Volume 03 Issue 07

OIDA International Journal of Sustainable Development
Open access peer-reviewed journal

Total Factor Productivity in the Colombian Manufacturing Industry
Raúl A. Chamorro-Narváez a
a Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Carrera, Edificio, Bogota, Colombia.

Volume 03, Issue 07, Pg. 11-21, 2012.

Abstract: The purpose of the paper is to measure and to analyze total factor productivity –TFP- growth in the Colombian manufacturing industry over the period 1985-2007. During this period, specifically from the early 90s, Colombia applied several policy actions aiming at increasing trade openness of its economy. Thus, it is possible to analyze performance of several subsectors of the Colombian manufacturing industry before and after trade liberalization. TFP growth is measured by using Harberger’s Two-Deflator Method, whose main characteristic is that although it is a robust method, is not difficult to use, and the amount of data needed for calculations is easier to handle with, compared with traditional methods. The results of the paper show that manufacturing productivity was higher after the trade liberalization process was largely consolidated. 

Keywords: Productivity, Policy actions, liberalizations, total factor productivity

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Public Perception of The Ethical Aspects of Cross-Species Gene Transfers in Animals
Latifah Amin a, Mohd Hanafy Gausmian b , Nik Marzuki Sidik c 
a Centre for General Studies, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Malaysia. 
 b, c Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Malaysia. 

Volume 03, Issue 07, Pg. 22-30, 2012.

Abstract: The purpose of this paper is to examine the ethical perception of modern biotechnology in general and several cross-species gene transfers in animals among the Malaysian public. Results from the survey on 434 stakeholders showed that the respondents did not perceived modern biotechnology as very threatening to the natural order of things and recognized the high promise that modern biotechnology could provide to society.  However they also stressed that human does not have the absolute rights to modify living things and perceived modern biotechnology in general as moderately risky, have moderate confidence on biotechnology regulation and stressed the high need for proper labeling of modern biotechnology products. The stakeholders also claimed that they were not very familiar with the four biotechnology applications surveyed. Animal to animal gene transfers were perceived as more beneficial, less risky and more acceptable compared to the transfers of human or synthetic human genes into animals. 

Keywords: Cross-species gene transfer, Ethical aspects, Malaysia,  Modern biotechnology, Perception

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A Study on Critical Contribution of ‘Free Customer’ on the Survivability of International Hypermarket in Malaysia: A Geographical Information System Approach
Abdul Manaf Bohari a, Ruslan Rainis b, Malliga Marimuthu c
a,b GIS Laboratory, Geography Section, School of Humanities, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Malaysia.
c GIS Laboratory, Geography Section, School of Management, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Malaysia.

Volume 03, Issue 07, Pg. 30-39, 2012.

Abstract: Traditionally, the hypermarket business have been used inventively customer database as platform for estimate their survivability by counting contribution of customer based on profits. In Fact, the hypermarkets have used some traditional model, as such customer lifetime value model, strategically as a baseline for understand and analyzing the profitability of each customer according to their spending and purchasing activities. However, the hypermarket has missing some segment of customer which has potential to contribute to their profits. Therefore, the ‘free customer’ segment is a traditional challenge for the hypermarket where the hypermarket has not alert and lacks many details about them. In fact, ‘free customer’ also identified as non-database customer, is totally free from hypermarket estimation of profitability, where information about them has not available in any database of hypermarket or organization. As consequences, this category of customer always neglects and un-accesses of their contribution although they have potentially affect the future prospect and survivability of the business. The study is aimed to analyze the critical contribution of ‘free customer’ to the survivability of International hypermarket business. Secondly, the study is aimed to modelling the location of each ‘free customer’ which potentially used as a baseline for estimated the contribution of each ‘free customer’ in term of spending and purchasing activities. The main method used is geographical information system, functionally in compose, establish and integrated the data of ‘free customer’ with exiting spatial data as well as hypermarket, residential area, village and so on. Meanwhile, the marketplace of Seberang Perai Tengah of Pulau Pinang, Malaysia was selected as location of study that be modelling as the marketplace of International Hypermarket. For visualized this model, a sample of ‘free customer’ will be collect by followed some procedures and tested into the model. At the end, suggestion will be made for enhanced the capability of geographical information system approach for mapping the location of ‘free customer’ as well as for visualized contribution of each free customer that will be indicated the future survivability of the hypermarket business. This study has contributes in term of visualized the critical contribution of ‘free customer’ by using geographical based model which is something new to the industry and current research.

