OIDA International Journal of Sustainable Development
Open access peer-reviewed journal
Health Awareness Promotion towards Sustainable Industrial Development
Hui-Nee Au Yong a
a School of Management, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Pulau Pinang, Malaysia.
Volume 02, Issue 11, Pg. 12-18, 2011.
Abstract: The electronics sector in Malaysia increased with strong economic growth. Participation of multinational electronics manufacturing offers improvement mechanism especially in adoption of education and training in enhancing safety
and health of the workforce. Sustainable development means preservation of resources for future development while the present operation continues its growth. The promotion of workplace wellness service will also strengthen acompany’s competitive advantage. The next phase of development pointing at a drive refers to health awareness in workplace. This study explores the attitude of workers towards workplace health promotion (WHP). In this study,workplace health promotion (WHP) awareness survey was conducted at an electronics company, a multinational corporation (MNC). Questionnaire was prepared and a survey was conducted with the company’s workers. Survey on workers was used to investigate workers participation, opinion, knowledge and awareness to adopt the workplace health promotion (WHP). The ultimate goal of workplace wellness program is to foster an efficient, safe, and
sustainable industrial development. Health talks and outdoor activities were encouraged. There is still room for improve through management commitment, employee involvement and training to achieve successful WHP programs. The paper recommends strategies to improve workplace health conditions. This paper reports strategies where the industry manages workplace wellness issues and pose future topics for the industrial management to consider. With implementation of these strategies, sustainable working environment shall be attained.
Keywords: Electronics; Occupational Safety and Health Program; Safety Awareness; Sustainable; Workplace Health Promotion (WHP).
Instability Of Small Rural Settlements In Desert Areas
Mostafa Taleshi a
a Department of Geography, Payame Noor University,Tehran, Iran.
Volume 02, Issue 11, Pg. 20-22, 2011.
Abstract: Desert and desertification after two water and climate challenges is the third challenge that causes instability of human habitats in marginal areas, economic and environmental disorder and serious limitation for development plans and sustainability of these areas.
One of the fundamental principles of development is economic stability and the economy sustainable, so to achieve sustainable economic system requires good quantitative and qualitative access to water and soil resources. Due to limited basic resources (water and soil) in the arid and semi-arid areas, this will be not achieved only by adopting good management in exploiting the limited resources and lateral activation related agricultural sector.
The study area, located in the sideline of salt desert at the center of Iran, nevertheless of severe limitation of soil and water resources due to the desertification, totally is dependent on agricultural activities, especially gardening; and services and industries have an insignificant proportion of the region’s economy. So any such activity should be done in order to stabilize the region by optimize utilization of limited resources and controlling of the phenomenon causing desertification.
Keywords: Desert, Instability, Iran, Small rural settlements.
The role of urban planning in achieving sustainable urban development
Fereshte Ahmadi a , Shirin Toghyani b
a, b Faculty of Art & Architecture & Urbanism Collage, Najafabad Branch, Islamic Azad University, Iran.
Volume 02, Issue 11, Pg. 24-27, 2011.
Abstract: The Sustainable development strategies’ focus is on five dimensions: economic sustainability, social sustainability, ecological sustainability, sustainable spatial development, and cultural continuity. Thus, sustainable housing is one of the fundamental pillars of sustainable development, and sustainable urban development can be discussed in this context. The target of sustainable urban development process is to achieve the status of “sustainability” in urban communities and also to create or to strengthen the sustainability’s characteristics of economic, social, cultural and environmental city.
This essay tries first to have a brief review on the history of sustainable development. Then, it continues to find out how to promote that concept and why it is necessary to be focused through different definitions.
To understand the principles and pillars of sustainable development, based on the current worlds’ environmental, economic, social and political realities, concepts, words and condition of the Earth Summit, the Rio Declaration and the Works Program of 21 and the different experts and researchers’ views are used. Then by reviewing the principles and concepts of sustainable development (in general), a primary concept of sustainable urban development (in particular) is achieved. Finally, some general suggestions are made on the sustainable urban development, urban planning and the importance of providing realization conditions of the urban sustainable development.
