Volume 05 Issue 03

OIDA International Journal of Sustainable Development
Open access peer-reviewed journal 

Assessment of Farmers’ Perception on Small Plot Adoption Technique as a Means Of Sustainable Technology Transfer in Ikpoba-Okha Local Government Area, Edo State, Nigeria
Ajayi, M.T. a, Fapojuwo, O.E. b 
a, b Department of Agricultural Administration, Abeokuta Federal University of Agriculture, Abeokuta, Nigeria

Volume 05, Issue 03, Pg. 12-20, 2012.

Abstract: The study accessed the farmers’ perception of small plot adoption technique (SPAT) as a means of sustainable technology transfer in Ikopba-okha Local Government area of Edo-State. With the use of structured questionnaire, a simple random sampling technique was used to select 90 respondents interviewed for the study. Majority of the respondents were males (58.9%), 40 years old and above (62.20%) while 74.4% of the respondents were married, and majority (69.0%) had primary and secondary education.

Most of the respondents (84.4%) have between 1-4-hectares of land and were engaged in planting of arable crops (68.9%) as the major agricultural activity. Finding from the study showed that majority of respondents received information on SPAT through the extension agents (pastedGraphic.png= 2.24). SPAT was perceived to be very effective in impacting new farming technique to the farmers (pastedGraphic.png= 4.29). Findings also revealed that farmers’ benefits from SPAT were increased yields (pastedGraphic.png= 4.34) and increased awareness of improved varieties (pastedGraphic.png= 4.24). The major respondents’ constraints of SPAT were inadequate land (pastedGraphic.png=3.64) inadequate information (pastedGraphic.png= 2.76) and inadequate supervision (pastedGraphic.png= 2.69). Respondents’ marital status (x2= 10.075; P <0.05) and farming practice (x2 = 7.53: P<0.05) had significant association with their perception of SPAT. The need for adequate information and supervision of SPAT by extension agents to farmers was recommended.

Keywords: Farmers’ perception, Small plot adoption, Sustainable Technology Transfer 

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Environmental Management System (EMS) for Military Activities – Strategies and Policies for American, Canadian, Brazilian and NATO Armies
Marco Aurelio Chaves Ferro a
a USACE – ERDC, Vicksburg, MS, USA.

Volume 05, Issue 03, Pg. 20-33, 2012.