Keywords: Critical Contribution, ‘Free Customer’, Geographical Information System, Approach Survivability, International Hypermarket, Malaysia, 

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Fresh Food Product as a Strategy of Sustaining the Hypermarket Lifetime Value: An Evident from Survey and Un-Structured Interview’s Session
Abdul Manaf Bohari a, Ruslan Rainis b, Malliga Marimuthu c
a,b GIS Laboratory, Geography Section, School of Humanities, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Malaysia.
c GIS Laboratory, Geography Section, School of Management, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Malaysia.

Volume 03, Issue 07, Pg. 40-48, 2012.

Abstract: In the rapidly changing of Malaysia hypermarkets business, a retailer’s Fresh Food offer is one of the most critical success factors, as well as a key competitive differentiator. Fresh Food product are the critical store visits and shopping frequency drivers that attract consumers to repeat shopping activities as well as create additional opportunities for retailers to engage with their customers in other grocery categories. Over the recent years, the revenue that generated from of Fresh Food section of hypermarket has been quite stable, which are permissions positive growth, both current and future prospect of the business. In context of hypermarket, they have faces double challenges of keeping more consumers supplied, as well as sustaining contribution of each customer especially in long term prospect. However, in context of customer, they have unique taste, unpredictable demand, and variations in selects types of Fresh Food product as well as satisfying their rapidly changing tastes and preferences. The objective of this paper is to identify the types of Fresh Food that influence the consumer to repurchase and spending consistently on the monthly basic. Secondly, this paper is aimed to explore the potential used of Fresh Food as a strategy of sustaining the hypermarket lifetime value as well as long lasting the contributions of customers on the hypermarket revenue. The method used is a combination of survey and un-structured interview, meanwhile hypermarket business in Penang of Malaysia is selected as location of the study. In general, the results show that some category of Fresh Food product has potential to derive the profitability of hypermarket on the monthly basic. In term of strategy formulation, Fresh Food product can be integrated with some marketing strategy as well as adopted in marketing and customer relationship programs. Furthermore, Fresh Food product with a higher consumer demand has higher revenue for the hypermarket as well as indicated the lifetime value of the business. At the and, suggestion will be made on how to strengthening the capability of Fresh Food usage in spurs the lifetime value of hypermarket as well as attracts huge number of customer to repurchase and revisited the hypermarket in future.

Keywords: Fresh Food Product, Hypermarket Lifetime Value, Strategy of Sustaining

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Rule of Law, Physical Planning and Urban Governance in Nigeria: A Panacea to Sustainable Urban Development
Ganiyu Olalekan Bakare a
a Department of Urban and Regional Planning, Faculty of Environmental Studies, 
Rufus Giwa Polytechnic, Owo, Ondo State, Nigeria. 

Volume 03, Issue 07, Pg. 48-55, 2012.

