Volume 02 Issue 06

OIDA International Journal of Sustainable Development
Open access peer-reviewed journal 

Sociology of sexual fascism 
(A pathological review on limiting sexual relations and its individual and social consequents)
a, Shahab Ghobadi b
Islamic Azad University, Sanandaj Branch, Kurdistan, Iran a,b 

Volume 02, Issue 06, Pg. 11-20, 2011.

Abstract: Human beings are the only animals who do not obey nature law and in turn the deadliest illnesses and biologic, mental and social deviances are found among human beings. Preventing sexual instinct from being naturally satisfied causes different diseases and most of mental-social breakings have originated in this limitation.

The definition of sexual tendencies and suppressing them in children and adolescences are international phenomena that are free from social and political biases of groups, sects and governments; this category is reproachable and exposed to limitation by the religious fundamentalists and Orthodox Socialists to the same degree.                    

A morality which rejects natural sexual tendencies and does not differentiate them with prostitution is itself a kind of dictatorship; as it is an anti love and life power. Natural and biologic laws are the basis of civilization and freedom. Compulsory morality makes natural emotional and sexual relations commonplace and across the society paves the ways for the appearance of macro social deviances and misbehaviors.

Sex is a social, cultural and biological category and an interdisciplinary knowledge for studying it one should have an open and non ideological insight.

In this article, sexual relationships have been discussed with a social pathological approach and in terms of ” fascism, the bastard child of sexual suppression”, ” sex limiting and the development of social damages”, ”sex limiting and social and global dictatorization”, ” sexual relationships and challenges of democracy”, and so on.

Keywords: Sexul Relationships, Fascism, Sex Suppression, Sex Revolution 

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The effectiveness of people’s participation in natural resource management projects in Iran
 Mousa Aazami  a
a Bu-Ali Sina University, Hamedan,  Iran,  

Volume 02, Issue 06, Pg. 1-3, 2011.

Abstract: This article analyses the effectiveness and outcomes of people’s participation (PP) in natural resource management projects in Iran. Two projects were selected as case studies on the subjects of watershed management and range management. 

Both qualitative and quantitative methods were applied to collect necessary data. The participants in the studied projects, as respondents in both cases, stated their economic and social well-being have not improved because of their participation in the projects as much as they expected. Their participation could not substantially benefit them and increase their income because of certain environmental problems and lack of management capacity among the directors. 

In conclusion, participation had given some opportunity to rural people to decide who should be involved in the project, and provided shared influence in making ongoing decisions about what activities should be implemented; and what each individual had to contribute. However, decision-making power is still concentrated on the directors or local leaders. Furthermore, both projects are experiencing financial difficulties and suffering from some managerial weaknesses which undermined PP and have reduced its outcomes. It could be stated that PP is a necessary approach but not sufficient for promoting sustained rural development. Adequate attention should be paid to both the managerial and the technical dimension of projects. 

Keywords: Rural development, participation, people’s participation, natural resource projects

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Analysis of Temporal and Spatial Characteristics of Enugu Urban Heat Island using Multiple Techniques
Ifeanyi  C. Enete  a , Michael A.  Ijioma b
a Department of Geography & Meteorology, Nnamdi Azikiwe University,Awka,Nigeria.
b Department of Geography and Planning, Abia State University, Uturu, Nigeria. 

Volume 02, Issue 06, Pg. 29-36, 2011.

Abstract: The temporal and spatial microclimate variations at several sites in Enugu urban were evaluated using paired measurement programme (PMP) and landsat/ETM satellite imagery.  The aim was to determine the spatial extent of urban heat island (UHI) in the city.  Temperature correlated to land-use and land-cover within the city.  The results indicate that urban climate modifications at day and night were very different.  A downtown centered heat island was observed at night in both dry and rainy seasons, while there was a mix of cool and heat islands by day especially during rainy seasons.  The daytime variations were strongly correlated to the amount of tree shading. During the night, city climate was highly correlated to sky-view factors and thermal properties in the city.  Based on these findings, the study proposed some new design strategies for the downtown core of Enugu and its periphery.  They aim at maximizing shading on streets during the day while maintaining a large sky view to facilitate night cooling. 

Keywords: Micro climate, urban heat island, temporal and spatial, land use.

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Federalism and Perspectives of Democracy
Akbar Valadbigi a, Shahab Ghobadi b
Islamic Azad University, Sanandaj Branch, Kurdistan, Iran a,b 

Volume 02, Issue 06, Pg. 37-43, 2011.