What is important here is to emphasis on Physical – space considerations which are under focus in this research too. And the most important points which should be considered as a Physical consideration in sustainable settlement is also mentioned in this paper.
By comparing what should be done with what is
today common in urban development planning, and according to above-mentioned comments and topics, it can be concluded that to achieve the urban sustainability, It is necessary to make some structural reforms and to create some deep and fundamental changes in all levels of society, especially in the three levels of: ‘government and management’, ‘technology’ and ‘life methods’
Keywords: Sustainable Development – Urban Sustainable Development – Urban planning-development Strategies
Unhygienic Living Conditions and Health Problems: A Study in Selected Slums of Dhaka City
Tarannum Dana a
a Department of Population Sciences University of Dhaka, Bangladesh.
Volume 02, Issue 11, Pg. 28-35, 2011.
Abstract: In Dhaka significantly the numbers of slums are increasing everyday due to heavy influx of migrants from rural areas. In these slum areas all sorts of services are inadequate and general environmental scenario is hazardous. Data has been collected from field survey, some secondary sources and focused group discussion. The study focuses on the status and practice regarding water, sanitation and hygiene. This paper has also explored that assessment of water resource availability and quality at source point of consumption; problems faced in getting safe drinking water; and knowledge of the features of hygienic latrine; awareness about health. The study is based on the health problems highlighting factors affecting the health of the population in slums for example due to general environmental condition, water supply system and the sanitation system. The study also focuses on other various reasons associated to poor living condition and their impact on health of the slum population. It is suggested that if conditions are to be improved then the problem of the poor living conditions and the health service needs to be addressed through the application of proper measures and planning by the different sectors of government and private sectors.
Keywords: Dhaka; Environment; Garbage; Health status; Health Problems; Pollution; Sanitation; Slum; Water.
Fiscal Federalism Debate in Nigeria: 1999-2009
Ike Fayomi a , Fatai Ayisa Olasupo b ,
a, b Department of Public Administration, Faculty of Administration. Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife, Nigeria.
Volume 02, Issue 11, Pg. 36-43, 2011.
Abstract: Trinity issues undermining Nigerian federalism today are religion, ethnicity and the issue of fiscal federalism. At independence, when the country was a composite of three regions – North, West and East – each of the regions largely controlled the resources under its ambit which engendered healthy competition among them; although oil as a national resource was then at incubation stage. The civil war outbreak, the discovery of oil in commercial quantity (in one of the three regions) and the increase in the price of crude oil due to Arab-Israeli war of 1967 led to the ascendancy of centripetal forces at all levels of government in the country particularly at the national level. However, as Nigeria began to move towards democratization, centrifugal forces began to emerge and vociferously calling for decentralization of power and resources control. In the last decade, specifically under civilian regime of President Olusegun Obasanjo, there have been relentless debates in the print and electronic media for fiscal decentralization. In this paper we intend to examine the trends of these debates and the solutions proffered towards ensuring fiscal federalism in Nigeria.
Keywords: Five words in alphabetical order: Decentralization, Democratization, Ethnicity, Fiscal and Religion.
The Failure of Education in Combating Corruption in Sudan: The Impact on Sustainable Development
Omer Hashim Ismail a
a Educational Foundations and Administration, Faculty of Education
a Sultan Qaboos University, Muscat, Sultanate of Oman.
Volume 02, Issue 11, Pg. 44-51, 2011.
Abstract: The major question this paper addresses is why education has failed in combating corruption in Sudan and, as a consequence, obstructs sustainable development. Corruption is considered a threat to development in all countries. Education is key factor in curbing corruption. However, looking into the situation in the Sudan, corruption has become a phenomenon characterizing the public sector. It pervades almost in all aspect of life. In fact, Sudan is among the five top corrupted countries in the world. A major role of educational institutions is to provide the nation with knowledgeable and skilled manpower needed to contribute to the socio-economic and political developments. Educated government officials, who are the graduates of educational institutions, are expected to fight the abuse of public office not to exercise it and become corrupted themselves. The role and the power of education in shaping the values and building the morale of citizens are not disagreeable.