Abstract: Nigeria as a nation is presently being faced with numerous problems emanating from lack of rule of law, so also the challenges of building an enduring and sustainable democracy that has become a hard nut to crack. For a just and fair society to be achieved, it must be built on credible political institutions worthy of sustaining our towns and cities, which must allow democratic values to deepen in such a way that, rule of law and due process will replace rule of force and arbitrariness, that has become so endemic in Nigerian system and refuses to be relegated to the background. However the fledging civilian to civilian rule and urban good governance will depend largely on the extent to which both the leaders and the led are able to operate under the tenet of human rights and due process as opposed to regime of arbitrariness, lawlessness, corruption and graft, that has continue to earns the country a pronounced position in the comity of backward and corrupt nations of the world. This paper intends to chronicle the, relevance and essentials of rule of law to physical planning and urban good governance in Nigeria, basically to ensure strict compliance of rule of law as it affect physical planning in Nigerian towns and cities, while at the same time, ensure that nobody lives above the law, in other to protect the orderly development of the physical environment according to stipulated planning rules and regulations, and how to deal with urban physical planning challenges in future, because continuous successive good governance is a panacea to strengthen the compliance, and enforcement of sustainable physical urban development. 

Keywords: Rule of Law, Good Urban Governance, Public Participation, Physical Planning and Sustainable Urban Development.

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Land Ownership and Sustainable Resource Management: Lessons from the Protected Area Management 
of Mount Pulag National Park, Philippines
Doreen Ingosan Allasiw a
a Department of Agriculture, BPI Compound, Guisad, Baguio City, Philippines.

Volume 03, Issue 07, Pg. 56-62, 2012.

Abstract: Mt. Pulag National Park is the second highest mountain in the Philippines rising to 2,922 meters above sea level and covering a total area of 11,500 hectares, deemed as the watershed cradle of Northern Philippines; it supplies irrigation to the main rice producing provinces of the country. Furthermore, Mt. Pulag is hailed as the last frontier of mossy forest in the Philippines. It is also the home of two groups of indigenous peoples called the Ibaloi and Kalanguya. 

In 1992, the implementation of the National Integrated and Protected Areas System (NIPAS) Act provided for the establishment and management of protected areas in the Philippines. This law served as the legal basis for in situ conservation of biological diversity through the appropriate management of ecologically important areas for conservation and sustainable development. 

Unfortunately, in the area around Mt. Pulag National Park, the enactment of NIPAS renewed the resentment of the indigenous residents to the state, which dates way back to the colonial times. According to the local people, the state merely treated the place as a resource base without any regard to the peoples’ sentiments. The initial declaration of Mt. Pulag as a national park itself, in 1989, was deemed prejudiced by the local inhabitants of the area. Thus, re-affirming its status as a protected area thru the NIPAS act was like pouring salt to an open wound. 

This paper centers on the effects of the establishment of Mt. Pulag as a national park and afterwards the enactment of the NIPAS law to the way the local people managed the forest resources. Through the comparison of the peoples’ behavior before and after the protected area status, this paper aims to draw lessons on how to better manage national parks in order to achieve sustainability of resources without withholding development opportunities for the locals living within and around the protected area. 

Keywords: indigenous people, national park, protected area management, sustainable development, sustainable resource management

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Conceptualization of the Development STS Materials
Marwan M. A. Abualrob a
a Department of Education, Faculty of Arts and Sciences, Arab American University, Jenin, West Bank, Palestine.

Volume 03, Issue 07, Pg. 62-77, 2012.

Abstract: This study presented the conceptualization of Development Materials (STS module), which was part of a bigger study to establish a science, technology and society (STS) foundation in the Ninth Grade Science curriculum in Palestine. It was discussed the STS approach and constructivism, followed by a discussion of constructivism and instructional design. It was then described the instructional design models used as a guide in developing the STS teaching and learning materials (modules) in this study. Furthermore, this study discussed the formative and summative evaluation carried out in this developmental research and the appropriate methods employed for the formative and summative evaluation. Some essential features and criteria of high-quality teaching and learning materials and the process of material development were also discussed.  Finally, this study discussed the conceptual framework of the Development Materials (STS module).