Abstract: Increasing of demand from environmental legislation and public opinion have transformed militaries activities, employees and facilities of Armed Forces all over the world. It became necessary to implement an Environmental Management System (EMS) to guide people to participate on those activities even during peace or war times. It’s a common threat among all the armies that military planning documents nowadays have to consider the risks of damaging the environment which can be caused by military operations. This has led to a progressive updated of environmental military legislation in order to be in according to Federal Environmental Laws in each country. The USA Department of Defense (DoD) was the first one to establish a formal structure for this in 1970 and others countries have followed it. The US Army Environmental Strategy into the twenty- first century is a program that shows the guidance for achieving the goal of environmental stewardship. The strategy consists of specific goals, objectives, and an action plan. The strategy has four environmental areas which are compliance, restoration, prevention, and conservation. Each area has an associated objective, which are: 1) give immediate priority to sustained compliance with all environmental laws; 2) continue to restore contaminated sites as quickly as funds permit; 3) focus efforts on pollution prevention to reduce or stop pollution at the source; and 4) conserve and preserve natural and cultural resources so they will be available for present and future generations. The fourth objective is related to the so-called Sustainable Development concept established by Our Future Common from the United Nations World Commission on environment and Development in 1987. The USA Army Strategy for the Environment summarizes a plan to develop a long-term sustainability ethic; strengthen operations; meet testing, training, and mission requirements; mitigate impacts and costs; incentivize innovation; and enhance the well-being of Soldiers, civilians, families, neighbors, and communities. NATO Defense ministries have implemented environmental management systems in a similar manner to other governmental bodies – and this is perhaps the most remarkable and important development in the politicization of such systems. The Pilot Study on Environmental Management Systems in the Military Sector, conducted by the NATO Committee on the Challenges of Modern Society, stated that the sector’s environmental impact often outweighed that of most other government departments. The Study recommended that ministries of defense and armed forces should implement an EMS and concluded that such it was the best way to protect the environment and maintain operational readiness, and EMS implementation in the military sector was both possible and desirable. The environment should concern everybody including managers and individual soldiers. It concluded that Any EMS standardization across the NATO countries framework would enhance the integration of sustainable development into military activities. Environmental policy for military operations in NATO is typically characterized by a code of environmental stewardship or principles for environmental protection which includes the following elements, among others: 1) the principle that environmental protection is a responsibility for everyone; 2) conformity with applicable legal requirements, including international agreements; 3) acceptance of the importance of environmental planning; 4) the objective of mitigating environmental damage in an opportune time. Canadian Army established the Army Environmental Strategy and the Army Environmental Policy where it is recognized the importance of taking account of environmental aspects in all decision making. Canadian Army approved the initial Land Force Command Environmental Action Plan in 1992 and revised it in 1995. It also published the Leader’s Guide to the Environment in 1997, and it recently restated its position in the LFC EMS framework paper. Extract from LFC environmental policy shows that the continual improvement is a fundamental aspect to be considered in an EMS process. Canadian Army EMS include: sustainable military training, management of potentially contaminated sites and materials, pollution prevention, management of fuel storage tanks, management of hazardous materials, waste management, and conservation of energy and potable water. Brazilian Army established  its EMS in 2001 and updated it in 2011. Brazilian Army EMS describes the importance of the consideration of environmental laws in military activities, pollution prevention, preservation, conservation and recuperation of the environment. The collaboration to other countries in actions as conferences, interchanges and meetings are motivated. The environmental education must be implemented in all levels of Brazilian Army, from commanders to soldiers, mainly with respect to flora, fauna, water resources and biodiversity. The Amazon Region is priority to Brazilian Army. Stimulate the formation and development of environment conscience and researches in order to promote the rational use of environmental resources are goals of Brazilian Army EMS. A key element of this transformation in the armies is the implementation of an Environmental Management System (EMS) as a mission enabler. The purpose of this work is to show and compare strategies and policies acts taken by American, Canadian, Brazilian and NATO Armies in order to adopt and implement their EMS.

Keywords: Armed Forces, Environmental Management System, Environmental Policies, Environmental Strategies

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Managing Natural Resources a Special Allusion with Waste Management for Sustainable Livelihoods
T. Kumuthavalli a
a Department of Lifelong Learning,
Bharathidasan University, Khajamalai Campus, Tiruchirappalli, India.

Volume 05, Issue 03, Pg. 34-39, 2012.

Abstract: This introductory note sets the tone for what follows in the subsequent pages on natural resource management linked sustainable development of human and other resources, with special reference to waste management. India is endowed with a rich and vast diversity of natural resources. Its development and management plays a vital role in production and development. Integrated Natural Resource Management is vital for fulfilling our millennium development goal of poverty reduction, environmental sustenance and sustainable economic development. National and International Policies on Management of Natural Resources envisages that the Natural resources of the country should be developed and managed in an integrated manner by applying effective waste treatment. The basic framework for applying a socio-ecological system approach to natural resource management has been set, which forms the basis for what follows in the subsequent pages. 

Keywords:  Natural Resources Management, MGDs, Waste Management

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Farmers’ Use of Environmentally Sustainable Practices in Cross River State, Nigeria
Angba A. O. a, Ogar David b
a Department of Agricultural Economics and Extension, University of Calabar, Calabar, Cross River State, Nigeria.
b Department of Forestry and Wildlife Resources Mgt., University of Calabar, Calabar, Cross River State, Nigeria. 

Volume 05, Issue 03, Pg. 40-49, 2012.

