OIDA International Journal of Sustainable Development
Open access peer-reviewed journal
Study on the use of Environmentally Friendly Alternative Fiber materials for Asbestos Roofing sheets in Sri Lanka
Peiris, D. A. C. D. P. a, Weerasinghe, T. K. b
a Engineering Standardization Division, Sri Lanka Standards Institution,
No 17, Victoria Place, Elvitigala Mawatha, Colombo 08, Sri Lanka
b Center for Environmental Studies & Sustainable Development, The Open University of Sri Lanka,
Nawala, Nugegoda, Sri Lanka.
Volume 12, Issue 02, Pg. 11-18, 2019.
Abstract: International Programme on Chemical Safety (IPCS), 2011, reveals that all forms of asbestos pose a health hazard. According to WHO, 107,000 people die each year from asbestos related lung cancer, mesothelioma and asbestosis mainly due to occupational exposure. As such more than 50 countries have banned the use of asbestos fiber. Therefore, it is highly justifiable that Sri Lanka should ban the use of this product and should go for an alternative product to safeguard the future of the country.
While keeping with the policy of IPCS, Sri Lanka banned blue asbestos in 1997 and allowed white asbestos to be used mainly for the production of roofing sheets. Recently, the Sri Lankan government had taken a decision to gradually reduce the import of asbestos fiber from year 2018 and to totally ban the use of asbestos in 2020. Many products that once contained asbestos are now being manufactured with natural and synthetic fibers.
The objective of this study is to find out an environmentally friendly alternative fiber material available in Sri Lanka for manufacturing of non-asbestos roofing sheets. During the study, asbestos fiber was replaced by alternative cellulose fiber materials found in Sri Lanka such as rice husk, paper pulp, coir fiber and coconut charcoal.
Breaking load, apparent density, water absorption, water permeability, visual inspection & weights of the sheets were tested for all fiber types & compared with both asbestos fiber and non –asbestos fiber standards to check the feasibility of the use of alternative asbestos fiber.
Both parameters of water permeability and visual inspection were complied with International Organization for Standardization, ISO 10904: 2011 as well as Bureau of Indian Standards, IS 14871: 2000 for all fiber types. The results of water absorption of all fiber types showed less than 25% of the dry mass and complied with Sri Lanka Standard Institution, SLS 9-2: 2001 for asbestos corrugated sheet. The weight of non-asbestos sheets was within the limit between 14 kg to 18 kg for the sheet size (1.0×0.9) m × 8.5 mm which is reasonably an acceptable weight for a roofing sheet. Test results of density of all fiber types are well within the limit of Sri Lanka Standard Institution, SLS 9-2: 2001.The breaking load of rice husk sample was 694 N/m which is compatible with International Organization for Standardization, ISO 10904: 2011 standard. The breaking load of four samples out of five samples also complied with both ISO 10904: 2011 & IS 14871: 2000.
Based on the results obtained and comparing with standards, rice husk could be considered as the best alternative fiber material in the production of roofing sheets. Paper pulp sample also marginally complied with both ISO 10904: 2011 & IS 14871: 2000.
Keywords: Asbestos fiber, breaking load, Rice husk, Coconut charcoal, Coir fiber and Paper pulp
Socio-Economic Determinants of Rural Household Food Expenditure: A Quantile Regression Analysis
Sotsha a,K. Rambau b, T. Khoza c, V. Mmbengwa d , S. Ngqangweni e
a,b,c,d,e, National Agricultural Marketing Council (NAMC),
Private Bag X935, Pretoria, 0001, Republic of South Africa.
Volume 12, Issue 02, pg. 19-26, 2019.
Abstract: This paper provides an analysis of factors that influence rural household expenditure on food using a quantile regression analysis. The objective was to investigate if there are any relationships to discern between household expenditure on food and a number of other socio-economic factors in addition to household income and household size as stipulated in Engel’s law. The results indicate that indeed there are relationships that could be discerned between household food expenditure and gender, education, occupation, household income, number of people depending on household income, gender distribution by age groups and number of livestock sales per annum. However, household income has a relatively smaller effect in magnitude as compared to the rest of these factors. Furthermore, the results show that the relationships differ along the quantiles. In other words, some factors had a significant and higher effect in the lower quantile compared to the higher quantile. On the basis of such results, the study suggests that tailor-made interventions should be considered in the development initiatives that are targeting rural households as different factors affect these households differently.