Abstract: From political point of view, federal government is a kind of political organization in which political power is divided among smaller political units and each one of them has its own regulations and organs which acts in accordance with its people and group benefits and origins. Borders and management of units are determined by certain regulations. In terms of world politics, federal system appears in different forms. Close relation between governmental organizations and people allows independent institutes to control political power and this, in turn, contributes to the development of democracy.

In a country in which different nations live, development of democracy is in contrast with centralization of political power in a centre, as in such a political organization the power of government is ever-increasing to a degree in which government by exploiting its own power or relying on one of the reasons decreases people to its peasants and bases to reign over all other nations. Suggesting the right of separation and mentioning it in the constitutional law hinders the implementation of long-term projects across federal country. Distrust on an unknown future leads to some political crisis; then, its economical and social results appear in interior policy making and international relations.

Keywords: Federalism, Nationality, Democracy, Destiny, Power

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Trade policy in developing countries:a case study of nigeria and pakistan
Sobho Khan Jamali a, Lawal Mohammad Anka b
a Department of Economics University of Sindh Jamshoro Pakistan.
b Sindh Development Studies Centre, University of Sindh Jamshoro Pakistan.

Volume 02, Issue 06, Pg. 45-52, 2011.

Abstract: The paper examines trade policies in developing countries with particular reference to Nigeria and Pakistan. Furthermore import and export policy initiatives of the two countries was also reviewed. Nigeria has made significant progress in export of agricultural commodities to ECOWAS member countries. However this effort was not sustained due to instability in the macroeconomic environment. The government has made effort to deregulate and liberalize Nigerian trade policies. The existing policies and regulations are also generally in line with Nigeria’s commitment to various bilateral, regional and multilateral agreements. In Pakistan the improvement in the balance of trade payments had resulted from monetary and commercial policies adopted by the government while devaluation stimulated exports. The new import policy with drew privileges enjoyed by selected few. The new reform package is very comprehensive, its impact on resource allocation, efficiency and protection on industries are going to be significant in the long run. Short run impacts will be on revenues and balance of current account. It is recommended that priority must be given to a quantum increase in export as part of economic planning. Fish can be explored as a niche market, we must increase our share in export in a staggering manner and finally diversification in respect of commodities and destinations ought to be our goal on a long term basis. 

Keywords: agricultural commodities, trade policies, customs and excise tariff

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The Absence of Instrumental Rationalism in the Position of the Amorphous/Formlessness of Ethics among Iranians
Taghi Azadarmaki a, Behrooz Delgoshaei b, Ali Papoli Yazdi c
a,b,c The University of Tehran, Iran. 

Volume 02, Issue 06, Pg. 54-61, 2011.

Abstract: The present article attempts to determine the formlessness of ethics among Iranians in the selection of job orientations. In other words the present article illustrates that regardless of the materialistic or immaterialist approach that Iranians may adopt (in the sense provided by Ingelhart), they consider the materialistic aspects of job ethics as well as meta-ethics in the most significant aspect of social life which is the revenue earning process. The first section of the article provides a statistical description based on the ethical/meta-ethical value approach provided by Ingelhart. In the second section, a theoretical analysis has been provided for the value formlessness in job selection. Here the opinions of Weber and his four faceted categorization of actions is presented. The theoretical analysis provided by the author claims that the superiority of public economics within the social-economic structure of Iran has stripped Iranians of the ability to have rational orientations toward objectives of economic gain. In other words, Iranians display a combination of Weber’s four faceted categorizations of actions in job selection. With regards to their job ethics and morals they are both emotional and rational, both traditional and ethical.

Keywords: Socialization, ethics, job satisfaction, formlessness

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Perceptions and understanding towards sustainable development
Hadi Veisi a
a Environmental Sciences Research Institute, Shahid Beheshti University, G.C, : Evin, Tehran, Iran

Volume 02, Issue 06, Pg. 62-71, 2011.

Abstract: This article drew managers’ understanding on concept, dimensions, mechanisms and stakeholders of sustainable development (SD). The respondents were 338 managers of seven randomly selected ministries including the Ministries of: Education; the Interior; Housing and Urban Development; Health and Medical Education; Science, Research and Technology; Energy; and Jihad-e-Agriculture. The main research tool was a questionnaire. The findings revealed that responsible well-being and improvement is central to sustainable development from the managers’ prospective, while the linkage between sustainability and development issues has less importance. Respondents also pointed out that combating deforestation, protecting the atmosphere, managing fragile ecosystems and protecting the quality and supply of freshwater resources were the most important dimensions for achieving the goals of SD in practice. Results of the study on the mechanisms of SD also showed that respondents believed “financial resources” and “clean technology transfer” have greater priority over other mechanisms for implementing SD programs. Overall, they pointed out that major groups, namely NGOs, trade unions, farmers, scientific and technological community and indigenous people play key roles in practicing SD programs. 