Face-to-face and telephone interviews were conducted to answer questions raised in this paper. Five Sudanese staff member at Sultan Qaboos University were interviewed using face-to-face interviews, and three faculty members at the University of Khartoum were interviewed using telephone interviews. The data collected provided answers to what needs to be done to allow education to fight the darkness of corruption for the sake of sustainable development in Sudan. Reforming the education system, developing anti-corruption education programs and raising public awareness are stated as important solutions to the problem.
Keywords: corruption, education, Sudan, sustainable development.
Integrating Spiritual Dimension in Sustainable Development Strategy An Islamic Perspective
Sapia Moalam Abdulrachman a
a College of Law, School of Government and International Studies , COLGIS, Universiti Utara Malaysia, Malaysia.
Volume 02, Issue 11, Pg. 51-63, 2011.
Abstract: The quest for sustainable development continues since the 1987 Conference at Ottawa, Ontario. Scholarly discussion on the subject matter is rich with concepts and strategies on how to attain the goals of sustainable development. In these discussions, however, very little emphasis is given to the human factors contributing or hindering the goals of sustainable development. Along this line, the paper expounds on the human factors particularly behavioral component hindering sustainable development and consequently proposes a holistic approach to address the problem.
It assumes that the continued downgrading of moral values in the society directly and indirectly contributes to the environmental hazards which eventually will make life in the future difficult. It’s direct consequences are due to lack of discipline among the people which are manifested in their household, agricultural, and business practices that endanger environment. The indirect damages are results of natural disasters. Although, the causes of disaster cannot be accounted by moral issues alone, religious teachings especially Islamic ones reveal that natural disaster can be minimized if the people perform their responsibilities with faith in God as the primordial l motivator.
Along this line, a holistic approach to sustainable development that integrates the structural-organizational development strategy and behavioral development strategy is proposed. Through discipline among the people and good governance sustainable development may be pursued through collaborative and cooperative undertaking between and among the various stakeholders.
In conclusion, the Islamic concept of sustainable development is meeting the totality of human needs in all generations while at the same time fulfilling the responsibilities of men to himself, to his fellowmen and to God.
Keywords: behavioral development strategy, good governance, sustainable development
Post-Mining Land-Use Methods Optimum Ranking, Using Multi Attribute Decision Techniques With Regard to Sustainable Resources Management
Narrei, S a, Osanloo, M b
a,b Mining, Metallurgical and Petroleum Engineering Department,
Amirkabir University of Technology, Hafez Avenue, Tehran, Iran.
Volume 02, Issue 11, Pg. 65-78, 2011.
Abstract: Developing of mining areas should comply with sustainable development principles so as to ensure sustainable development of mine, to unify social, economical and the ecological efficiency. The selection of reclamation method is a complex multi-person, multi-criteria decision problem while sustainable development challenges facing the minerals and metals industry need a comprehensive and interdisciplinary approach based upon reliable data and transparent methodical approaches. The aim of this study is to propose a combined Multi-Criteria Decision-Making approach (MCDM) to evaluate the post-mining land-use methods with the use of effective and major criteria in respect to the user’s preference orders. In this paper, a Mined Land Suitability Analysis (MLSA) framework containing fifty numbers of leading evaluation attributes and also eight possible groups of post mining land uses for a mined land is used. This study utilizes entropy, weighted least square and AHP techniques to obtain the relative weights of attributes. Once the global weight vector of the attributes is calculated using these three methods, they are incorporated into the decision matrices and passed to the ranking techniques. SAW (Simple Additive Weighting), TOPSIS (Technique for Order Performance by Similarity to Ideal Solution) and Compromise Programing are used for ranking the alternatives. In other words the post-mining land-use methods ordered with nine ranking procedures. Due to specific approach of each of the above methods, and their advantages and disadvantages; the set of orders are not the same and for further aggregation, three ordering techniques employed to final ranking of the alternatives. Based on the statistical analysis two ranking methods excluded from nine procedures and average aggregated approach employed to rank the options. This procedure has been used for ordering the post-mining land use methods in a hypothetical mine. Accordingly construction of the mined land is the most appropriate method for the hypothetical mine in this article.
