OIDA International Journal of Sustainable Development
Open access peer-reviewed journal
Socio-Economic Rights For Sustainable Development In Malaysia: Lessons From Selected African Countries’ Constitutions
Abdulfatai O. Sambo a , Abdulkadir B. Abdulkadir b
a, b Ahmad Ibrahim Faculty of Law, International Islamic University Malaysia, Post Graduate Unit, AIKOL,Gombak, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.
Volume 03, Issue 09, Pg. 12-27, 2011.
Abstract: Malaysia has made considerable impacts in nation-building, in developing its economy and in improving the quality of life of its people. Since Independence, real gross domestic product (GDP) has grown by an average of 6.5 per cent per annum during 1957 to 2009, one of the highest growth rates achieved by sovereign nations of similar age and size. Within the same period, GDP per capita in current prices grew by 7.0 per cent per annum, which has translated into substantial improvements in the people’s quality of life. Extensive advances were made in education, health, infrastructure and industry. Sustaining socio-economic development in Malaysia requires the inclusion of adequate socio-economic rights in its Constitution and the justiciablity of those rights. The socio economic rights provided in the Malaysian Constitution are grossly inadequate and Malaysia needs to learn more from Selected African Countries’ Constitutions such as South Africa, Nigeria and Ghana. The paper is therefore divided into five parts. The first part introduces the topic and sets the tone of the paper. The second part examines the meaning of socio-economic rights and sustainable development. The third part examines the inadequacy of socio economic rights provided for under the Malaysian Constitution and the issue of justiciablity, the fourth part examines socio-economic rights in South Africa, Nigeria and Ghana and the issue of justiciablity. The last part concludes the paper and makes a number of recommendations stating the lessons to be learnt from the selected African Countries Constitutions and stressing the need for adequate inclusion of socio-economic rights in the Malaysian Constitution.
Keywords: Constitution, Human rights, Justifiability, Socio economic rights, Sustainable development
UTME and POST-UTME as Predictors of Students’ Academic Performance in Chemistry in Nigerian Universities
E.B. Kolawole a, I.O. Oginni b E.O. Fayomi c
a Institute of Education, Faculty of Education, University of Ado-Ekiti, Ekiti State, Nigeria.
b Institute of Science and Technology Education, University of Science and Technology, Ifaki-Ekiti State, Nigeria.
c Department of Science, Ora Community Senior High School, Ora-Ekiti, Ekiti State, Nigeria.
Volume 03, Issue 09, Pg. 23-29, 2011.
Abstract: The paper examined Universal Tertiary Matriculation Examination UTME and Post Universal Tertiary Matriculation Examination POST-UTME as predictors of students’ academic performance in chemistry in Nigerian universities. It also found out the relationship and effectiveness of UTME and post UTME results in predicting chemistry students’ academic performance in universities. Ex-post facto design was adopted, since the data collected were already available without any manipulations. The instruments for the study were obtain from the records of UTME and post – UTME scores of chemistry students admitted during 2004-2005/2005-2006/2006-2007 academic session, This record contained all the cumulative grade points average (CGPA) of all the sampled students in chemistry. The findings revealed that there was very low significant relationship between the UTME scores and all levels CGPA in chemistry. Recommendations was therefore made that the improvement in the capacity building particularly Post UTME should continue to serve as moderation yardstick for possible errors committed requirement to the university.
Keywords: UTME, POST UTME, Predictors, Academic Performance, Universities.
Hospital Waste Management: Bangladesh
Tarannum Dana a
a Department of Population Science, Social Science Faculty, University of Dhaka, Bangladesh.
Volume 03, Issue 09, Pg. 29-43, 2011.
Abstract: Hospital waste is infectious and hazardous which poses serious threats to environmental health and requires specific treatment and management prior to its final disposal. Appropriate and safe management of healthcare waste is acknowledged globally. WHO and Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) have emphasised the need to handle and dispose of hospital waste from the healthcare establishments in proper ways. City Corporations are responsible for solid waste management in the country. However the collection of the waste is often irregular, leading to unsanitary conditions near the primary collection points. Many towns do not have the capacity to collect all the waste, and often proper sanitary disposal is problematic. In Bangladesh hospital waste management is growing with an ever-increasing number of hospitals, clinics, and diagnostic laboratories especially in Dhaka City. Thus healthcare waste management is neglected and it falls under the auspices of the local municipal bodies which are responsible for the collection, removal and disposal of different kinds of wastes from public places. This paper aims to discover and understand the current situation of healthcare waste management that includes waste handling, collection and disposal as well as the knowledge and awareness level of individuals involved in healthcare. Furthermore, the paper also explores alternative options for the management of hospital wastes that is environmentally friendly. Research on this critical issue has been very limited, and there is a serious shortage of information which is essentials for strategic for planning.
