Volume 03 Issue 01

OIDA International Journal of Sustainable Development
Open access peer-reviewed journal

Cheating Offences And Punishment: A Malaysian Perspective 
Rokiah Kadir a
a Department of Accounting and Finance, Faculty of Management and Economics, 
Universiti Malaysia Terengganu, 21030 Kuala Terengganu, Terengganu, Malaysia

Volume 03, Issue 01, Pg. 11-21, 2012.

Abstract: Crime reduction is one of the focuses of the Ministry of Home Affairs under its Key Performance Indicator. Findings from previous studies revealed that sentencing mechanism, the rate of prosecution and the failure to pay attention to prevalence of crime as aggravating factors in sentencing can all contribute to the exponential increase in crime perpetration. The paper aspires to unearth data about cheating offences as one of commercial crimes in Malaysia in relation to the number of cases, the amount of loss, arrest rate and personnel, and analyze the extent to which the sentencing as provided under the existing law have the deterrent effect to scare criminals from committing the crime. 

Keywords: criminal law; cheating offences; punishment; enforcement; commercial crime.

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Legal Reform As A Way To Women’s Rights: The Case Of Personal Status Law In Yemen  
Douaa Hussein a
a Department of Law, The American University in Cairo, AUC Avenue, New Cairo, Egypt.

Volume 03, Issue 01, Pg. 22-47, 2012.

Abstract: In this paper, the researcher argues that the legal reform of the Personal Status Law is not sufficient to ensure gender equality within the Yemeni context where the religious and cultural value systems of rights remain untouched.  Narrow and conservative interpretation of sharia forms the main conceptualization of the rights in the current law.  The tribal value system and conceptualization of rights and its practices on the ground has affected the equitable marital rights.  The researcher further claims that the current law which is premised mainly on sharia, consolidates the concept of “Wrong Rights”, obstructing women’s efforts to ensure equality in the Personal Status Law. 

In this respect, there are several conclusions that can be drawn.  First, there are three drivers for the conceptualization of rights that affect the formulation of Personal Status Law namely, guardianship (Sharia), sisterhood (constitution), and the weak and dependent (tribal customary norms).  The three of them articulate and reflect the narrow interpretation of Sharia and patriarchal policies advanced by the state and the community. Thus the current Personal Status Law consolidates a number of wrong rights which paradoxically, constitute the basic human rights such as the denial of the freedom of choice and full consent, the freedom of movement   and the right to terminate the marital relationship.  In addition, the right to inheritance is the wrong right for women in practice.

Thus, the realization of gender justice in the area of Personal Status Law and the effective application of the law need a multi-dimensional approach namely an enlightened interpretation of Sharia, adopting the principle of reciprocity and the consequences-based approach. Societal reform suggests a four-pronged approach.  One deals with the gender sensitive institutional reform while the second addresses education and the third adopts an Islamic feminist approach.  The fourth is geared towards demolishing the dual legal systems. 

Keywords: legal reform; women’s rights; Yemen

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Identification of the Potentials and Barriers of Adopting Standard Method of Measurement for Mechanical and Electrical Services in Malaysia
Ganiyu Amuda-Yusuf a, Sarajul Fikri Mohamed b
a,b Department of Quantity Surveying, Faculty of Built Environment,
Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, Skudai, Johor, Malaysia.

Volume 03, Issue 01, Pg. 48-59, 2012.

Abstract: Building services is an important subsector of the Malaysian construction industry, accounting for about 40 percent of the total cost of buildings. Unfortunately, cost management and procurement process of Mechanical and Electrical (M&E) services have not received due attention from the practitioners’, as bills of quantities (BoQ) are still produced in lump sums and provisional sums, making it difficult to get realistic and useable cost information from past projects. This paper reports part of a larger and ongoing research work and its purpose is to provide a generic identification of the potentials and barriers of using Standard Method of Measurement (SMM) for M&E services. The paper is based on comprehensive review of literature which includes journal articles; conference papers; text books and web trawl. Highlights on global usage of SMM were made and current practice in the country identified. Interestingly, the potentials of adopting SMM for preparing BoQ for M&E services has been identified as: reducing ambiguities in design; reduce tender cost; ensure commonality in tenders; reduce contract risk; the coding system in SMM will allow ease of application of computer;  and it will ensure conformance of BoQ with standard forms of contract. However, the barriers preventing quantity surveyors from measuring M&E services includes: inadequate knowledge of M&E technology; traditional practice 

which regarded M&E as specialist technical area and therefore not often measured; non – completion of M&E services design before tender; non – involvement of specialist contractors during design and late involvement of M&E services consultants. The paper concludes that there is need to develop and encourage consultants to use SMM for M&E services measurement and courses of action by which the barriers could be overcome by the industry stakeholders were suggested with emphasis on the need to address the knowledge gap among professionals and ensure early involvement of specialist contractors.

