Volume 03 Issue 05

OIDA International Journal of Sustainable Development
Open access peer-reviewed journal

The Barriers That Hinder The Success Of Women Entrepreneurs In Gauteng, South Africa
Ayisha Akhalwaya a , Werner Havenga b
a, b Department of Industrial Psychology and People Management, Faculty of Management, 
University of Johannesburg, South Africa.

Volume 03, Issue 05, Pg. 11-29, 2012.

Abstract: Women entrepreneurs in South Africa play a critical and important role in the economy of the country with regards to income and employment creation.  Women have gained tremendously from national liberation and the disassembling of apartheid and have strategically advanced their rights and interests in society, yet they still face enormous barriers and are still discriminated and stereotyped.  Although women account for more than half the population, they are limited from the formal business environment.  Their contribution in business is mainly located in areas of crafts, hawking, personal services and retail sectors.  Access to finance; the regulatory environment; developmental opportunities; cultural and societal values; education and training; and family responsibility are the major challenges facing women entrepreneurs.  Even though the above barriers are a challenge, women entrepreneurs have success factors which motivate them to continue with their businesses which include: profitability; social recognition; consumer satisfaction; diversification; flexibility; personal freedom; and security. Several studies around the world have shed light on challenges faced by women entrepreneurs but not much research has been conducted on the success factors that inspire women to remain in business.  This study identifies the barriers and the success factors of women entrepreneurs in Gauteng, South Africa.  One hundred and forty four respondents participated in this quantitative study by answering a questionnaire and the data was captured using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences programme.  The empirical research methodology performed included descriptive statistics, factor analysis, correlation, and analysis of variance to identify the barriers that hinder start-up, management and growth of women entrepreneurs in Gauteng, South Africa.

Keywords: Barriers, Entrepreneurs, Success

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Socio-cultural factors associated with biomass fuels in peri-urban areas of Ado Ekiti, Nigeria
Oluwakemi B. Akintan a
a School of Geography, University of Nottingham, United Kingdom. 

Volume 03, Issue 05, Pg. 29-34, 2012.

Abstract: The total reliance on biomass fuels freely collected from the forests has been the major means of meeting household energy demands in developing countries. The burning of these fuels – wood, charcoal, sawdust, crop residues and animal dung often compromise air quality in homes, especially when cooking is carried out in open fires. This paper analyses the socio-cultural factors associated with indoor air pollution in peri-urban areas of Ado Ekiti, Southwest Nigeria. A survey of households in these areas expound on the traditional values the people have in keeping to and persevering norms, as against the problem of indoor air pollution linked with the burning of biomass fuels. Furthermore, as revealed, perceptions about the use of some type of trees show that adherence to ethnic norms and values has made these householders fail to see the health impact(s) from exposure to indoor air pollution in their communities. Hence, in understanding indoor air pollution in developing countries, it is important to consider the underlying socio-cultural contexts peculiar to each environment so that appropriate interventions can be provided. Not only should focus be on socio-economic factors (income, education, age, occupation etc), but also on traditional beliefs and norms which do also contribute to the use of biomass fuels for cooking and lighting in developing countries. 

Keywords: biomass fuel; indoor air pollution; socio-cultural context  

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Social Support and Personality Trait as Factors that Affect Happiness Level among Employee in State Islamic University Jakarta
Yufi Adriani a
a Faculty of Psychology, State Islamic University Syarif Hidayatullah,  Jakarta, Indonesia.

Volume 03, Issue 05, Pg. 34-41, 2012.

Abstract: In Indonesia, currently, we can conclude that more people have tendency to feel unhappy in their everyday life. Poverty was widespread, the weak economy and the lowest level of monthly income, high unemployment and terrorism were factors that interfere the community lately.  There are so many factors that can affects happiness, one of them is the Personality Trait. One theory to measure the personality trait is the five-factor model, the grouping of individual personality arranged in five broad dimensions. In addition, other factors that might also affect the level of happiness are the influence of environmental or social support received by each individual. General social support can be obtained from a particular group or organization where the individuals involved, from the immediate family or from friends and companions. 

The purpose of this study is to measure the effect of Personality Trait and Social Support in predicting Happiness Levels among employee in State Islamic University Jakarta, Indonesia. Furthermore, the selection of employees as a subject for this study would have a positive impact on the development of human resources at State Islamic University, Jakarta especially in giving more information about the personality trait of the employee and their happiness level which in turn could help the management in giving the best treatment to improve employee’s performance.

This study will recruit 38 participants to answers questionnaires. The available data would be analyzed 

using statistical approach in order to see the factors that might have bigger contribution to the happiness level among employee so the treatment can be more appropriate and effective.                                                                                                                                          

Keywords: (Five Factor Model, Happiness, Personality Trait, Social Support)

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Social Human Rights In Islam And The Universal Declaration
 On Human Rights (U.D.H.R 1948): Comparative Study
Ali Manzo Usman a
a Department of Arabic and Islamic Studies, Bukar Abba Ibrahim University, Damaturu, Yobe State ,Nigeria.

