effect of Laser leveling technology. By comparing the variation in time spent of adopters over non-adopters major difference was in time spent on irrigation. In irrigation 63.80 hours were spent by adopters and 85.07 hours were spent by non-adopters in case of paddy. About 21 hours were more spent on irrigation by non-adopters in paddy crop. The total human labour-used was 44.23 hours per acre on adopter which was less as compared to non-adopter farms i.e. 47.25 hours per acre in paddy crop. The per acre labour-use on transplanting of paddy was 6.15 hours on laser leveled fields as compared to 6.45 hours on non-laser leveled fields. The per acre labour-use on plant protection was 7.25 hours laser leveled fields as compared to 8.85 hours on non-laser leveled fields. In all the farms operations more time was spent by non- adopters than by adopters. The difference was mainly due to laser leveling of the fields done by adopters farmers. The cost of laser land leveling incurred by the adopters of the technology was Rs 1025.75 per acre. The yield of paddy was 28.82 quintal per acre on laser leveled farms as compared to 26.98 quintal per acre on conventional farms. The variable cost per acre was less in the case of laser land leveled farms as compared to non-adopter farms. Due to higher productivity, the gross returns were also greater in case of adopter farms i.e. Rs.43518.2 as compared with non-adopter farms i.e. Rs.40739.8. The returns over variable cost were also higher in the case of laser land leveled fields i.e. Rs.32966.83 per acre, while in the case of non-adopter farms, the returns over variable cost worked out to be Rs.30034.38. Hence, with the use of laser land leveling technology, the profit increased by. Rs.2932.45 per acre in paddy crop.
To identify the factors affecting adoption, logit model was used in which adoption of laser land leveler was regressed with independent variables namely age, education, availability of laser leveler in the cooperative society, average time per irrigation, extension services in the village, less weed occurrence in the crop and yield of paddy crop of the farmers. The variables which were statistically significant have been used in backward step wise Regression model. Multivariate Logit Regression analysis was used to identify those variables which affect the respondents to use the laser leveler technology in wheat and paddy crop. In paddy crop the average time per irrigation and yield of crop influenced the use of laser level technology among adopters.
The main source of technology diffusion was fellow farmers and about 40 per cent of the farmers came to know and adopted the technology through learning from each other. The progressive farmers of the area adopted the technology and encouraged others to follow. The co-operative societies also played an important role in the diffusion of the technology.
An opinion survey was also carried out regarding non adoption of the technology from sample farmers. About 45 per cent of non-adopters reported that the reason of their non-adoption was the high cost of laser land leveling. While 55 per cent of non-adopters reported that they were not fully aware of the technology, resulting in non-adoption of the technology. About 60 per cent of non-adopters reported that the reason of the non-adoption of the technology was their small and marginal holding.
Keywords: Laser Land Levelling Technology, logit model, farmers, crop
Legal Mechanism for Blowing the Whistle against Incidence of Tax Haven in Nigeria
Eti Best Herbert
Agbowo, Ibadan, Oyo State, Nigeria.
Volume 12 Issue 04, pg.33-46, 2019
Abstract: Tax havens are jurisdictions with little or no direct tax imposition. The manifestation of the activities of tax haven is tax evasion and avoidance in high taxing jurisdictions. This often leads to capital flight to tax havens at the risk of economic misfortunes for the high tax jurisdictions. Tax haven has become a matter of global concern which has warranted several international responses especially from the Organisation of Economic Cooperation and Development. Nigeria has not been proactive with the global move. Our tax system is not fully developed to tackle tax avoidance and evasion from tax payers. At the level of international cooperation, Nigeria needs to enter into bilateral and multilateral treaties in this regard. At the domestic level, this paper reckons with the important role the use of whistle-blowers could have on information gathering by the tax authorities. Regrettably, Nigeria only has pockets of policies and codes which lack legal force to adequately guarantee the protection of whistleblowers. This, of course, limits the information gathering potentials from whistleblowers. This paper suggests the overhaul of existing tax codes and more visibility of Nigeria in the international scene in the battle against the incidence of tax havens.
Keywords: Tax Avoidance, Tax Evasion, Tax Haven, Capital Flight, Whistleblower.
The Potential for Locally Managed Marine Area (LMMAs) as a Participatory Strategy for Coastal and Marine Ecosystems- the Global Commons
Newell, Sarah Lynn 1, Nagabhatla, Nidhi 2,3, Doubleday, Nancy C 3,4, Bloecker, Alexandra 3,5
1 Faculty of Health Sciences, McMaster University, Hamilton, ON, Canada
2 School of Geography and Earth Science, McMaster University, Hamilton, ON, Canada
3 United Nations University- Institute for Water, Health and Environment, Hamilton, ON, Canada
4 Department of Philosophy, McMaster University, Hamilton, ON, Canada
5 Faculty of Science, Radboud University, Nijmegen, Netherlands.
Volume 12 Issue 04, pg.47-62, 2019.
Abstract: Marine and coastal biodiversity and ecosystem services are degraded in many areas worldwide due to human interference resulting from fishing, tourism, pollution, and mining. Guidelines for an evidence-based, participatory and community-led management approach ‘Locally Managed Marine Area (LMMA)’ provides a planning and strategic approach to development of coastal cities and implementing Integrated Coastal Zone Management. Here we take note of the existing references of case studies that shows successful implementation in Fiji, Kenya and other countries in Asia and Africa. LMMA approach integrates concerns about the current state of degradation and ensures that ecological services of these resource systems are sustainably managed in the future by community driven efforts; with aspects of food security, resource conservation, local employment and income of local fishers and tourism operators embedded. We focus on an empirical assessment initiated though a collaborative effort to outline and set up guidelines for establishing a LMMA network for Inhambane, Mozambique in discussion with stakeholders (fishermen, tourism operators, private and community actors, and selected government officials). An outcome from the study was disseminated to local authorities to ensure that solutions for managing degradation coastal and marine ecosystems could be placed on priority as planning for implementation of Sustainable Development Goal 14 and for creating coastal cities as sustainable economic hubs and resilient coastal communities.
Keywords:Community-based; Locally Managed Marine Areas; Marine Resources; Sustainable Development