Keywords: collection, disposal, hospital waste, management, segregation, treatment
Toward Sustainable Economic Development: From “Metropolis” to “Oligopolies” through Integrated New Economic Activities
Tamer Abdel Aziz a
a Architecture Department, Cairo University, Giza, Egypt.
a General Organization for Physical Planning (GOPP), Cairo, Egypt.
Volume 03, Issue 09, Pg. 42-54, 2011.
Abstract: While many definitions of the term “sustainability “ have been introduced over the years, the most commonly cited definition states that sustainable development is development that “meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs”. And one of the field of Sustainable Development (SD) is the economic sustainability,which is a collection of methods to create and sustain development which seeks to relieve poverty, create equitable standards of living, satisfy the basic needs of all peoples and produce Sustainable Economic growth. Nowadays developing countries is facing a great problem in their economic development and finding a new job opportunities. And this paper will focus on how developing countries can achieve sustainable economic development on regional level through new urbanization; and to be transformed from metropolitan cities to oligopolies cities.
First part will represent a literature view on the “New Urbanisation” principles then the “Oligopolies” theory which is one of the most important theories that shows the different development paths of the cities of the world from local centers to Oligopolies cities. Then the paper will give an Internatinal examples for the “New Economic Activities” which are not depending on just natural resources and to make diversities in the Economic bases.
And finally it will study the way of how these “New Economies” can be integrated together on Regional and International levels to help in competing on the global levels to be Oligopolies, and to increase their GDP and minimize the unemployment rate to achieve Economic sustainable development as this will be one of the gates for sustainable cities.
Keywords: Oligopolies, Sustainable Economic development, New Economies Activities, New Urbanization, World Power Poles.
Factors Influencing the use of Good Quality Improved Rice Seed in Nigeria: Implication for Sustainable Rice productivity
Bola Amoke Awotide a, Taiwo Timothy Awoyemi b, Aliou Diagne c
a, b, Department of Agricultural Economics, University of Ibadan, Nigeria.
c Africa Rice Centre, Cotonou, Benin Republic.
Volume 03, Issue 09, Pg. 54-70, 2011.
Abstract: Good quality seed has the potential to generate increase in rice yield and make Nigeria self-sufficient in rice production. However, farmers’ access to this seed is a function of many factors that has not been well documented in Nigeria. This study identified some factors that influenced the probability and intensity of adoption of improved rice variety in Nigeria, using double hurdle model. A multistage random sampling procedure was employed to select 600 rice farming households across the three prominent rice producing ecologies in Nigeria. The results that emanated from the analyses showed that age, secondary activity, cost of seed, distance to the nearest seed source negatively and significantly influenced the probability of a farmer adopting at least one improved rice variety in the study area and the intensity of adoption. While household size, membership of organization, house ownership, income from other crop production and experience in lowland rice production positively and significantly influenced both. The result of the marginal effects also showed that an additional increase in income from other crop production increases the probability of adoption by 25.0 per cent and intensity of adoption by 39.0 per cent. While an additional year to the age of the farmer reduces the area cultivated to improved rice varieties by 1.6 per cent. Therefore to achieve a sustainable increase in rice production, adoption enhancing information should be targeted at the younger farmers. Also farmers should be encouraged to diversity crop production to boost household income. Finally, improved rice seed varieties should be made available within the rural areas at an affordable cost.
Keywords: adoption, improved rice, farmers, double hurdle, Nigeria
The Legal Feasibility of Imposing Shipping Controls in Straits Used for International Navigation: A Study of the Straits of Malacca and Singapore
Mohd Hazmi bin Mohd Rusli a
a Australian National Centre for Ocean Resources and Security (ANCORS), University of Wollongong, Australia.
Volume 03, Issue 09, Pg. 69-84, 2011.
Abstract: The Straits of Malacca and Singapore are two of the most significant straits for international shipping activities. The navigational regime of foreign vessels in the Straits of Malacca and Singapore is governed by Part III of the LOSC. It prescribes that vessels and aircraft of all flags may exercise the unimpeded right of transit passage while navigating through straits used for international navigation. With the projected steady increase of navigational traffic through the Straits of Malacca and Singapore each year, this situation would eventually create intricate situations for the littoral States of Malaysia, Indonesia and Singapore particularly in protecting the marine environment of the Straits from vessel-source pollution. The Straits are currently facing many environmental problems as a result of heavy shipping activities. This article examines the current issues pertaining to marine pollution that is affecting the well-being of the marine environment of the Straits of Malacca and Singapore. This article also discusses the current as well as the potential future environmental protection measures that the littoral States could consider resorting to, and the possible legal consequences as a result of the implementation of such measures. This article concludes by suggesting ways and proposals to achieve environmental sustainability in the Straits of Malacca and Singapore.