Volume 03, Issue 05, Pg. 39-44, 2012.

Abstract: The main purpose of this study is to reveal and disclose the similarities and dissimilarities in respect of social Human rights and freedoms in the Universal Declaration on Human Rights (UDHR 1948) from the Islamic political perspective by defining  the concept of Human right and it’s characteristics in both Islamic and western perspectives, studying the U.D.H.R with a view  to extracting the social human rights and freedoms contained therein and finally stating the similarities and dissimilarities  between the Islamic law and the declaration in respect of such rights alongside the description on  how  such rights  supposed to be in the declaration in particular and in the western ideology in general in the light of Islamic politics. 

Keywords: Freedom, Islam, Social human rights, Western perspective.

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Rıght-Based Approach To Development
Iraj Rezaeenezhad a , Hasan Kordnaeij b
a, b Islamic Azad University, Chaloos Branch, Nowshahr, Mazandaran, Iran.

Volume 03, Issue 05, Pg. 47-50, 2012.

Abstract: Under the provision of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR), “Everyone is entitled to a social and international order in which the rights and freedoms set forth in that declaration can be realized”. Vienna Declaration and program of action [1] examined the relationship between development and human rights and recognized the right to development as a universal and inalienable right and integral part of all fundamental human rights.

In this article, interrelationship between human rights and development and the deferent approaches about the concept and content of the subject-matter has been analyzed and the notion of right to development as it is crystallized in the Declaration on the Right to Development (1986 Declaration) [2] has been criticized. 

I think, there are three viewpoints about the relationship between human rights and development: first of all, development is realized when the human rights can be realized (Correlation); secondly, development is a process by which the human rights can be realized (Instrument); eventually, development is a human right and ” the human person is the central subject of development and should be the active participant and beneficiary of the right…” [3] (Right-based approach)

I choose right-based approach and essentially, a rights-based approach integrates the norms, standards and principles of the international human rights system into the plans, policies and processes of development. This approach includes the principles such as universality, indivisibility, non-discrimination, participation and accountability that must be applied to development work.

Keywords: Right-Based Approach, Development, fundamental rights, UDHR

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Linguistic Regulation And Nation Character Building: The Neglected Phase Of Development 
Ronald Maraden Parlindungan Silalahi a, Veny Anindya Puspitasari b
a Department of English Language and Culture, Universitas Bunda Mulia, Komplek Green Garden, 
Rorotan, Cilincing, Jakarta Utara, Jakarta, Indonesia.
b Department of Business and Management, Universitas Bunda Mulia, Komplek Green Garden, 
Rorotan, Cilincing, Jakarta Utara, Jakarta, Indonesia.

Volume 03, Issue 05, Pg. 51-57, 2012.

Abstract: Due to the advancement of technology and science; the effect of globalization cannot be avoided by any countries in the world. Therefore, every country has to simultaneously apply the sustainable development in various aspects such as environment, sociopolitical (social and political), and economy. The sociopolitical sustainability aspect consists of several dimensions such as language, science, culture, etc. However, in some developing countries, the sustainable development is more focused on economic sectors, like how to increase the national income or how to improve the export volume. Language as one of the essential aspects in sociopolitical sustainability is often neglected. It is closely related to the nation character building, which is the basic foundation for the development of each country. Nation character has two basic principles: (a) religionism and (b) nationalism. The principal of nationalism is extremely important in international relationship. Language is one of the most crucial aspects in the principal of nationalism because language reflects the identity of a nation. This paper is based on a qualitative research to portray the role of language (local and foreign language) and the urgency of language in every aspect of the national sustainable development by using discourse analysis approach. The analysis is intertextually supported by some previous empirical studies about the role of language in the development of countries. The analysis shows that some languages are specifically used in certain aspect of development. For example, English that is specifically used for international economy. In another side, local or national language is only used in social and culture. Therefore, some people start asking a question about the existence of local language. From the literary review, the writers conclude that every country needs to formulate linguistic regulation or legislation in order to regulate the role of language (local and foreign) in some aspects of sustainable development. This regulation will support the sustainable development in the future. Lastly, the writers provide this paper with our hypothesis about the rules needed in the construction of linguistic regulation or legislation.       

Keywords: discourse analysis, globalization, linguistics regulation, nation character building, sustainable development

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A Strategy For Poverty Eradication Towards Sustainable Development: Islamic Perspective
Ali Manzo Usman a
a Department Of Arabic And  Islamic Studies, Bukar Abba Ibrahim University, Damaturu,Yobe State, Nigeria.

Volume 03, Issue 05, Pg. 57-61, 2012.

Abstract: The main purpose of this study is to reveal and disclose the teeming strategies adopted by Islam in a bid to eradicate poverty towards sustainable development since it has been regarded by this divine religion as one of the key factors that play a vital role in contributing towards miserable, irritating and exasperating life. It also directly affects the faith of mankind as it is highly perilous to Human attitudes, thought and their relationship with one another and their Lord as well. It gives birth to anonymity; wrath, extreme dislike and anger as it makes one ignore mutual ties and relationship. As a result of its diverse disadvantages and flaws, it will be very difficult for a sane person to dream or hope of Seeing Eye to eye with it. It is against this background; Islam accorded it topmost priority and set some modalities and strategies to tackle it and deter its subsequent emergence or re-emergence as contained in the paper herewith. 