Keywords: Bills of quantities; building services; mechanical and electrical services; standard method of  measurement; stakeholders

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Urban Land Use Sustainability Assessment Through Evaluation Of Compatibility Matrix
Case Study: Karaj City
Mostafa Taleshi a , Asad Ghobadi b
a Department of  Geography, Payame Noor University, ,Tehran , Iran
b Department of Geography and Urban planning , Payam Noor university, Tehran, Iran.

Volume 03, Issue 01, Pg. 57-65, 2012.

Abstract: One of the urban land uses planning purpose is suitable side selection of land uses and segregation of incompatible land uses. Compatibility or incompatibility of land uses is one of the most basic and most complex components in urban planning. This concept is derived from the term “neighborhood” and it requires the matrix and paired comparisons and determining the most appropriate form for the city. Since, getting reliable results implicate intelligent calculation and observations, therefore using the new techniques and spatial analysis elements in comparison are necessary. The main approach of this paper for Karaj, district 4 (near Tehran metropolis ) is assessment of urban land uses by consistency matrix method to identifying trouble maker activities and necessities land use and consider the outcome of study for sustainable urban land uses planning in the area. The results of this paper indicate that firstly, incompatible land uses must be moved out of urban environment and placed in other suitable area in order to decreasing urban pollution and restrictions of economy and social .Secondly, sufficient urban land uses should be considered to match citizen’s needs such as public facilities. Thirdly, conversion of urban green spaces to other land uses should be prevented. By the way, the subjects of an analytic network process approach for locating undesirable facilities: An example from Istanbul, Turkey in 2008 by Gülfem Tuzkaya, Semih Önüt, Umut R. Tuzkaya, Bahadır Gülsün , Achieving matrix consistency in AHP through linearization in 2011 by  Julio Benítez, Xitlali Delgado-Galván, Joaquín Izquierdo, Rafael Pérez-García and Study and implementation of fire sites planning based on GIS and AHP in 2011 by WEI Lai, LI Han-lun, LIU Qi, CHEN Jing-yi, CUI Yi-jiao are already researched.

Keywords: Karaj city, Land uses consistency matrix, Matrix comparison, Sustainability urban Land uses.

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An analysis of farmer field school (FFS) as a potential source of advanced technology dissemination among the farmers of district Faisalabad, Pakistan
Muhammad Ali a, Muhammad Sajjad Haider b
a Department of Agricultural Extension and Communication, 
PMAS-Arid Agriculture University, Rawalpindi, Pakistan.
b Allied Bank Limited, Jaran wala Road, Faisalabad, Pakistan

Volume 03, Issue 01, Pg. 66-73, 2012.

Abstract: Pakistan is a developing country with agro-based economy. Several extension approaches, designed primarily to improve the living standard of rural people through increased agricultural production and improve farm income, have been tried but in vain. In recent years, a number of developmental agencies, including the World Bank, have promoted farmer field schools (FFS) as a more effective approach to extend science-based knowledge and practices to farmers. The FFS training program utilizes participatory methods “to help farmers develop their analytical skills, critical thinking, creativity, and help them learn to make better decisions. The present study was therefore, conducted to assess FFS as a potential source of latest agricultural technology transfer for farming community in Faisalabad, Pakistan. The total sample of 200 respondents was analyzed. The analysis revealed that an overwhelming majority (90.87%) received latest package of agricultural technologies from Agriculture experts. The data collected by “survey” method was analyzed through Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) and results indicated that new seeds of crops with the mean value of 2.574, liquid fertilizer (Bio Aab) with mean value of 2.689 and application of advance agricultural machinery (mean value=2.733) were found significantly important for amelioration in yield per 

acre. It is envisaged that the results of the study will be helpful to ameliorate the working efficiency of the farmer field schools staff and also useful for the appropriate and effective training of farmers. Moreover this will pave the way for the planning of new future projects to strengthen the farmer field school (FFS) approach.