Keywords: Environmental Sustainability, Law of the Sea, Marine Environment, Straits of Malacca and Singapore
Application of Coconut Fiber in Cement Block Industry
G.A.P Gampathi a
a Department of Civil Engineering , PNG University of Technology , PMB , Lae,
Morobe Province , Papua New Guinea.
Volume 03, Issue 09, Pg. 84-90, 2011.
Abstract: In the recent times, seismic effects have become major governing factor in analysis, design and construction of structures in Papua New Guinea. This is mainly due to the occurrence of severe earthquakes in the region. As to the current construction practices, most of the earthquake resistive structures are designed with cement hollow block providing require reinforcements. However, this construction method is very expensive and not affordable for middle class families. Therefore, an experiment was carried out by author to find out the suitability of coconut fiber application in cement hollow block work. The experimental study was focused to apply coir fiber to enhance the shear strength of cement hollow block as a cost effective and sustainable practical solution.
The results presented in this paper on the basis of the results of the testing about 40 cement hollow blocks carried out by the author for various percentages of coir fiber by cement weight . It can be seen from the experimental result that shear strength of cement hollow block can be increased by 40 % with addition of 3 % coconut fiber by cement weight to cement hollow blocks mixture. Therefore using coir fiber reinforced cement hollow block instead of normal cement hollow block; required steel quantity can be reduced. Hence overall construction cost of earthquake resistive walls can be reduced.
Keywords: Cement hollow block, Coir fiber, Earthquake, Seismic effects, Sustainable
Impact of the Private Healthcare Facilities and Services Act 1998 (Act 586) & Regulations 2006 on the medical practice in corporate private hospitals in Malaysia
Nik Rosnah Wan Abdullah a, Lee Kwee-Heng b
a Tun Abdul Razak School of Government, Universiti Tun Abdul Razak, Malaysia.
b Public Administration & Political Studies, Faculty of Economics and Administration,
University of Malaya, Malaysia.
Volume 03, Issue 09, Pg. 89-108, 2011.
Abstract: This is a preliminary study which examines the impact of the “Private Healthcare Facilities and Services Act 1998 (Act 586) & Regulations 2006 (PHFA)” on the medical practice in the corporate private hospitals (for profit) in Malaysia since its implementation with effect from 1st May, 2006. This historical Act 586 regulates all private healthcare facilities and services for the first time in the country after 35 years replacing the Private Hospitals Act 1971. The rapid development of corporate private hospitals from the mid-1980s, which was in line with the “Malaysia Incorporated” concept had led to an unprecedented growth of corporate private hospitals, the repercussions of which, had wide social economic implications in the health care sector which resulted in inequitable medical and health resources, and in some resulted in poorer quality of care. It is not uncommon to hear negative media reports of unethical practice in the management of some of these private healthcare facilities: questionable hospitals’ charges and padded bills; emergency services denied due to economic reasons, unreported assessable deaths, are some of the major concerns to policy makers. Further, it has been reported that professional medical indemnity and incident reports as a result of adverse events, medical errors and negligence in private hospitals are on the rise. Recognising the urgent need to address these issues of accessibility, equity, and quality care under a new regulatory framework, the Malaysian Government stated explicitly the intention of the government that it would gradually reduce its role in the provision of health services and increase its regulatory and enforcement functions in the Seventh Malaysia Plan (1996-2000), the government’s five-year development plans, and gazetted a comprehensive legislation, Private Healthcare Facilities and Services Act 1998 (Act 586) which was implemented in May, 2006. This study takes a close look at the regulation at work on ten study hospitals in the Klang Valley. The research methodology is designed by utilizing case studies and employs exploratory qualitative approach using key informant perception interviews and personal communications to obtain the relevant data. The research design encompasses two levels of studies, one at the corporate private hospitals sector as the regulatees and the other level at the Ministry of Health, Malaysia as the regulatory principal authority. Using the agency theoretical framework, the study examines whether the regulatory intervention have the desired effect on the behaviour of both the regulator and regulatees, and whether regulatory intervention achieve the Government’s stated objectives of accessibility, equity and quality care. The empirical findings among others indicate that full compliance to the provisions of the Act 586 and its regulations remains a challenge in the corporate private hospitals. On the other hand, while the Act 586 provides the enforcement capacity, the Ministry of Health Malaysia, as the regulatory body appears to be constrained with the insufficient human resources and information capacity. Faced with this challenge, the regulatory body seems to adopt a cautious and a non-controversial approach of “row less but steer more” in its role in driving the private health sector.
Keyword: Healthcare, private hospitals, regulations, Malaysia.