Abstract: This study was carried out to access farmers’ use of environmentally sustainable practices in Cross River State, Nigeria. To achieve the aim of this study, the respondents’ socio–economic characteristics were ascertained, so also were the available types of environmentally sustainable practices, level of awareness, the extent of technology use and factors affecting use. Systematic random sampling technique was used to draw 368 respondents from a sampling frame of 3,680 CRADP farmers. Dry season vegetable, crop combination and alley farming were purposively selected for the study. Structured questionnaire was used to collect data for the study. The result of the analysis showed that the respondents were predominantly males (78%) and had a mean age was 41.4 years. The educational level was low, household size was large with 78.5% having more than six members. Primary occupation was crop farming (93.4&). The mean gross income was N132,348 with about 28.4% earning N160,000 per annum or more. Average farm size was 2.1 hectares. Common land ownership is from the family or inherited. Though group participation was common to all respondents, contact with extension was very poor. The most common sources of awareness were friends, neighbours and relatives and contact farmers. Rate of abandoned adoption was highest with alley farming (58.7%) while sustained use was highest with crop combination (66.6%). Major factors influencing sustained use of technology are environmental adaptation, availability of capital and cultural adaptation. Chi-square (χ2) results showed that education, farmsize, income and gender had significant influence on use of environmentally sustainable practices (χ2=18.019; 15.335, 17.554, 16.204; p<0.05). ANOVA test showed a significant difference in the use of the practices in the three agricultural zones (F=54.479, P<0.05). This difference is an indication of the adaptability of the practices in each zone. Therefore, farmers should be encouraged to adopt environmentally sustainable practices that are adaptable to their environmental conditions only. This will consequently reduce cost and increase output.

Keywords: Assessment, Environmentally, Practices and Sustainable  

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Structural Behaviour Of Precast Lightweight Foamed Concrete Sandwich Panel As A Load Bearing Wall
Noridah Mohamad a, Wahid Omar b, Redzuan Abdullah c
a Department of Structure and Material, Faculty of Civil and Environmental Engineering, 
Universiti Tun Hussein Onn,  Malaysia.
b, c Faculty of Civil Engineering, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, Malaysia.

Volume 05, Issue 03, Pg. 50-61, 2012.

Abstract: A study was carried out to develop a Precast Lightweight Foamed Concrete   Sandwich Panel, PLFP, as a new industrialized building system, IBS. Experimental investigations and finite element simulations using LUSAS software to study its structural behaviour was undertaken.  The PLFP panel is made of foamed concrete wyhtes which enclose a polystyrene layer and reinforced with high tensile steel bars as its vertical and horizontal reinforcements. The panel is further strengthened by steel shear connectors bent at an angle of 45˚ which are inserted in the panel through the polystyrene layer.  The panels are tested using  Magnus Frame and loaded with axial load until failure. The ultimate load carrying capacity, load-deflection profiles, and the failure mode are recorded.  The panel was modeled using plane stress element for foamed concrete and bar element for its reinforcement and shear connectors.  Series of simulations were conducted for PLFP panel models with various slenderness ratios and sizes of steel bar. The results obtained from the experiment show good agreement with the results obtained from simulations. Partial composite behaviour is observed in all specimens when the cracking load is achieved. It is also found that the steel shear connectors are able to transfer the load from one wythe to the other.  It is concluded from the results that the PLFP panel proposed in this research is able to achieve the intended strength for use in low to medium rise building. Considering its lightweight and ease of construction, PLFP panel is feasible to be developed further as a competitive IBS building system.

Keywords: Foamed concrete, Industrialised Building Sytem,  Load Carrying Capacity, Load Deflection,  Profile, Partial Composite Behaviour

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Urban Energy, Climate Resilient and Sustainable Development: An Integrative Dynamism for Planning Perspectives of Mega Cities, India
Monsingh D. Devadas a, R. Adinarayanane b
a, b School of Architecture & Planning, Anna University, Chennai-600 025, India

Volume 05, Issue 03, Pg. 60-88, 2012.