Keywords: Islam, Poverty, Strategy, Eradication.

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Women In Omani Society: Education And Participation

Turkiya Al’Omairi a, Ismail Hussein Amzat b

a, b Department of Education Foundation and Administration, College of Education,   

Sultan Qaboos University, Sultanate of Oman.

Volume 03, Issue 05, Pg. 63-83, 2012.

Abstract: This research examines the females’ status in Omani society in terms of empowerment, education, and community participation. It investigates the employment of females in the public and private sectors, and the extent of discrimination between males and females. Also, it determines the educational level of females in Oman and their participations in the development of the society. All these questions were answered by distributing questionnaires among universities’ students. The sample sizes were 400 students from Sultan Qaboos University, Nizwa University, and Dhofar University. The results of this study show that females have the total freedom in educational field in terms of choosing any collage/ major they want inside the country or abroad. Married women are encouraged to pursue their studies at any educational institutions. Female principals were found somehow equal to the males. However, the huge progress that the females have in Oman does not change the old believes that the society has because the staff/ students prefer to have males as their Heads of Departments or Deans compared to females. Females hold many high positions in the ministries, but males still dominate the Omani Council. Even though females can look after themselves outside the home, males still believe women’s place is the home, and husbands prefer their wives to stay at home to take care of her family. Females contribute in the political development, however; they do not share the political power as males in Oman. 

Keywords: Empowerment; Education; Community; Females; Participation 

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Measuring Student Attachment To School : A Structural Equation Modeling Approach
Azlina Abu Bakar a
 a University Malaysia Terengganu, Malaysia.

Volume 03, Issue 05, Pg. 81-87, 2012.

Abstract: Schools are places where self-development and social interactions develop, inculcation of interpersonal skills and formation of peer groups among students (Henry & Slater, 2007). Relationships with schools are positively related to good mental health among adolescents and it is also a predictor of mental health in the future (Waters et al., 2009). This paper makes an attempt to ascertain and to test empirically, using the Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) to approach the Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA) of school attachment among adolescents in the east-coast of peninsular Malaysia. School Attachment Questionnaire (SAQ) was developed by Mouton, DeWitt & Glazier (1999) and was adapted by Trammel (2003). The adolescents’ conceptions of school attachment measured dimensions such as general relationship, sense of belonging and specific attachment. The SAQ was administered to 308 secondary school students of 16 years old. Students were asked to respond to declarative statements with one of five responses : strongly disagree, disagree, don’t know, agree or strongly agree. Cross-validation was done using two sub-samples of 160 and 148 students respectively. The instrument consisted of 20 items with 9 negative scores and the items were hypothesized as a priori to have non-zero loadings on all dimensions in the model. Analysis of the items resulted in a well-fitting model with composite reliability of .95 and variance extracted of 70% (χ²/df = 1.036; p = .406; GFI = .991; CFI = .999; TLI = .999; RMSEA = .011, AIC = 34.290).

Keywords: Adolescence; Education; School; Structural Equation Modeling

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Analysis Of Political Leadership Model Of Ulama (Islamic Religious Leader) In Indonesia
Ahmad Dirwan a, Yufi Adriani b
a University of Suryadarma, Indonesia.
b State Islamic University Syarif Hidayatullah Jakarta.

Volume 03, Issue 05, Pg. 87-91, 2012.

Abstract: The purposed of this study was to look at models of the political leadership of the Ulama in Indonesia. The latest development of the contemporary politics in Indonesia was marked by the successful of Indonesian voters for the first times elect their president and vice president directly (1998). Since then, the government system gave the opportunity to private citizen to nominate themselves and stand as the head of government. However, if citizens planned to become a candidate, he must be registered as member from one political party or represent one of them. For example, there is Ulama who form a party called the “ Partai Bintang Reformasi” in the reformation period. In addition, there is the party that contains a lot of Ulama such as “Partai Keadilan Sejahtera” who chose to merge with the winning party and eventually many of those sitting in parliament.

The models of political leadership in Indonesia will be analyzed through four types; Personality Attributes Model, Leader and Constituent Models, Contextual Factor Model, the Integrative Model. Although in an attempt to understand the behavior of the political leadership of the Ulama, the most appropriate model seemed the use of integrative models. 

The aim of this research was also to get the broader picture of what model is most widely practiced by the Ulama when they were assigned in government system, members of parliament and political party leaders, then the results will be also compared among the 3 groups of the samples. This study will be recruited some participants to answer the questionnaires and followed by depth interview session.

Keywords: Attributes Model, Contextual Factor Model, Integrative Model, Leader and Constituent Models, Models of Political Leadership, Ulama/Islamic Religious Leader

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