OIDA International Journal of Sustainable Development
Open access peer-reviewed journal
Rethinking Environmental Decision-Making Practice
Analysis of Environmental and Climate Change Decisions in Australian Governments
Anisha Pradhan a , Krishna K. Shrestha b
a,b Urban and Regional Planning and Policy,
The University of Sydney, NSW, 2006, Australia.
Volume 03, Issue 02, Pg. 11-25, 2012.
Abstract: Climate change is one of the most challenging environmental issues in the 21st century. The role of governments was highlighted by the United Nation’s Agenda 21 to develop and implement environmental policies and to address issues concerning biodiversity, water, land, and so on. Little is known, however, as to whether and how governments, particularly the local governments address environment issues in a changing climate. Hence, the principal aim of this paper is to analyse environmental decision-making practice of different levels of governments to address simultaneously both environmental and climate change issues. By drawing upon the relevant literature and policy review, the study analyses environmental policy approaches of the three layers of government in Australia. The study focuses on Lake Macquarie City Council in NSW to identify environmental decision-making practice at a local level by analysing three strategic documents of the local government of Lake Macquarie: a) Lake Macquarie Strategic Plan- Lifestyle 2020, b) Lake Macquarie Environmental action plan, and c) Lake Macquarie Community Plan. The idea is to examine if the decision-making practice combines environmental and climate change issues concurrently. The analysis advances the argument about what has been characterised as a ‘lost opportunity’ – the failure of governments to make and implement both environmental and climate change decisions. The paper concludes by highlighting the need for major re-thinking in the way that environmental decision-making practice is institutionalized at various levels of government to provide effective solutions to climate change and environmental problems.
Keywords: Agenda 21, Australia, Climate change, Environmental decision-making, Local government, Lake Macquarie City Council
Accountability For Sustainable Development In The Context Of Local Governance In New Zealand
Murugesh Arunachalam a
a Waikato Management School, University of Waikato, Hamilton New Zealand
Volume 03, Issue 02, Pg. 27-41, 2012.
Abstract: The paper explores the meaning of accountability for sustainable development in the context of local governance in New Zealand. The analysis is done through interpretation of the Local Government Act and the Resource Management Act that currently regulate local governance in New Zealand. A primary emphasis of the statues is community participation in planning and policy making for sustainable development. The findings indicate that a communitarian approach to accountability acquires meaning in the context of the local government statues. Communitarian and environmental sustainability ideologies encompass the statues to provide a holistic meaning for accountability. Key features of the communitarian approach to accountability include emphasis on community priorities and responsibilities, communal processes and reporting and information sharing to local communities. The paper contributes to the theoretical development of a communitarian approach to accountability for sustainable development.
Keywords: Local Governance; Community; Accountability; Sustainable Development; Communitarian
The socio-economic impact of African immigration on urban development in South Africa: the case of Empangeni
Efe Mary Isike a
a Department of Anthropology and Development Studies, University of Zululand, South Africa.
Volume 03, Issue 02, Pg. 43-52, 2012.
Abstract: Beginning in the twentieth century, South Africa experienced rapid industrialization which boosted its economy and thus leading to increased immigration to South Africa particularly after the democratic elections in 1994. Since then, South Africa has become the new ‘Europe’ for Africans as countries such as the DRC, Ghana, Ivory Coast, Lesotho, Malawi, Nigeria, Mozambique and Zimbabwe now have large migrant communities settled in South Africa. Studies also show that Africans increasingly migrate to South Africa not only as refugees fleeing conflicts and war in some of these countries, but also because of economic reasons.
Based on the foregoing, this paper will examine the nature and patterns of African immigration to South Africa with a view to determining its impacts on urban development in South Africa using the specific case of Empangeni. Apart from a review of literature, policies and other relevant official documents, this paper will also employ a purposive sample survey and in-depth interviews of African immigrants in the area, officials of the Department of Home Affairs, Department of Economic Development and members of the Parliamentary Portfolio Committee on Home Affairs.
At a theoretical level, this paper is intended to help validate the utility of the pluralist paradigm in explaining the links between migration and development in the specific case of South Africa. In this regard, it will highlight the factors that are critical to making South Africa a beneficiary of African immigration.
Keywords: African, Immigration, South Africa, Urban development.
“Status Of The Kalahi (Kapit-Bisig Laban Sa Kahirapan) Program: Basis For A Collaboration Framework For
Sectoral Program Management Of The Regional Development Council.”
Joanne E. Camus-Riveraa
a Don Mariano Marcos Memorial State University, South La Union Campus, Agoo, La Union
Volume 03, Issue 02, Pg. 53-112, 2012.
Abstract: This study evaluated the status of the KALAHI Program of Region 1 as a basis in evolving a collaboration framework for the sectoral program management of the Regional Development Council.
It specifically studied the (1) level of functional performance of the Regional KALAHI Convergence Group along: (a) Planning, (b) Investment programming, (c) Budgeting, and (d) Monitoring and evaluation, (2) the degree of fulfillment of responsibilities of the Regional KALAHI Convergence Group; (3) the extent of collaboration of the local government units, private sector, and regional line agencies in the implementation of the KALAHI Program (4) the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats of the KALAHI Program and (5) the status of the KALAHI Program The study also formulated a collaboration framework for sectoral program management of the Regional Development Council based on the status of the program.
The study used the descriptive survey research design. There were 152 respondents distributed as follows: 17 private sector, 51 regional line agencies, and 84 LGUs broken down into four (4) provinces, 19 municipalities and 61 barangays. A questionnaire was used as the main tool in gathering the data which in turn were analyzed using frequency counts and weighted means.
Keywords: collaboration framework, KALAHI Program, local government units, private sector, Regional Line Agencies, Sectoral program management,