Abstract: Climate change is widely recognized as the most serious environmental threat facing mankind and has diverse local, regional and global consequences. Among the most significant environmental challenges of our time are global climate change, excessive fossil fuel dependency and the growing demand for urban energy, are being the major challenges of 21st century and one of the greatest problems facing humanity. In 1900 about 150 million people, or less than 10 per cent of the world’s population at that time, lived in cities. By the year 2000, the number of urban residents had increased 20-fold and now in 2011, the planet holds 9 billion peoples, which represented more than half the world’s population are now urban dwellers. The present rate and scale of urbanization has continued to increase, generating problems in both urban and rural areas. India is set for enormous urbanization. As per Census of India, 2011, Out of 1210 million masses, the urban India holds habitat for 350 million populations, living in 7936 cities and towns and supported by 47 million plus cities. The unprecedented population growth and urbanizing forces are like giant tidal waves, driving the present and future levels of urbanization, particularly in developing countries, have clear linkages to the global greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. The global energy catastrophe coupled with the threats of climate change bring into sharp focus both opportunities and challenges for developing countries. Furthermore, have to tackle the increasing energy demands of growing economies, inclusive of global imperative to reduce carbon emissions to combat climate change. 

One type of localized climate change is that of the Urban Heat Island (UHI). Though Urban Heat Island and climate change are distinct phenomena, they are strongly interconnected and indivisible. The presence of elevated urban temperatures does not directly imply the global climate change occurrence, but, is a result of urban development. The mechanism that connects the UHI effect to global climate change is that of increased energy demand. Megacities of world are longing for new forms of urban development that implies the community to thrive in a sustainable living and working environment. This development path is a low energy, low carbon and generally a resource efficient one. Increasing energy efficiency is an important tool for mitigating climate change. The range of activities that directly contribute to GHG emissions such as transportation, energy generation and industrial production are associated with cities and their functioning. 

Having these knowledge in mind, urban system’s concept has been proposed to employ in this study to understand the complexity and dynamic behavior of existing scenario of the system. This research paper will explore from India’s perspectives, outline the prospects by developing synergies between urban energy, climate change and sustainable development to visualize their interactive dynamism. With the aforesaid knowledge, the authors have proposed an integrated planning approach to make an attempt to establish their functional linkages/causal relationships. Furthermore, the authors have proposed to examine the relevant policy instruments and planning tools towards the reduction of urban energy demand, with endeavor to develop a conceptualized framework which contributes to sustainable urban development. Finally, concluding with plausible recommendations/guidelines for achieving sustainable and energy efficient urban development for the megacities of India.

Keywords: Climate Change, Energy Efficiency, Integrated Planning Approach, Sustainable Urban Development, Urban Energy, Urban System, 

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Effect of Islamic Perception on Family Planning Practices
Hassan Raza a, Aysha Shiraz b, Rabia Zafar c
a,   Iqra University, Islamabad, Pakistan.
b, c  National Institute of Population Studies, Islamabad, Pakistan.

Volume 05, Issue 03, Pg. 85-98, 2012.

Abstract: It is common perception that religious beliefs are one of the major causes to reduce family planning practices. The current study attempts to analyze the effect of religious perception of general community and the role of religious leaders on family planning practices controlling for socio-economic and demographic variables. Data from National Institute of Population Studies was taken to conduct this study. The sample size was comprised of 2398 ever married men and women in which 1162 currently married women were taken as unit of analysis to conduct this study. For estimation, bi-variate analysis was performed in order to check one to one relationship with bi- level of significance. Due to the dichotomous nature of dependent variable, logistic regression was applied for multivariate analysis to check composed effect of predictors on response variable. The results revealed that although religion plays an important role in scheming attitudes of women for contraceptive practices but it is not statistically significant while the role of religious leaders is very important is molding women’s attitudes towards the use of contraceptives. Education of both husband and wife is considerable factor in relation to contraceptive practices. In addition, family planning practices are more common among urban women due to availability of health facilities, source of information and access to contraception while older women are more likely to use birth control methods. Media is also playing sufficient role to mobilize women about family planning programmes. 

Keywords: Contraception, Islamic perception, Logistic Regression

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Impacts of Family Planning Programmes on Fertility in Pakistan
Hassan Raza a, Babur Wasim Arif b 
a, Iqra University, Islamabad, Pakistan.
b Pakistan Bureau of Statistics, Islamabad, Pakistan.

