OIDA International Journal of Sustainable Development
An Investigation into the trend of Domestic Violence on Men: The Case of South Africa
Tsoaledi Daniel Thobejane a, Vitcor Luthada b
a Institute for Gender and Youth Studies, University of Venda, Thohoyandou, South Africa.
b Institute for Gender and Youth Studies, University of Venda, Thohoyandou, South Africa.
Volume 12, Issue 03, pg. 11-18, 2019.
Abstract: This paper brings to the fore, experiences of men who are victims of domestic violence where women are the perpetrators. There are masculinity expectations that a man is in pain is not allowed to show his agony in public. This belief is exacerbated by the patriarchal nature of our society that suggests that men are not supposed to cry. These male victims are “hard-to-reach” because they prefer to be in the closet and also because of the stigma that might be attached to them for having shown that they are victims of female domestic abuse. The paper is motivated by the study that was conducted in Vuwani under Makhado Local Municipality of Vhembe District in the Limpopo Province, South Africa. This study used a qualitative research methodology to garner more information about the victims. Domestic violence against men perpetrated by women is not a new phenomenon in our society. But it is rarely spoken about. The patriarchal society that we live in makes it hard for men to open up about their anguish. The study focused on five themes which are as follows: The causes of abuse, nature of the abuse, limits of the law regarding the abuse, the role of police officers and institutions in assisting men. The study was also guided by theories such as family violence perspective and standpoint theory. The findings show that men who are victims of domestic violence are reluctant to come to terms with their predicament due to fear of being laughed at by the society, peers and police officials. As the proportion of domestic violence against men is still low when compared with that of women, the findings reveal that most women are knotted in the trap of playing victims while they are themselves, perpetrators.
Keywords: Patriarchy; Masculinity; Femininity; Domestic violence; Emasculation
The impact of the customary practice of chiramu (sexual dalliance) on the rights of girls in Zimbabwe
Department of Private Law, University of the Western Cape, South Africa
Volume 12, Issue 03, Pg. 19-26, 2019.
Abstract: Cultural norms and practices play an influential role especially in African societies. This is also true in Zimbabwe where culture is a moral ingredient that epitomises a sense of identity, purpose and belonging. Despite the high moral values embodied by culture in Zimbabwe, research has worryingly shown that the customary practice indigenously known as chiramu or sexual dalliance is harmful particularly to girl children. As a State Party to various international and regional instruments, Zimbabwe recently enacted the 2013 Constitution that can be used to address the custom of sexual dalliance. The article, therefore, firstly highlights the effects of sexual dalliance on girl children. Secondly, the article shows that the custom of sexual dalliance does not pass the constitutional muster in safeguarding the rights of girls. As a result, possible suggestions are encapsulated in ensuring children’s rights protection in Zimbabwe. These include: civic education and a strong nationwide public awareness of the new Constitution as the guarantor of human rights protection.
Keywords: 2013 Constitution, children’s rights, culture, sexual dalliance, Zimbabwe
Becoming a Domestic Worker: The Case of Mpumalanga Province, South Africa
Tsoaledi Daniel Thobejane a, Sibongile Khoza b
a,b Institute for Gender and Youth Studies, University of Venda, Thohoyandou-0950, South Africa.
Volume 12, Issue 03, Pg. 27-38, 2019.
Abstract: This research unpacked the challenges experienced by domestic workers in the Mpumalanga province of South Africa. Domestic workers play a pivotal role in supporting the labour market and economy. However, this work is often gender biased. The research pursued a gendered approach in an attempt to examine the challenges faced by domestic workers in the area. A qualitative research approach was used in the investigation. The findings of the study are that harassment of domestic workers at their workplace affects their lives negatively as they often lose concentration and become unproductive and ineffective at work. The study results showed that domestic workers from rural areas face more challenges than domestic workers from urban areas. This is due to the fact that their conditions in urban areas are more improved than in rural areas. The study also established that domestic workers resort to keeping quiet and do not communicate with their employers for fear that they will be victimized. However, some of them pointed out that they exercise patience when dealing with their employers because of fear of losing their jobs. The research also established that domestic workers are the most oppressed and exploited sector of the economy in South Africa.
Keywords: domestic work, patriarchy, gender, feminism, documented workers, dignified labour.
Influencing Factors on Emerging Capabilities of Environmental Non-Governmental Organizations (ENGOs): Using Grounded Theory
Faezeh Hashemi a, Hassan Sadighi b, Mohammad Chizari c, Enayat Abbasi d
a,b,c,d Department of Agricultural Extension and Education, College of Agriculture,
Tarbiat Modares University (T.M.U.), Tehran, Iran.
Volume 12, Issue 03, Pg. 39-54, 2019.
Abstract: The emergence of ENGOs represents an organized response by civil society for environmental protection particularly where the government has failed to fulfill it properly. ENGOs have many functions and roles that by them empower communities and ultimately help to achieve sustainable development.
The purpose of this study was to construct a theory that explores how capabilities of ENGOs emerge.
This study intended to answer three questions (a) under what causal, contextual, and intervening conditions capabilities of ENGOs emerge? (b) What are interactions due the emerging capabilities of ENGOs, and (c) What are consequences of interactions? To answer these questions, grounded theory methodology was used.
Data was obtained from multiple sources, including interview with 30 managers of ENGOs and 11 environmental experts in environmental protection organization and forests, range and watershed management organization in Iran and 5 meetings of the board of directors meeting. Another part of data extracted from second hand information sources such as published research findings, topics quoted from interviews and field notes.
Findings of the research indicated that knowledge management, creativity and innovation, organizational culture, effective leadership, and entrepreneurship as causal conditions impact on emerging capabilities of ENGOs. Flexible structure, institutional capacities, and strategic planning as contextual conditions and governmental supports and commitment and loyalty to the organization as intervening conditions in addition to emerging capabilities of ENGOs influence the interactions of ENGOs with target groups, other ENGOs, government and donor agencies. Finally, social capital building, empowering of target groups, accountability and sustainability are consequences of these interactions that facilitate achieving sustainable development.
Keywords: ENGOs, Capabilities, Sustainable Development, Theory