Keywords: AHP, entropy, post-mining land-use, statistical analysis, TOPSIS.
Residential Satisfaction In La Perla Informal Neighborhood, San Juan, Puerto Rico
Caldieron, Jean a
a School of Architecture, Florida Atlantic University, 111 E Las Olas Blvd, Fort Lauderdale, FL 33308 USA.
Volume 02, Issue 11, Pg. 75-86, 2011.
Abstract: Residential satisfaction is an important element measuring the quality of life of individuals. This paper reports on the findings of residential satisfaction in the self-built informal neighborhood of La Perla. The settlement is located adjacent to the colonial center of the city of San Juan, Puerto Rico. Separated by a defensive colonial wall, La Perla is not only physically isolated but also socially segregated from the city of San Juan despite more than 90 years of co-existence. Although urban decay has contributed to La Perla’s reputation, future development plans and a recent drug bust are affecting the future of the community. However, the strong emotional links between the residents and their neighborhood may preserve La Perla as an integral part of San Juan. For this research, more than 100 householder surveys were held in the neighborhood analyzing the conditions of the dwellings, the housing typology, and the householders’ satisfaction. Even though La Perla is a shantytown with strong economic and social problems, the surveys found a very high level of residential satisfaction within the community. This paper is part of a more extensive study of the neighborhood. The final objective is to help organize a basis of knowledge for the formulation of social programs that will complement proposed urban design interventions. The research is a collaboration of Florida Atlantic University, the community of La Perla, and the local government of the city of San Juan. This research has been funded with the help of Florida Atlantic University and the Architectural Research Consortium grant.
Keywords: Informal urban settlements, neighborhood satisfaction, quality of self-built dwellings, residential satisfaction, shantytowns.
Socio-economic Situation and Land Rights of the Indigenous People in Bangladesh
Shuchita Sharmin a
a Department of Development Studies, University of Dhaka, Dhaka 1000, Bangladesh
Volume 02, Issue 11, Pg. 85-96, 2011.
Abstract: The concerns of the Government of Bangladesh (GoB) for the rights of ‘adivasi’ people (the Bengali word for indigenous people) are reflected through the ratification of different International Conventions and Agreements. Though, Bangladesh is legally bound to comply with these International Human Rights Treaties, considering the reported incidences facing the indigenous people in Bangladesh, situation of implementation of the provisions of the aforesaid Treaties and Conventions can easily be questioned. Adivasi people are often reported to become the victims of social, racial, religious, cultural and linguistic discrimination. In this context, the present study attempted to provide a picture of the prevailing situation relevant to overall socio-economic condition to 1) determine the social problems; 2) reveal existing situation on land rights of adivasi people and identify the overall awareness on rights; and 3) to propose necessary recommendations. Data had been collected through questionnaire survey, consultations, group discussions, (uncontrolled) observations, and interviews. A sample consisting of 239 households from Dhobaura, Durgapur, and Kalmakanda upazilas participated in the survey. Lack of employment, income generating activities, security, morale for savings, necessary legal support and economic sufficiency along with land mortgage, discontinued education, early marriage, conspiracy, injustice, diseases, etc. were found to be the major social problems. Moreover, issues like- lack of land related knowledge, legal knowledge and support, land related training, right to protest against injustice, awareness in preserving and updating legal land documents, along with political influence, government’s negligence, inaccurate land demarcation, allotment of khas (public) lands, etc. were the factors identified to explain the existing situation on land rights. The major recommendations on the basis of the findings include the necessity for accurate land related data and information; accessibility to market information; consideration of adivasi cultural practices and mind set; necessity for linking local government to adivasi people.
Keywords: Adivasi; land right; plain land adivasis; social problems and needs.