Volume 05, Issue 03, Pg. 98-114, 2012.

Abstract: This study attempts to find out the impacts of family planning programmes, after controlling for, socio-economic and demographic variables on fertility in Pakistan. Cross-sectional data of about ten thousand ever married women of 15 to 49 years of age, collected through Pakistan Demographic and Health Survey (PDHS), is used for analysis. Moreover, to gauge comparative impact of these factors in different localities, rural and urban samples are analyzed separately.  The results of multinomial regression advocate that there is negative relation between the use of contraceptive methods and fertility. These results signify substantial importance of family planning programmes for reducing population growth. It is evident that increase in parents’ education brings fertility to lower side while son preference and unwanted births are more likely to increase fertility. In addition, wealth-status of women and number of visits of family health worker has also inverse effects on fertility level which is quite expected. Qualitatively similar results for rural and urban samples are observed. 

The study concludes that there is great need to strengthen family planning programmes and overcome weaknesses embodied in these programmes.  This can be achieved through mobilizing people in both urban and rural areas and especially the supply side needs to be more strengthened. Moreover, policies to provide family planning education to females need to be undertaken. This will sensitize and aware females about small family size before marriage and will help to change their attitudes toward family size in appropriate manner. Son preference can be resolved through empowering women and providing them more economic opportunities which will improve their social status within family and remove parents’ perception that only sons are breadwinner at home. Unwanted births can be controlled by providing comprehensive awareness about reproductive health and use of contraception while access to contraceptive methods is also very crucial to achieve this goal.  For this purpose, electronic media can play important role while family health workers need to be trained extensively and their services must be ensured in rural areas. 

Keywords: Fertility, Family Planning Programmes, OLS Regression

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Globalizing India: Need for Inclusive Sustainable Human Development
Guljit Kumar Arora a, Ashug Arora b
a Department of Economics, Bhim Rao Ambedkar College, University of Delhi, India.
b FMS, University of Delhi, India.

Volume 05, Issue 03, Pg. 116-128, 2012.

Abstract: India has registered a high rate of economic growth, about 7-8 per cent in the recent years; and the same is further projected for the next few decades.  After the adoption of liberalization, privatization and globalization (LPG) policies since 1991, India has also done well in areas such as foreign exchange accumulations, coping up international shocks, regulating stock markets, human resource development, and information and communication technologies. Nevertheless, the country exhibits high degree of socio-economic deprivation and exclusion with more than 302 million poor people, almost 46 per cent of the children below 3 years suffering from malnutrition, about 304 million illiterate persons, declining child sex ratio, and low level of human development reflected in HDI at 119 among 169 countries.  

In addition of the bewildering gender, income and rural-urban inequalities, poor social immobility and weak delivery systems of essential social services at the grass root level, the country witnesses slow agriculture growth with the informal sector characterized by low productivity and minimum skills employing about 90 per cent of workers, and mass corruption.  The other socio-political problems such as religious intolerance, riots, political-bureaucracy-business nexus etc. afflicting the common man as placed in the multi-lingual, multi-ethnic, multi-religious society of India and its economy structured on principles of the central planning and liberal federal political economy are equally serious.

Thus, the socio-economic transformation and human development in India is not commensurate with its growth profile, putting a question mark on the on-going development process. Seen in the current global development context arising out of climate change, rising international crimes, terrorism and finance crisis, and with the emergence of multi-lateral international institutions of governance, globalization offers both opportunities as well as the serious challenges to developing countries including India. 

There is a need and a sense of urgency to change to explore the development model which could raise the growth through sustainable means; reduce acute poverty and glaring inequalities, enhance human capability and provide basic social protection through means of social integration to the people living at the margin. Not just the faster growth, but the socio-economic development process which is sustainable and all inclusive, is required.  The path of inclusive sustainable human development (ISHD) though still difficult to measure, offers a potential development model. It will help to ensure equality of opportunity and empowerment by including several inter-related components such as, poverty reduction, employment creation, and access to education and health services while recognizing the role of good governance.  It also yields a broad-based improvement in the quality of life of all, especially the economically weaker sections of the society including the women living in remote areas of the country without compromising the needs of future generations. 