Keywords: Science, technology, and Society (STS), Constructivism, Instructional Design; STS Materials

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Secondary School Students’ Energy Literacy: Effect of Gender and School Location
Lay Yoon Fah a, Khoo Chwee Hoon b , Elyna Tony Munting c , Collins Andrew Chong d
a School of Education and Social Development, Universiti Malaysia Sabah, Malaysia.
b Science and Mathematics Department, Teacher Education Institute- Kent Campus, Tuaran, Sabah, Malaysia.
C SMK. Apin-Apin, Keningau, Sabah, Malaysia.
d SM. St. Michael, Penampang, Sabah, Malaysia. 

Volume 03, Issue 07, Pg. 76-87, 2012.

Abstract: Energy is the “underlying currency that governs everything humans do with each other and with the natural environment that supports them.” Our reliance on energy-rich sources of fossil fuels has created the underpinnings of modern society, enabling mobility, industrial growth, domestic comfort, unprecedented lavish food supply, and economic prosperity. As we move into a future with limited fossil fuels resources and worsening environmental conditions, our society is faced with defining new directions with respect to energy consumption, resources, and independence. Energy literacy encompasses three dimensions: Content knowledge (cognitive), sensitivity and attitude (affective); and intentions/behaviours. An informed, energy-literate public is more likely to be engaged in the decision making process, and will be better equipped to make thoughtful, responsible energy-related decisions, choices, and actions. Unfortunately, a number of studies have shown that people are generally ill-prepared to actively contribute to solving our energy problems, largely because they lack energy-related knowledge and awareness. Hence, the primary purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of gender and school location of secondary school students on their energy literacy. The secondary purpose is to investigate if there is a correlation among the afore-mentioned components of energy literacy. The ultimate goal of this study is to investigate the contribution of students’ energy-related knowledge and attitudes on their energy-related behaviors. This was a non-experimental quantitative research. Sample survey method was used to collect data by using ‘Energy Literacy Questionnaire’. Independent samples t-test, Pearson product-moment correlation, and multiple linear regression were used to test the stated null hypotheses at a predetermined significance level, alpha = .05. A broad and efficient measure of energy literacy for secondary school students may prove useful for determining baseline energy literacy levels among groups of students, as well as to assess the effectiveness of energy education programmes for improving energy literacy. Such assessment would provide valuable programmes feedback, enabling greater strides toward better educational programmes, wider implementation of these programmes in our classrooms, and improved energy literacy.

Keywords: Energy literacy, Energy-related Attitudes, Energy-related Behaviors, Energy-related Knowledge, Gender, School location, Secondary school students

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Enhancing Critical Thinking Skills Through Online Tools: A Case Of Teacher Trainees
Soon-Yin Tan a
a The Teacher Training Institute, TuankuBainun Campus, Bukit Mertajam, Penang, Malaysia.

Volume 03, Issue 07, Pg. 88-100, 2012.

Abstract: While the value and importance of critical thinking is without doubt, the challenge for instructors actually lies in enhancing the students’ critical thinking skills within the confines of a traditional classroom.The challenge appears to be even greater in Asian countries as Asian students are said to have shown deficiency in the ability to think critically (Kumaravadivelu 2003). Technological advances and the availability of a wide array of teaching resources in the Internet, however, have opened up exciting and innovative instructional techniques that may be used to overcome student passiveness and enhance critical thinking skills. This paper reports some findings of a project that attempts to enhance students’ critical thinking skills among a group of 20 teacher trainees in Malaysia, through the use of Intel Thinking Tools, namely, the Visual Ranking Tool, Seeing Reason Tool and also Showing Evidence Tools, which have been developed and made available by Intel Corporation.  It looks at the ability of these tools to encourage participation and enhance critical thinking in higher education. It also highlights some important lessons learned in the integration of such tools which might shed light to potential users of these tools. The study reveals that the use of these online thinking tools results in an  increase in the trainees’ critical thinking ability in completing their assignments. 

Keywords: online thinking tools, Intel, critical thinking skills, teacher trainees

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