Keywords: Agriculture Extension; Agriculture technology transfer; Decision making; Farmer Field School,  Participatory approaches 

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Teachers’ Perceptions about the STS Teaching and Learning Materials
Marwan M. A. Abualrob a
a Department of Education, Faculty of Arts and Sciences, Arab American University, Jenin, West Bank, Palestine.

Volume 03, Issue 01, Pg. 71-79, 2012.

Abstract: This paper outlines Teachers’ Perceptions about the STS Teaching and Learning Materials (modules) and   elicit teachers’ perceptions about infusing the developed modules instead of the existing textbook, which was part of a bigger study to establish a science, technology and society (STS) foundation in the Ninth Grade Science curriculum in Palestine. Both interviews and questionnaire were used to answer the research question “What are the teachers’ perceptions about the final developed STS teaching and learning materials (modules) for Ninth Grade Science?” of this paper. Teachers’ overall impression about the final version of the STS teaching and learning materials was positive. The teachers also gave high scores to most of the items in the survey evaluation of the modules. In addition, the teachers agreed that the final STS teaching and learning materials (Modules) could be used in the infusion instead of the existing textbook.

Keywords: STS teaching, curriculum, learning materials, science and technology

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Innovation in VSMEs of Pakistan: What Next!</b
Fazli Wadood a ,  Alina Shamsuddin b
a, b Department of Technology Management, Faculty of Technology Management and Business Entrepreneur, University Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia, Parit Raja, Batu Pahat, Johor, Malaysia

Volume 03, Issue 01, Pg. 81-89, 2012.

Abstract: SMEs play a vital role in the most developing and developed nation. His role in the development of the economic growth and sustainability has been widely recognized. Due to its importance much emphasis has been put in through research and publication. Most research has covered on the characteristics of SMEs, its role in the economic development and its challenges in today’s competitive world. Consequently this paper focus on the uniqueness of the technology base SMEs. This study mainly focus on those SMEs which having informal structure, micro in size, located in remote and rural areas and  work force are up to five persons, which after this will be  called at Very Small and Medium Enterprises (VSMEs). It described the capability of these VSMEs to innovate and retain their competitiveness. Its therefore suggest a conceptual framework for the VSMEs as in input to the Government to provide funding and training on more effective and efficient manner.   

Keywords:  Invention, SMEs, Sustainability, Scarce Resources, VSMEs,

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Agricultural Sustainability In Egypt
Bahgat M. Abdel-Maksoud a, Mohamed F. S. Abdel-Salam b
a  Faculty of Agriculture, Assiut University, Assiut, Egypt.
 b  Faculty of Agriculture, Al-Azhar University, Assiut Branch, Egypt.

Volume 03, Issue 01, Pg. 89-102, 2012.

Abstract: Agriculture sustainability has been the core of research studies in recent years. This study incorporates two stages: first, to develop a framework to measure agricultural sustainability in Egypt, and second, to identify agricultural sustainability practices based on the developed framework and research results. The framework includes a number of social, economic and environmental indicators to measuring agricultural sustainability in Egypt and is developed depending upon indicators used for the same purpose in England, Italy, Venezuela, and Australia, in addition to indicators included in the environmental sustainability index. The application of the framework depends on secondary sources. 

Agricultural sustainability practices in Egypt are identified and empirically investigated to examine farmers’ perception and adoption of these practices. Interviews were carried out in 2010 with 200 farmers, randomly selected, belonging to four districts in Assiut governorate, Egypt. 

Results show positive trends towards agricultural sustainability in Egypt according to most economic indicators and negative trends according to most social and environmental indicators. Results also show low levels of farmers’ knowledge and adoption of many agricultural sustainability practices. It is recommended that immense efforts to be devoted to encourage farmers to adopt agricultural sustainability practices concerning these social and environmental dimensions to maintain agricultural sustainability in Egypt. 

Keywords: Adoption, Agricultural sustainability, Egypt, Sustainability 

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