Keywords: Socio-economic, household, decision making, food expenditure.
A Post-mortem of the Progress and Problems of achieving Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) in Ghana: Perspectives of the Ada East local government managers
Emmanuel Kojo Sakyi
University of Ghana Business School, College of Humanities, Accra, Ghana.
Volume 12, Issue 02, Pg. 27-40, 2019.
Abstract: This paper examined progress toward the achievements of the MDGs in the Dangme East District administration in Ghana with focus on reducing poverty, primary education, infant and maternal mortality, sanitation and safe drinking water and environmental sustainability. Data were collected through Focus Group Discussions (FGDs) and in-depth key informant interviews (IDIs) with purposively selected individuals from the district administration, district officials of the education and health administrations and community/opinion leaders in the Dangme East District administration. The key factors facilitating the attainment of the MDG 1 included the resource endowment of the district and the aggressive pro-poor social interventions launched by the central government and the assembly. Factors identified as hindering the attainment of MDG 1 is high rate of illiteracy. The number of school going children in attendance in primary schools (MDG2) has seen an improvement compared to the past records. Central government interventions have facilitated a significant reduction in infant and maternal mortality in the district hence the progress towards the MDGs 4 and 5; with a significant decrease in infant and maternal mortality from 1,282 in 2006 to 97 in 2012. Significant progress has also been made with the provision of sanitation and safe drinking water; however, progress has been very slow due to attitudinal and behavioural problems. In conclusion, the situation of poverty (MDG1) is improving. The MDG2 have seen tremendous improvement. The gains made in regard to MDGs 4 and 5 within the district were as well encouraging, whereas increase access to sanitation and safe drinking water (MDG7) has been very slow due to bad attitude and behaviour of the citizenry. The study recommended an increase in public awareness about the MDGs and increase government interventions throughout the district.
Keywords: MDGs, Ghana, local government, Ada East District administration
A Study of Energy-Related Greenhouse Gas Emissions of High Income Urban Residents in the city of Accra, Ghana
Jennifer Mantey a, Emmanuel Kojo Sakyi b
a Climate Change and Sustainable Development Programme, Department of Public Administration and Health Services Management, University of Ghana. Accra, Ghana.
b Business School, College of Humanities, University of Ghana, Legon, Accra, Ghana.
Volume 12, Issue 02, Pg. 41-60, 2019.
Abstract: The objective of this study was to examine the energy-related Greenhouse Gas emissions (GHG) of high-income suburban residents of the city of Accra in Ghana based on the perspectives of residents of Devtraco Estates. Activity data was gathered and default emission factors from the IPCC 2006 GHG Inventory Guidelines were employed to calculate emissions. A survey was conducted for 60 randomly selected households of Riverdale Cluster at Devtraco Estates, with a response rate of 42% (n=25) to assess activity data. The results were that: the average mobile combustion emission was calculated as 0.001516 Gg CO2e, average stationary energy combustion emission was calculated as 0.0003666 Gg CO2e. Based on fuel combustion alone, the average household combustion GHG emission was determined as 0.00287446 Gg CO2e. The study conclusions were that residents who are aware of climate change had higher emissions than those who were unaware of climate change. And, households with higher income presented higher GHG emissions, and also households that used generators frequently had strikingly higher emissions than those who did not. The study participants recommended that national and local government authorities in Accra and other cities in Ghana would have to consider investing heavily in climate change and GHG awareness programs and improve upon the current urban public transportation systems and consider alternative energy sources to ensure a cleaner air and sustainable options for our cities.
Keywords: Energy, Greenhouse Gas Emissions, High-income, Urban Residents, Accra, Ghana