Keywords: sustainable development, education, perception, understanding, Contexts, Mechanism, Stakeholders

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Challenges of Sociology in Iran (Ups and downs and perspective of exit)
Akbar Valadbigi a, Shahab Ghobadi b
Islamic Azad University, Sanandaj Branch, Kurdistan, Iran a,b

 Volume 02, Issue 06, Pg. 71-76, 2011. 

Abstract: Sociology like many of other sciences is based on methods of gaining and discovering reality, analyzing and evaluating its changes, and it is believed to be one of the newest university fields in Iran. Now, after passing 80 years of introducing this field in Iran, it still encounters many difficulties and inadequacies.      

Sociology has not succeed in the ground of theory making and research methods regarding various problems of  this country in social, cultural, political, economical, educational, scientific, legal, civic, and rural areas. It also has not gain achievement in recognizing and listing research preferences of different areas of sociology and supporting its studies and findings in order to solve Iranian society’s problems.                                             

Along with the formal sociology, informal sociology- mainly with ideological concerns- since 1940s on has sought to conform its theories and assumptions with the contemporary society of Iran by publishing different books and pamphlets, whether written in Persian or translated from the works of European writers.                 

In this article, we have studied ups and downs of sociology in pre- and post- years of Islamic Revolution in Iran. 

Key words: Sociology, Challenges, Iran, Pre- Revolution, Post- Revolution                

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Knowledge And Perception Of Genetically Modified Foods Among Agricultural Scientists In South-West Nigeria.
C. I.  Alarima a
a Department of Agricultural Extension and Rural Development,  University of Agriculture, Abeokuta, Nigeria.

Volume 02, Issue 06, Pg. 78-90, 2011.

Abstract: This study examined the perception of risks and benefits of Genetically Modified (GM) foods among agricultural scientists in south-west Nigeria. Using a pre-tested questionnaire, data were collected from one hundred and fifty four selected scientists. The main sources of information of the respondents were journals (83.80%), internet (75.30%), periodicals (65.50%), and colleagues (63.00%). Half of the respondents felt that GM foods were of high utility and the other half disagreed with this view. Fifty-three per cent of the scientists had higher perceptions of risk associated with GM foods. Most of the respondents perceived that GM has no negative effect on the environment, therefore were in support of the introduction of GM foods in Nigeria. The result revealed that respondents’ perception was related to the age (β=0.15; p<0.05), religion (β=0.15; p<0.05), educational level (β=0.20; p<0.05), years of working experience (β=0.13; p<0.05), information sources (β=0.14; p<0.05), awareness (β=0.17; p<0.05), and knowledge (β=0.41; p<0.01). The study concluded by recommending that awareness campaign that will provide most people with right information on the benefits and the possible risks inherent in biotechnology should be embark upon by the decision makers and also, seminars, workshops and conferences should be held to keep scientists abreast all the latest developments in the field of biotechnology.

 Keywords: benefits; genetically modified foods; perception; risks; scientists 

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The socio-psychological impact of widowhood on elderly women in Nigeria
N. Kenechukwu  Anugwom a
a Department of Social Work, University of Nigeria, Nsukka, Nigeria.

Volume 02, Issue 06, Pg. 90-96, 2011.

Abstract: The paper examines the social structured context and implications of widowhood in Southeastern Nigeria. It argues that in spite of the efforts by formal and informal agencies to alleviate the burdens of widowhood, the gender informed discriminatory practice of mourning which exacts a heavy toll on women persists. In this case, widows are exposed to harsh and often cruel mourning practices which are especially tasking for elderly women who have to contend with frail physical health, loss of partners and the mental, psychological and physical stress of widowhood. Therefore, while these practices are norm oriented they expose the elderly widows to psychological and social coping challenges. However, these elderly widows are also often led into activities and social strategies perceived as capable of alleviating the burdens of widowhood. Equally interesting is the finding that widows who are actively engaged and enjoy social support cope better with the challenges of widowhood than others. In view of the above, the paper argues for a more active role by social workers in informing care provisioning and policies for lessening the burdens of widowhood on elderly women.   

Keywords: Social strategizes, widowhood, gerontology, socio-physiological impact

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