It is in this backdrop, ISHD model gains importance and deserves a detailed analysis in the Indian context.  The present paper  has four-fold objectives: (i) to review the social and economic progress in India as placed in the world development; (ii) to look into the conceptual framework of ISHD and the dynamics of interconnections of its different components in the context of a developing countries like India and the rapidly changing world; (iii) to critically analyze the socio-economic development of India in the framework of ISHD; and (iv) to draw some broad lessons out of the Indian experience for the other poorest countries struggling on the path of economic development.

Keywords: Globalization, India, Inclusive Growth, Poverty, Sustainable Human Development.     

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Sustainable Housing Retrofit Development using Wholelife Costing
David Oloke a,
School of Technology, University of Wolverhampton, Wolverhampton, WV1 1LY, UK. 

Volume 05, Issue 03, Pg. 130-140, 2012.

Abstract: Making existing buildings more sustainable involves a significant level of investment which more often than none, requires the consideration of a long-term view in terms of returns. Several options exist and whilst technology continues to improve the ability to conceptualise, design and implement these purported solutions, property owners and registered social landlords still require a means of assessing the cost implications from a whole life cycle point of view. Such solutions usually comprise of a combination of measures which seek to address: energy efficiency improvements, the use of environmentally friendly materials and procedures in addition to the retrofitting of components that can aid the principal objectives of energy performance, low carbon emissions and overall sustainability.

The ‘Eco-terrace’ project’s objective was to radically improve the energy performance of existing UK Victorian terrace properties and provide environmentally friendly, well designed, modern, desirable and energy efficient homes using principles that could be repeated on other properties of a similar nature. Six pre-1919 terraced properties in Chesterton, Newcastle under Lyme were radically re-modeled and refurbished to provide contemporary living accommodation to a very high energy efficient standard. The project achieved an ‘Excellent’ standard under the BRE ‘Eco-homes’ assessment, equivalent to UK Code for Sustainable Homes Level 4/5. Generally, the six properties, which are of differing size and layout, adhered to the following core principles: retention of the front elevation facades to preserve the appearance of the street scene; removal of the rear elevation ‘out-rigger’ extensions and relocation of the kitchen to the centre of the house and bathroom to the first floor; providing integrated ‘sun-space’ extensions, angled to make best use of the sun’s energy; as a result of removing the rear out-rigger extensions, create a larger and more usable rear garden and where access permits, provision of off-street parking; the use of glazed walls and doors to deliver natural light throughout the accommodation; focus on insulating the existing building fabric and ensuring a high degree of air tightness with an energy efficient ventilation strategy; and the avoidance short-lived technologies that may prove to be obsolete before the long-term benefit is realised.

All of the six properties had data loggers and individual circuit meters providing data on energy consumption, together with an occupant survey, capturing the qualitative data on what it is like to live in the properties. 

A wholelife costing study was commissioned by the projects managers in order to assess the rationale for the measures undertaken. Two of the six properties which had already been occupied provided the data for the wholelife costing assessment. Four options of assessment were defined as: do-nothing; carry out minimal upgrade; Eco Terrace design; and Code 4 Sustainable Homes design. A sensitivity analysis was thus conducted and this was aimed at demonstrating the effect of variability of energy costs on the various options considered. A financial model was subsequently created for each option and each model was populated with the project’s capital/maintenance/energy costs. Net Present Value (NPV) results were also computed in addition to carrying out a sensitivity analysis for energy variations over the life of the property.

With respect to the four options analysed, the Ecoterrace option had the most reasonable initial capital and maximum NPV (Lifecycle) costs. However, operating costs are at about the same level when comparing the Ecoterrace and Code 4 Sustainable Homes options. Nonetheless, the Ecoterrace option still demonstrated the best NPV (Lifecycle) costs when compared to the other options. The study therefore provided a platform for a justification assessment which can be enhanced with additional data acquisition and the consideration of other technologies or options via further research.

Keywords: Costing, Housing, Refurbishment, Sustainability, Wholelife

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